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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672093/development-and-validation-of-the-attitudes-towards-police-legitimacy-scale
#1
Joshua J Reynolds, Victoria Estrada-Reynolds, Narina Nunez
Although there is a substantial body of work examining attitudes towards the police, no measure has been developed to consistently capture citizens' beliefs regarding police legitimacy. Given that police conduct has garnered a great deal of attention, particularly in the last few years, the current research sought to develop a scale measuring perceptions of police legitimacy. Across multiple studies, items were created and the scale's factor structure explored (Study 1 and Study 2), the factor structure was confirmed (Study 3a), and the predictive validity of the scale was tested (Studies 3b-3d)...
April 2018: Law and Human Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668754/divergent-discourse-between-protests-and-counter-protests-blacklivesmatter-and-alllivesmatter
#2
Ryan J Gallagher, Andrew J Reagan, Christopher M Danforth, Peter Sheridan Dodds
Since the shooting of Black teenager Michael Brown by White police officer Darren Wilson in Ferguson, Missouri, the protest hashtag #BlackLivesMatter has amplified critiques of extrajudicial killings of Black Americans. In response to #BlackLivesMatter, other Twitter users have adopted #AllLivesMatter, a counter-protest hashtag whose content argues that equal attention should be given to all lives regardless of race. Through a multi-level analysis of over 860,000 tweets, we study how these protests and counter-protests diverge by quantifying aspects of their discourse...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29580443/the-relationship-between-structural-racism-and-black-white-disparities-in-fatal-police-shootings-at-the-state-level
#3
Aldina Mesic, Lydia Franklin, Alev Cansever, Fiona Potter, Anika Sharma, Anita Knopov, Michael Siegel
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to discern the relationship between state-level structural racism and Black-White disparities in police shootings of victims not known to be armed. METHODS: Using a Poisson regression, we evaluated the effect of structural racism on differences between states in Black-White disparities in fatal police shootings involving victims not known to be armed during the period from January 1, 2013 through June 30, 2017. We created a state racism index, which was comprised of five dimensions: (1) residential segregation; and gaps in (2) incarceration rates; (3) educational attainment; (4) economic indicators; and (5) employment status...
April 2018: Journal of the National Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29507731/the-perceived-effects-and-comfort-of-various-body-armour-systems-on-police-officers-while-performing-occupational-tasks
#4
B Schram, B Hinton, R Orr, R Pope, G Norris
Background: The nature of police work often necessitates use of Individual Light Armour Vests (ILAVs) for officer protection. Previous research has demonstrated various biomechanical and physical performance impacts of ILAVs, however, little knowledge exists on the individual officer's perceptions of ILAV. The aim of this study was to investigate officers' perceptions of the impacts of three different ILAVs and normal station wear whilst performing police occupational tasks. Methods: A prospective, within subjects, repeated measures design was employed in which 11 serving police officers wore each of three different types of body armour (ILAV A, ILAV B or ILAV C) and normal station wear for a full day while performing tasks including a simulated victim drag, a patrol vehicle exit and a marksmanship shoot...
2018: Annals of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29478002/gunshot-victimisations-resulting-from-high-volume-gunfire-incidents-in-minneapolis-findings-and-policy-implications
#5
Christopher S Koper, William D Johnson, Kenneth Stesin, Jeffery Egge
Laws restricting large ammunition magazines for semiautomatic weapons are intended to reduce firearm deaths and injuries by preventing gun attacks involving high numbers of shots. However, data on shootings from high-volume gunfire (HVG) incidents are extremely limited. This study examined gunshot victimisations resulting from HVG attacks (>10 shots fired) using police data on shootings in Minneapolis, Minnesota from January through August 2014 (n=135 to 167). Shots fired estimates were generated from police reports based on physical evidence recovered, reported gunshot victims, and accounts of witnesses and actors...
February 24, 2018: Injury Prevention: Journal of the International Society for Child and Adolescent Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434649/occupational-exposure-to-ultrafine-particles-in-police-officers-no-evidence-for-adverse-respiratory-effects
#6
G Jordakieva, I Grabovac, E Valic, K E Schmidt, A Graff, A Schuster, K Hoffmann-Sommergruber, C Oberhuber, O Scheiner, A Goll, J Godnic-Cvar
Background: Inhalation exposure to fine and ultrafine particles (UFPs) has been associated with respiratory diseases. However, little is known on the quality, threshold levels and concentration of these particles causing adverse health effects. Methods: The impact of occupational exposure to submicrometer and UFPs was assessed in 30 healthy police shooting instructors by clinical investigation, self-assessment questionnaire, sputum and spirometry and compared to a control group...
2018: Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294789/illegal-firearm-availability-and-violence-neighborhood-level-analysis
#7
Sung-Suk Violet Yu, Daiwon Lee, Jesenia M Pizarro
Violence involving firearms poses a serious threat to public safety in urban areas. The present study examines how illegal firearm availability (IFA) is related to firearm violence at the neighborhood level. We analyzed 3 years (from 2005 to 2007) of recovered firearm and violent index crime data from Newark, New Jersey. Violent index crime is separated into three categories by level of firearm use: shootings, display of firearm violence (DFV), and no-firearm violence (NFV). Negative binominal regression was conducted to examine the relationship between IFA and firearm violence at the neighborhood level while controlling for neighborhood conditions...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128127/a-crossbow-suicide
#8
Laura Panata, Massimo Lancia, Alessandra Persichini, Sergio Scalise Pantuso, Mauro Bacci
The crossbow is an ancient ranged weapon originally conceived for war and hunting. Although nowadays its use in warfare has been surpassed by firearms, it continues to be used in hunting, sports and recreation. The authors present the case of a 40-year-old man who suffered from severe depression. When his condition further deteriorated, doctors ordered a forced hospitalization but, just a few hours before the measure became effective, the man committed suicide using a crossbow. The autopsy and police investigation showed possession of the crossbow darts which the man used to shoot himself in the head...
December 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082452/the-death-of-ben-hall
#9
Roger W Byard, Damian McDonald
Ben Hall was a nineteenth-century Australian bushranger (outlaw) who was shot and killed by colonial police on May 5 1865. Popular belief is that Hall was shot while sleeping in his camp bedding. This contrasts with the official police version of Hall being shot while attempting to escape by running away. To evaluate this divergence of opinion a study of the gun belt allegedly worn by Hall at the time of his fatal shooting was undertaken. This revealed a nineteenth-century belt with a defect corresponding to an oblique bullet hole...
October 30, 2017: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058106/line-of-fire-what-happened-at-the-wantabadgery-seige
#10
Roger W Byard, Adam Ford, Tony Raymond, Jeremy J Sofonia, Owen Kaluza, David G Barnes
A gunfight between police and a gang of men led by the self-styled "Captain Moonlite", a.k.a. George Scott, occurred on 16th November 1879 at a farmhouse near Wantabadgery Station in the colony of New South Wales. The skirmish resulted in the deaths of two bushrangers and one police officer. As a result, Captain Moonlite and Thomas Rogan were hung in Sydney's Darlinghurst Gaol on 20 January 1880 for the murder of Constable Edward Webb-Bowen. Culpability for firing the fatal shot, however, has remained a source of controversy...
October 23, 2017: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017638/the-difference-between-living-and-dying-victim-characteristics-and-motive-among-nonfatal-shootings-and-gun-homicides
#11
Natalie Kroovand Hipple, Lauren A Magee
Using both official and unofficial data sources, researchers examined nonfatal (n = 617) and fatal shooting (n = 159) victim characteristics over an 18-month period in Indianapolis. This research revealed that the typical shooting victim was male, non-White, almost 29 years old, had been arrested prior to inclusion in this study, and had been shot more than once. Interestingly, this research supports the notion that nonfatal shooting and homicide victims are different, especially as they relate to victim age, gunshot wound severity, and shooting motive...
December 1, 2017: Violence and Victims
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983838/how-race-affects-evidence-accumulation-during-the-decision-to-shoot
#12
Timothy J Pleskac, Joseph Cesario, David J Johnson
The biasing role of stereotypes is a central theme in social cognition research. For example, to understand the role of race in police officers' decisions to shoot, participants have been shown images of Black and White males and instructed to shoot only if the target is holding a gun. Findings show that Black targets are shot more frequently and more quickly than Whites. The decision to shoot has typically been modeled and understood as a signal detection process in which a sample of information is compared against a criterion, with the criterion set for Black targets being lower...
October 5, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971349/criminal-use-of-assault-weapons-and-high-capacity-semiautomatic-firearms-an-updated-examination-of-local-and-national-sources
#13
Christopher S Koper, William D Johnson, Jordan L Nichols, Ambrozine Ayers, Natalie Mullins
Policies restricting semiautomatic assault weapons and large-capacity ammunition magazines are intended to reduce gunshot victimizations by limiting the stock of semiautomatic firearms with large ammunition capacities and other military-style features conducive to criminal use. The federal government banned such weaponry from 1994 to 2004, and a few states currently impose similar restrictions. Recent debates concerning these weapons have highlighted their use in mass shootings, but there has been little examination of their use in gun crime more generally since the expiration of the federal ban...
October 2, 2017: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744599/use-of-minicameras-to-improve-operative-procedure-in-security-forces
#14
Vicente Javier Clemente-Suárez, Montaña Diaz-Manzano, José Juan Robles-Pérez
The aim of the present study was to analyze pistol and compact rifle marksmanship in close quarter combat (CQC). There is currently a controversy about what weapon is most appropriate to use in CQC, short weapon as pistols or long weapons as rifle. Forty two participants conducted two close quarter combat simulations, one with pistol and one with compact rifle. Marksmanship and time to cover the simulation were measured. Data obtained showed no significant differences between pistol and compact rifle. In addition, it was observed a tendency to obtain higher scores with compact rifle, probably be due to the higher stability provided in the shot action...
September 2017: Journal of Medical Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520488/firearm-legislation-and-fatal-police-shootings-in-the-united-states
#15
Aaron J Kivisto, Bradley Ray, Peter L Phalen
OBJECTIVES: To examine whether stricter firearm legislation is associated with rates of fatal police shootings. METHODS: We used a cross-sectional, state-level design to evaluate the effect of state-level firearm legislation on rates of fatal police shootings from January 1, 2015, through October 31, 2016. We measured state-level variation in firearm laws with legislative scorecards from the Brady Center, and for fatal police shootings we used The Counted, an online database maintained by The Guardian...
July 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376827/lead-exposure-at-firing-ranges-a-review
#16
REVIEW
Mark A S Laidlaw, Gabriel Filippelli, Howard Mielke, Brian Gulson, Andrew S Ball
BACKGROUND: Lead (Pb) is a toxic substance with well-known, multiple, long-term, adverse health outcomes. Shooting guns at firing ranges is an occupational necessity for security personnel, police officers, members of the military, and increasingly a recreational activity by the public. In the United States alone, an estimated 16,000-18,000 firing ranges exist. Discharge of Pb dust and gases is a consequence of shooting guns. METHODS: The objectives of this study are to review the literature on blood lead levels (BLLs) and potential adverse health effects associated with the shooting population...
April 4, 2017: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089298/gunshot-wound-trajectory-analysis-using-forensic-animation-to-establish-relative-positions-of-shooter-and-victim
#17
Aisling A Galligan, Craig Fries, Judy Melinek
Forensic pathologists who autopsy the victims of gun violence are often called upon to answer questions in both criminal and civil proceedings about the relative position of the shooter and the victim. In this case report of an officer-involved shooting incident, the statement of the police officer appeared to be in direct contradiction to the statements of other eyewitnesses, the evidence at the scene, and the final resting position of the decedent's body. Trajectory analysis of two gunshot wound pathways (only one of which was instantaneously incapacitating) was performed to assess the veracity of the officer's statement and forensic animation was used to create a court exhibit...
February 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27715652/the-effect-of-body-armor-on-saving-officers-lives-an-analysis-using-leoka-data
#18
Weiwei Liu, Bruce Taylor
Using the Law Enforcement Officers Killed and Assaulted (LEOKA; 2002-2011) database, we examined the life-saving effectiveness of body armor while adjusting for a range of confounders not assessed in previous studies. Among the 637 officers who were shot by a firearm at the torso, those who wore body armor were 76% less likely to be killed than those who did not wear armor, controlling for an array of individual and incident characteristics. A number of factors influenced officers' armor wearing behavior include age, BMI, rank, geographic region, and type of assignment...
February 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27230494/does-media-coverage-influence-public-attitudes-towards-welfare-recipients-the-impact-of-the-2011-english-riots
#19
Aaron Reeves, Robert de Vries
Following the shooting of Mark Duggan by police on 4 August 2011, there were riots in many large cities in the UK. As the rioting was widely perceived to be perpetrated by the urban poor, links were quickly made with Britain's welfare policies. In this paper, we examine whether the riots, and the subsequent media coverage, influenced attitudes toward welfare recipients. Using the British Social Attitudes survey, we use multivariate difference-in-differences regression models to compare attitudes toward welfare recipients among those interviewed before (pre-intervention: i...
June 2016: British Journal of Sociology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27173121/erratum-to-who-shot-ya-how-emergency-departments-can-collect-reliable-police-shooting-data
#20
Joseph B Richardson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2016: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
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