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Transverse Myelopathy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991665/spinal-cord-anteroposterior-atrophy-in-ham-tsp-magnetic-resonance-imaging-and-neuropathological-analyses
#1
Akitoshi Taniguchi, Hitoshi Mochizuki, Atsushi Yamashita, Kazutaka Shiomi, Yujiro Asada, Masamitsu Nakazato
To evaluate the spinal cord atrophy that occurs in HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP), we conducted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and pathological analyses. In the MRI study, 15 patients with HAM/TSP and 20 age-matched normal control subjects were enrolled. Anteroposterior and transverse distances and cross-sectional areas were measured and calculated at the C2, C4, C6, T2, and T6 vertebral levels. In the pathological study, spinal cord autopsy specimens were compared between a HAM/TSP case and an adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma case...
October 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894681/preoperative-computed-tomography-myelography-parameters-as-predictors-of-outcome-in-patients-with-degenerative-cervical-myelopathy-results-of-a-systematic-review
#2
Feras J Waly, Fahad H Abduljabbar, Maryse Fortin, Anas Nooh, Michael Weber
STUDY DESIGN: Systematic review. OBJECTIVES: To determine the preoperative computed tomography (CT) myelogram imaging parameters in patients diagnosed with degenerative cervical myelopathy (DCM) that correlate with severity of DCM and predict postoperative patients' functional outcome. METHODS: An electronic database search was performed using Ovid Medline and Embase. CT myelogram studies investigating the correlation between imaging characteristics and DCM severity or postoperative outcomes were included...
September 2017: Global Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798719/fulminant-acute-ascending-hemorrhagic-myelitis-treated-with-eculizumab
#3
Nang Boe Ohnmar Hsam, Klemens Angstwurm, Sebastian Peters, Kornelius Fuchs, Gerhard Schuierer, Ulrich Bogdahn, Robert Weissert
We describe an 18-year-old patient who developed back pain, rapidly ascending sensomotory deficits, bladder dysfunction, Lhermitte's sign, absent abdominal reflexes of all three levels, brisk tendon reflexes, and positive Babinski's sign. Magnetic resonance imaging of the spinal cord showed a long segment of cervical and thoracic intramedullary signal hyperintensity suggesting a longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis possibly within the course of a fast progressing ascending immune-mediated hemorrhagic myelopathy...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797832/subacute-progressive-myelopathy-transverse-myelitis-or-subacute-combined-degeneration-a-case-report
#4
Daniel Goldish, Teresa L Massagli
Evolving subacute myelopathies have many possible etiologies. This is a report of a patient who presented with progressive paresthesias, proprioceptive loss, and gait disturbance with acute myelitis seen on magnetic resonance imaging initially concerning for transverse myelitis. However, she also had vitamin B12 deficiency, and her clinical course ultimately suggested a diagnosis more compatible with subacute combined degeneration. The clinical features, laboratory, and imaging findings and prognosis of the 2 disorders are compared...
August 7, 2017: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721000/roentgenographic-and-computerized-tomography-based-morphometric-analysis-of-cervical-spinal-canal-diameters-to-establish-normative-measurements-in-an-indian-population
#5
Kapil A Pawar, Arya S Mishra, Gokul Bandagi, Sudhir K Srivastava
Compressive cervical myelopathy secondary to degenerative changes in the cervical spine is a common cause of neurologic morbidity in the elderly. Identification of canal stenosis and addressing it surgically in addition to the obvious compressive lesions is essential to obtain satisfactory results. We attempt to define the saggital and transverse diameters in a normal adult population presenting at our centre with head injuries. We found that the values were lower than those reported in comparable studies for a western population, and also that the dimensions in women are significantly lower than in men...
April 2017: Journal of Clinical Orthopaedics and Trauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667382/magnetic-resonance-imaging-and-clinical-features-in-acute-and-subacute-myelopathies
#6
REVIEW
Stefan Weidauer, Marlies Wagner, Michael Nichtweiß
Differential diagnosis of acute and subacute transverse myelopathy includes inflammatory, infectious, vascular, metabolic and paraneoplastic etiologies. Information on the diagnostic approach to transverse myelopathy with regard to daily clinical practice is provided. The differentiation between five lesion patterns on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in myelitis may be helpful: (1) longitudinal extensive transverse myelitis, (2) short segment ovoid or peripherally located, (3) "polio-like", (4) granulomatous and (5) segmental with rash...
June 30, 2017: Clinical Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432435/c4-5-foraminal-stenosis-predicts-c5-palsy-after-expansive-open-door-laminoplasty
#7
Ho-Jin Lee, Jae-Sung Ahn, Byungkon Shin, Hoseok Lee
INTRODUCTION: Laminoplasty is frequently performed in cervical myelopathy patients, but can lead to unexpected postoperative C5 palsy. Although several studies have examined the pathogenesis and prevention of postoperative C5 palsy, many controversies remain and some radiological findings identified as risk factors were not correlated with our outcomes. PURPOSE: This study sought reliable radiological findings that predict C5 palsy after laminoplasty and examined why the predictors of C5 palsy did not apply in our series...
April 21, 2017: European Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416784/longitudinal-extensive-transverse-myelitis-letm-in-children-a-twenty-year-study-from-oman
#8
Roshan Koul, Amna M Alfutaisi, Renjith Mani, Rana A Abdel Rahim, Dilip K Sankhla, Faisal M Al Azri
OBJECTIVE: The data on children with diagnosis of idiopathic transverse myelitis (ITM) was searched to find the pattern of myelitis in Oman. METHODS: A retrospective study was carried out from January1995 to December 2014. Electronic medical records and patient medical files were seen to get the complete data of the children with ITM. This work was carried out at Sultan Qaboos University hospital, Muscat, Oman. The ethical committee of the hospital had approved the study...
April 2017: Neurosciences: the Official Journal of the Pan Arab Union of Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387614/reduction-of-atlantoaxial-dislocation-prevented-by-pathological-position-of-the-transverse-ligament-in-fixed-irreducible-os-odontoideum-operative-illustrations-and-radiographic-correlates-in-41-patients
#9
Brian J Dlouhy, Bruno A Policeni, Arnold H Menezes
OBJECTIVE Os odontoideum (OO) is a craniovertebral junction (CVJ) abnormality in which an ossicle (small bone) is cranial to a hypoplastic dens by a variable gap. This abnormality can result in instability, which may be reducible or irreducible. What leads to irreducibility in OO is unclear. Therefore, the authors sought to better understand the causes of irreducibility in OO. METHODS A retrospective review was conducted, which identified more than 200 patients who had undergone surgical treatment for OO between 1978 and 2015 at the University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics...
July 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery. Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298841/etiological-profile-of-noncompressive-myelopathies-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital-of-northeast-india
#10
Ashok Kumar Kayal, Munindra Goswami, Marami Das, Lakhshya Jyoti Basumatary, Suvorit Subhas Bhowmick, Baiakmenlang Synmon
BACKGROUND: The discovery of antibodies against aquaporin-4 and evolving concepts of noncompressive myelopathies in the 21(st) century have made a major impact on the etiological profile of these diseases, with few cases turning out to be idiopathic. OBJECTIVE: To find causes of noncompressive myelopathy in a tertiary care hospital of Northeast India. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An observational study was carried out in the Neurology Department of Gauhati Medical College, Guwahati, from September 2013 to February 2016...
January 2017: Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220287/the-yield-of-initial-conventional-mri-in-115-cases-of-angiographically-confirmed-spinal-vascular-malformations
#11
Amgad El Mekabaty, Carlos A Pardo, Philippe Gailloud
MRI is the primary screening tool for patients with myelopathy. The decision to obtain additional imaging, notably spinal angiography, is generally based on initial MRI findings. This study retrospectively analyzed the yield of initial MRI in a cohort of patients with angiographically confirmed vascular malformations. MRI obtained at symptom onset was available in 115 patients with either high-flow (29 cases) or low-flow (86 cases) vascular malformations. MRI was classified as "positive" when the report mentioned a vascular malformation or "negative" when considered normal or when another diagnosis was suggested...
April 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28204844/safe-placement-of-lateral-mass-screw-in-the-subaxial-cervical-spine-a-case-series
#12
Di Zhang, Xianda Gao, Jiang Jiang, Fanlong Kong, Yong Shen, Wenyuan Ding, Xiufang Hao, Huixian Cui
PURPOSE: Laminectomy with lateral mass screw fixation has been proven to be an effective method to treat the multilevel cervical degenerative myelopathy and severe cervical spondylosis. However, accurate and safe insertion of the lateral mass screw is technically demanding due to the individual variations of the anatomy of the lateral mass of the subaxial cervical spine. Misplaced lateral mass screw is not uncommon, and operation-related complications still beset the surgeons, which may impair the clinical outcomes...
April 2017: International Orthopaedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187806/diagnosis-and-management-of-spinal-cord-emergencies
#13
REVIEW
E P Flanagan, S J Pittock
Most spinal cord injury is seen with trauma. Nontraumatic spinal cord emergencies are discussed in this chapter. These myelopathies are rare but potentially devastating neurologic disorders. In some situations prior comorbidity (e.g., advanced cancer) provides a clue, but in others (e.g., autoimmune myelopathies) it may come with little warning. Neurologic examination helps distinguish spinal cord emergencies from peripheral nervous system emergencies (e.g., Guillain-Barré), although some features overlap...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174188/cervical-spine-arteriovenous-fistula-associated-with-hereditary-haemorrhagic-telangiectasia
#14
Iain John McGurgan, Roisin Lonergan, Ronan Killeen, Christopher McGuigan
Reported is a case of a man aged 55 years who presented with progressive spastic paraparesis. Examination demonstrated multiple cutaneous telangiectases. Subsequent development of upper limb weakness, acute urinary retention and eventual respiratory compromise resulted in the requirement for intensive care unit admission and mechanical ventilation. MRI spine revealed diffuse T2 hyperintensity in the cervical cord with enhancement and cord expansion. Immunomodulatory therapy for a presumed diagnosis of transverse myelitis yielded no response, so a vascular aetiology was suspected...
February 7, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104259/utility-of-extension-views-in-spondylotic-myelopathy-mimicking-transverse-myelitis
#15
Brittani L Conway, Michelle J Clarke, Timothy J Kaufmann, Eoin P Flanagan
Cervical spondylotic myelopathy is a common cause of myelopathy and may mimic transverse myelitis. We report a 55 year-old lady with subacute myelopathy initially treated with glatiramer acetate for suspected clinically isolated syndrome. MRI head and spine revealed a single short cervical cord T2-hyperintense lesion with enhancement just below a region of moderate stenosis. Cerebrospinal fluid revealed elevated oligoclonal bands. Repeat MRI 7 months later showed persistent enhancement. Dynamic MRI revealed cord compression during extension...
January 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062188/a-comprehensive-analysis-and-immunobiology-of-autoimmune-neurological-syndromes-during-the-zika-virus-outbreak-in-c%C3%A3%C2%BAcuta-colombia
#16
Juan-Manuel Anaya, Yhojan Rodríguez, Diana M Monsalve, Daniel Vega, Ernesto Ojeda, Diana González-Bravo, Mónica Rodríguez-Jiménez, Carlos A Pinto-Díaz, Pablo Chaparro, María L Gunturiz, Aftab A Ansari, M Eric Gershwin, Nicolás Molano-González, Carolina Ramírez-Santana, Yeny Acosta-Ampudia
We have focused on the epidemiology and immunobiology of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection and factors associated with the development of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) and other neurological syndromes in Cúcuta, the capital of North Santander department, Colombia. Data of patients with ZIKV disease reported to the national population-based surveillance system were used to calculate the basic reproduction number (R0) and the attack rates (ARs) as well as to develop epidemiological maps. Patients with neurological syndromes were contacted and their diagnoses were confirmed...
February 2017: Journal of Autoimmunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994775/addressing-stretch-myelopathy-in-multilevel-cervical-kyphosis-with-posterior-surgery-using-cervical-pedicle-screws
#17
Bijjawara Mahesh, Bidre Upendra, Shekarappa Vijay, Kumar Arun, Reddy Srinivasa
STUDY DESIGN: Technique description and retrospective data analysis. PURPOSE: To describe the technique of cervical kyphosis correction with partial facetectomies and evaluate the outcome of single-stage posterior decompression and kyphosis correction in multilevel cervical myelopathy. OVERVIEW OF LITERATURE: Kyphosis correction in multilevel cervical myelopathy involves anterior and posterior surgery. With the advent of cervical pedicle screw-rod instrumentation, single-stage posterior kyphosis correction is feasible and can address stretch myelopathy by posterior shortening...
December 2016: Asian Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974873/quantitative-evaluation-of-cervical-cord-compression-by-computed-tomographic-myelography-in-thoroughbred-foals
#18
Kazutaka Yamada, Fumio Sato, Tetsuro Hada, Noriyuki Horiuchi, Hiroki Ikeda, Kahori Nishihara, Naoki Sasaki, Yoshiyasu Kobayashi, Yasuo Nambo
Five Thoroughbred foals (age, 8-33 weeks; median age, 31 weeks; weight, 122-270 kg; median weight, 249 kg) exhibiting ataxia with suspected cervical myelopathy (n=4) and limb malformation (n=1) were subjected to computed tomographic (CT) myelography. The areas of the subarachnoid space and cervical cord were measured on transverse CT images. The area of the cervical cord was divided by the area of subarachnoid space, and stenosis ratios were quantitatively evaluated and compared on the basis of histopathological examination...
2016: Journal of Equine Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898552/a-young-woman-with-numbness-in-her-feet
#19
Daniel Pavlik, Michael Huber, Melissa Justice
This article describes a young, otherwise healthy woman who presented to the ED with numbness in her feet and was discharged. Twenty-four hours later, she returned because of difficulty walking; in 48 hours she could not walk without assistance. Although Guillain-Barré syndrome was suspected initially, the patient's weakness, sensory loss, and autonomic dysfunction eventually were diagnosed as transverse myelitis, a myelopathy often associated with infectious or autoimmune diseases. The article describes the presentation, diagnostic evaluation and criteria, treatment, and prognosis of transverse myelitis...
December 2016: JAAPA: Official Journal of the American Academy of Physician Assistants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865885/perforations-and-angulations-of-324-cervical-medial-cortical-pedicle-screws-a-possible-guide-to-avoid-lateral-perforations-with-use-of-pedicle-screws-in-lower-cervical-spine
#20
Bijjawara Mahesh, Bidre Upendra, Sekharappa Vijay, Kumar Arun, Reddy Srinivasa
BACKGROUND CONTEXT: More than half of the perforations reported with usage of cervical pedicle screws (CPS) are lateral perforations, endangering the vertebral artery. The medial cortical pedicle screw (MCPS) technique with partial drilling of the medial cortex shifts the trajectory of pedicle screws medially, decreasing the lateral perforations. PURPOSE: To evaluate the decrease in lateral perforations of CPS with use of MCPS technique, in relation to medial angulation...
March 2017: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
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