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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154577/confounding-in-statistical-mediation-analysis-what-it-is-and-how-to-address-it
#1
Matthew J Valente, William E Pelham, Heather Smyth, David P MacKinnon
Psychology researchers are often interested in mechanisms underlying how randomized interventions affect outcomes such as substance use and mental health. Mediation analysis is a common statistical method for investigating psychological mechanisms that has benefited from exciting new methodological improvements over the last 2 decades. One of the most important new developments is methodology for estimating causal mediated effects using the potential outcomes framework for causal inference. Potential outcomes-based methods developed in epidemiology and statistics have important implications for understanding psychological mechanisms...
November 2017: Journal of Counseling Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154468/fight-flight-or-remain-silent-juggling-multiple-accountabilities-throughout-the-formative-stage-of-a-neighborhood-revitalization-initiative
#2
Stacey M Kesten, Deborah A Perez, Denise S Marques, Scot D Evans, Adrienne Sulma
This paper describes the experiences of a research team as they navigated uncertain ethical and political terrain throughout the formative stage of a public housing redevelopment project. Specifically, we discuss the challenges related to balancing multiple accountabilities and the tensions among the various roles and responsibilities that emanated from different accountabilities. Due to contractual obligations to our funding source, established relations with community partners, and an ethical imperative to align with those holding the least power, we grappled with embodying multiple and often conflicting roles...
November 20, 2017: American Journal of Community Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154399/for-the-good-of-the-group-balancing-individual-and-collective-risks-and-benefits-in-community-psychology-research
#3
Emily R Dworkin, Nicole E Allen
Balancing risks and benefits is a necessary ethical task for social science researchers. Community psychologists must often consider risks and benefits not just for individual participants, but also for the group, system, or society that those individuals inhabit. Little ethical guidance currently exists for how to navigate this ethical challenge across these multiple levels. In this article, we use a case example of social network research incorporating multiple levels of analysis to identify common risks and benefits and understand their relationship to each other...
November 20, 2017: American Journal of Community Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153907/-violent-outburst-from-teenagers-in-the-pediatric-emergency-room-complex-cases
#4
L Cohen, C Gras-Le Guenb, J Fleury, E Caldagues, L Dreno, G Picherot, N Vabres
INTRODUCTION: Teenagers admitted to the emergency room for a violent attacks episode are increasingly numerous. The source of agitation is multifactorial for these teenagers, often with a complex course. They jeopardize hospital wards, which are often ill-suited for and overwhelmed during these outbursts. This study aims to identify and describe all the teenagers admitted to the hospital over 1 year for a violent outburst and discuss their management. METHODS AND EQUIPMENT: Retrospective and descriptive study of teenagers admitted to the pediatric emergency department of the Nantes University Hospital for a violent outburst in 2015...
November 16, 2017: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151714/multidisciplinary-team-based-obesity-treatment-in-patients-with-diabetes-current-practices-and-the-state-of-the-science
#5
Daniel Foster, Shakira Sanchez-Collins, Lawrence J Cheskin
IN BRIEF Rates of obesity and diabetes are growing, as are their costs. Because the two diseases share many key determinants, the paradigms for their treatment overlap. For both, optimal treatment involves a multidisciplinary team following the Chronic Care Model of health care delivery. Combined treatment programs that include 1) a low-calorie diet individualized to patients' preferences, 2) structured exercise that is also tailored to each patient, and 3) psychotherapy induce the largest weight changes in patients with diabetes...
November 2017: Diabetes Spectrum: a Publication of the American Diabetes Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150727/measuring-emotional-intelligence-enhances-the-psychological-evaluation-of-chronic-pain
#6
Eva M Doherty, Rosemary Walsh, Leanne Andrews, Susan McPherson
The assessment of emotional factors, in addition to other psychosocial factors, has been recommended as a means of identifying individuals with chronic pain who may not respond to certain pain treatments. Systematic reviews of the evidence regarding the prediction of responsiveness to a treatment called the spinal cord stimulator (SCS) have yielded inconclusive results. Emotional intelligence is a term which refers to the ability to identify and manage emotions in oneself and others and has been shown to be inversely associated with emotional distress and acute pain...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150413/-the-situation-as-regards-diabetes-mellitus-type-1-in-andalusia-care-data-use-of-advanced-therapies-and-human-resources
#7
Juan Pedro López Siguero, Olga Pérez González, Ana Lucía Gómez Gila, Isabel Leiva Gea
INTRODUCTION: The representation of Spain in European epidemiological studies on diabetes is limited, with only one centre in the Hvidoere study and another in the SWEET study. No Spanish studies have been published that combine epidemiological data and care resources. The aim of this study was to determine the epidemiological data, care resources, and use of new technologies in all Andalusian hospitals that care for children with Diabetes Mellitus type 1 (DM1) under 14 years. MATERIAL AND METHODS: An electronic questionnaire of 18 questions was sent to all paediatric endocrinologists who treated children with diabetes in Andalusian hospitals...
November 14, 2017: Anales de Pediatría: Publicación Oficial de la Asociación Española de Pediatría (A.E.P.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149581/family-matters-measuring-impact-through-one-s-academic-descendants
#8
Elizabeth J Marsh
Scientific contributions take many forms, not all of which result in fame or are captured in traditional metrics of success (e.g., h factor). My focus is on one of the most lasting and important contributions a scientist can make: training scientists who go on to train scientists, who in turn train more scientists, etc. Academic genealogies provide many examples of scientists whose names might not be recognizable today but who trained psychologists that went on to publish very influential work. Of course success results from a combination of many factors (including but not limited to the student's abilities and motivation, luck, institutional resources, mentoring, etc...
November 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149579/doing-for-the-greater-good-what-price-in-academe
#9
Suniya S Luthar
In discussing how merit is commonly judged in academia, my focus in this article is not on dimensions that are currently considered but on those that warrant more attention. Grounded in suggestions offered by Sternberg, I argue here for increased recognition of faculty's commitment to intrinsic values-focused on community and relationships-and not just extrinsic ones that connote personal fame or status. I first summarize evidence of disillusionment among today's promising young scholars and then provide exemplars of role models who have, in fact, maintained high standards in both intrinsic and extrinsic domains...
November 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149576/scholarly-merit-in-a-global-context-the-nation-gap-in-psychological-science
#10
Nathan N Cheek
Psychologists from the United States are extremely prominent in psychological science, publishing more articles and receiving more citations than researchers from other nations. In this brief article, I review some previous research on this "nation gap" in psychology and highlight relevant data from journals published by the Association for Psychological Science. I then discuss some possible explanations for the nation gap and touch on some of its implications for thinking about scholarly merit and scientific eminence...
November 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145740/fair-or-square-experiences-of-introducing-a-new-method-for-assessing-general-work-ability-in-a-sickness-insurance-context
#11
Christian Ståhl, Ida Seing, Björn Gerdle, Jan Sandqvist
PURPOSE: To study social validity and perceived fairness of a new method for assessing general work ability in a sickness insurance context. Assessments are based on self-reports, combined with examinations by physicians, and, if needed, occupational therapists, physiotherapists and/or psychologists. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Interviews with 36 insurance officials, 10 physicians, and 36 sick-listed persons, which were analysed through a qualitative content analysis...
November 16, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141694/the-icu-diary-study-prospective-multicenter-comparative-study-of-the-impact-of-an-icu-diary-on-the-wellbeing-of-patients-and-families-in-french-icus
#12
Maïté Garrouste-Orgeas, Cécile Flahault, Léonor Fasse, Stéphane Ruckly, Nora Amdjar-Badidi, Laurent Argaud, Julio Badie, Amélie Bazire, Naike Bige, Eric Boulet, Lila Bouadma, Cédric Bretonnière, Bernard Floccard, Alain Gaffinel, Xavier de Forceville, Hubert Grand, Rebecca Halidfar, Olfa Hamzaoui, Mercé Jourdain, Paul-Henri Jost, Eric Kipnis, Audrey Large, Alexandre Lautrette, Olivier Lesieur, Virginie Maxime, Emmanuelle Mercier, Jean Paul Mira, Yannick Monseau, Erika Parmentier-Decrucq, Jean-Philippe Rigaud, Antoine Rouget, François Santoli, Georges Simon, Fabienne Tamion, Nathalie Thieulot-Rolin, Marina Thirion, Sandrine Valade, Isabelle Vinatier, Christel Vioulac, Sebastien Bailly, Jean-François Timsit
BACKGROUND: Post-intensive care syndrome includes the multiple consequences of an intensive care unit (ICU) stay for patients and families. It has become a new challenge for intensivists. Prevention programs have been disappointing, except for ICU diaries, which report the patient's story in the ICU. However, the effectiveness of ICU diaries for patients and families is still controversial, as the interpretation of the results of previous studies was open to criticism hampering an expanded use of the diary...
November 15, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135378/same-sex-parenting-identification-of-social-representations-in-a-sample-of-portuguese-professionals
#13
Paula Xavier, Isabel Alberto, Francisco Mendes
Although international scientific research and the position of professional associations reiterate that the parents' sexual orientation is not a criterion of parenting quality, the social recognition of same-sex parenting remains difficult in Portugal. Given the importance of forensic issues in this field, this study aims to identify the representations of psychologists, social workers, lawyers/attorneys, and judges regarding same-sex parenting. The study involves five homogeneous focus groups with a total of 19 professionals...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Homosexuality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131345/pursuing-an-ethical-socially-just-classroom-searching-for-community-psychology-pedagogy
#14
Lauren F Lichty, Eylin Palamaro-Munsell
Discussions of community psychology (CP) ethics often examine how we might best uphold CP values in community-based practice. However, for many community psychologists in faculty positions, our main domain of practice is the undergraduate classroom. Teaching is essential to the growth and sustainability of our field as prospective students tend to discover CP during their undergraduate studies. University-based work is also a key site of CP practice. Universities are contested spaces where interlocking forms of oppression manifest in many ways, including teaching (e...
November 13, 2017: American Journal of Community Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130838/the-psychology-of-rituals-an-integrative-review-and-process-based-framework
#15
Nicholas M Hobson, Juliana Schroeder, Jane L Risen, Dimitris Xygalatas, Michael Inzlicht
Traditionally, ritual has been studied from broad sociocultural perspectives, with little consideration of the psychological processes at play. Recently, however, psychologists have begun turning their attention to the study of ritual, uncovering the causal mechanisms driving this universal aspect of human behavior. With growing interest in the psychology of ritual, this article provides an organizing framework to understand recent empirical work from social psychology, cognitive science, anthropology, behavioral economics, and neuroscience...
November 1, 2017: Personality and Social Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125914/putting-culture-in-the-middle-in-judging-scholarly-merit
#16
Qi Wang
I discuss the critical importance of putting culture in the middle in judging scholarly merit in psychological science. I describe the challenges in evaluating cultural research, pointing out the various ways that ethnocentric judgments undermine the scientific merit of cultural research and the consequences of the marginalization of culture in psychological science and practice. In spite of the obstacles, cultural psychologists have made major scientific contributions and achieved scientific eminence. I further suggest that we raise the bar by including a broad, cultural approach to research as one basis for judging scientific contributions...
November 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122247/a-qualitative-investigation-of-australian-psychologists-perceptions-about-complementary-and-alternative-medicine-for-use-in-clinical-practice
#17
Kyra Hamilton, Vanina Marietti
This study explored psychologists' knowledge of, attitude toward, and experience with complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use for clinical purposes. Using a qualitative design, 18 Australian psychologists participated in a semi-structured interview. Psychologists had some understanding about CAM; yet, there was a mismatch between their perceived and actual knowledge. While psychologists were, in general, open toward using CAM with clients they were also sceptical. Attitudes did not overly influence psychologists' views about using CAM in practice, rather adhering to the scientist-practitioner model and embracing a client-centred approach affected their beliefs...
November 2017: Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122032/a-sentimental-education-the-place-of-sentiments-in-personality-and-social-psychology
#18
Nick Haslam
"Sentiment" is a potentially appealing concept for social and personality psychologists. It can render some complex affective phenomena theoretically tractable, help refine accounts of social perception, and illuminate some personality dispositions. The success of a future sentimental psychology depends on whether "sentiment" can be delimited as a distinct domain, and whether a credible classification of sentiments can be developed.
January 2017: Behavioral and Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121812/risk-assessment-interviews-exploring-the-perspectives-of-psychologists-and-indeterminate-sentenced-prisoners-in-the-united-kingdom
#19
Jo Shingler, Stefanie J Sonnenberg, Adrian Needs
This study explores the forensic risk assessment interview from the perspectives of qualified prison-based psychologists and indeterminate sentenced prisoners in the United Kingdom. It focuses on the psychologist-prisoner relationship in the interview context. Twenty-one in-depth individual interviews were conducted with psychologists and prisoners and analysed using Grounded Theory methods. The analysis identified the following categories reflecting participants' descriptions of risk assessment interviews: "Emphasising Clarity and Transparency," "Collaborative Engagement," "Making a Respectful, Boundaried yet Human Connection," "Respecting Individuality," and "Having a Purposeful Conversation...
November 1, 2017: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121151/association-between-cognitive-function-and-quality-of-life-in-patients-with-head-and-neck-cancer
#20
Amy M Williams, Jamie Lindholm, Diana Cook, Farzan Siddiqui, Tamer A Ghanem, Steven S Chang
Importance: There is a dearth of research examining the associations between cognitive function and quality of life (QoL) in patients with head and neck cancer (HNC), despite much research examining QoL and some research examining cognitive function in this population. Objective: To identify the associations between cognitive functioning and QoL in patients prior to treatment for HNC within a multidisciplinary care team. Design, Setting, and Participants: Case series with planned data collection of cognitive function, QoL, and psychosocial variables at an urban Midwest academic medical center including 83 patients with a diagnosis of HNC between August 2015 and December 2016 who underwent a pretreatment assessment with a clinical health psychologist and a speech and language pathologist...
November 9, 2017: JAMA Otolaryngology—Head & Neck Surgery
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