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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27715652/the-effect-of-body-armor-on-saving-officers-lives-an-analysis-using-leoka-data
#1
Weiwei Liu, Bruce Taylor
Using the Law Enforcement Officers Killed and Assaulted (LEOKA; 2002-2011) database, we examined the life-saving effectiveness of body armor while adjusting for a range of confounders not assessed in previous studies. Among the 637 officers who were shot by a firearm at the torso, those who wore body armor were 76% less likely to be killed than those who did not wear armor, controlling for an array of individual and incident characteristics. A number of factors influenced officers' armor wearing behavior include age, BMI, rank, geographic region, and type of assignment...
February 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27230494/does-media-coverage-influence-public-attitudes-towards-welfare-recipients-the-impact-of-the-2011-english-riots
#2
Aaron Reeves, Robert de Vries
Following the shooting of Mark Duggan by police on 4 August 2011, there were riots in many large cities in the UK. As the rioting was widely perceived to be perpetrated by the urban poor, links were quickly made with Britain's welfare policies. In this paper, we examine whether the riots, and the subsequent media coverage, influenced attitudes toward welfare recipients. Using the British Social Attitudes survey, we use multivariate difference-in-differences regression models to compare attitudes toward welfare recipients among those interviewed before (pre-intervention: i...
June 2016: British Journal of Sociology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27173121/erratum-to-who-shot-ya-how-emergency-departments-can-collect-reliable-police-shooting-data
#3
Joseph B Richardson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2016: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27108656/-fatal-head-injury-caused-by-a-crossbow-arrow-with-unusually-preserved-posttraumatic-volitional-activity-case-report
#4
Hynek Řehulka, Eva Čechová, Jitka Mottlová, Martin Valenta, Zdeněk Mareška
The authors deal with a case of suicidal attempt resulting in a fatal head injury. A young man shot himself with a serially produced mechanical sports crossbow. The young man with a critical intracranial injury, a penetration, was nevertheless capable of basic locomotive activity, as well as of coherent communication with another people present at the scene. The critically injured patient was transported from the scene directly to medical centre where he subsequently underwent a neurologic surgery. On the eight day after the incident he died in the hospital as a result of sustained wounds...
2016: Soudní Lékarství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27077797/patterns-of-adult-cross-racial-friendships-a-context-for-understanding-contemporary-race-relations
#5
Deborah L Plummer, Rosalie Torres Stone, Lauren Powell, Jeroan Allison
OBJECTIVES: This study examined patterns, characteristics, and predictors of cross-racial friendships as the context for understanding contemporary race relations. METHOD: A national survey included 1,055 respondents, of whom 55% were white, 32% were black, and 74% were female; ages ranged from 18 to ≥65 years. Focus groups were conducted to assess societal and personal benefits. Participants (n = 31) were racially diverse and aged 20 to 66 years. RESULTS: After accounting for multiple covariates, regression analysis revealed that Asians, Hispanics, and multiracial individuals are more likely than their white and black counterparts to have cross-racial friends...
October 2016: Cultural Diversity & Ethnic Minority Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27039082/french-ministry-of-health-s-response-to-paris-attacks-of-13-november-2015
#6
Jean-Marc Philippe, Olivier Brahic, Pierre Carli, Jean-Pierre Tourtier, Bruno Riou, Benoit Vallet
On Friday November 13th at 9:20 pm, three kamikaze bombs went off around the Stade de France a stadium in Saint-Denis just outside Paris, 4 different shootings took place and bombings in Paris and hundreds of people were held hostage in a theater.This multi-site terrorist attack was the first of this magnitude in France. Drawing the lessons of these attacks and those which occurred in other countries from a health perspective is essential to continuously adapt and improve the French response to possible future attacks...
2016: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26937022/angled-shots-onto-body-armour-using-9%C3%A2-mm-ammunition-the-effect-on-potential-blunt-injury
#7
Alison Lyall, D J Carr, C Lankester, C Malbon
INTRODUCTION: Some military specialists wear body armour that is more similar to police armour and provides protection from ammunition fired from pistols. During ballistic testing, these armours are mounted on a standardised type of modelling clay and the back face signature (BFS; depth of depression) formed as a result of the non-perforating impact event on to the armour is measured. This study investigated the effect of impact angle on the BFS and on the deformation of the bullet. METHODS: Two commonly worn types of armour (HG1/A+KR1 and HG1+KR1) were considered that provide protection from pistol ammunition and sharp weapons...
March 2, 2016: Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26883030/social-movements-against-racist-police-brutality-and-department-of-justice-intervention-in-prince-george-s-county-maryland
#8
Jonathan W Hutto, Rodney D Green
Racist police brutality has been systemic in Prince George's County, Maryland. The victims include African Americans, the mentally challenged, and immigrant populations, creating a complex and uneven public health impact. Three threads characterize the social movements and intervention since 1970. First, a significant demographic shift occurred as African Americans became the majority population in the late 1980s when the first Black county executive was elected in 1994. Despite the change in political leadership, police brutality remained rampant...
April 2016: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26877146/big-five-personality-traits-and-the-general-factor-of-personality-as-moderators-of-stress-and-coping-reactions-following-an-emergency-alarm-on-a-swiss-university-campus
#9
Michael P Hengartner, Dimitri van der Linden, Laura Bohleber, Agnes von Wyl
We conducted an online survey including 306 participants aged 18-64 years to assess the general factor of personality (GFP) and Big Five personality traits in relation to individual stress and coping reactions following a shooting emergency alarm at a Swiss university campus. Although the emergency eventually turned out to be a false alarm, various witnesses showed pronounced distress owing to a vast police operation. The GFP structure was replicated using two alternative modelling approaches. Neuroticism related substantially to acute fear and traumatic distress as well as to more enduring maladaptive coping...
February 15, 2016: Stress and Health: Journal of the International Society for the Investigation of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26807993/deaths-resulting-from-the-use-of-firearms-by-police-against-motor-vehicles-study-of-cases-in-porto-portugal
#10
Ezequiel Rodrigues, Paula Faria, Agostinho Santos, Sílvia Fraga
The objective of this study was to investigate the terminal ballistics of police shootings in which the bullets went through any motor vehicle structure before fatally wounding the occupants. 6 cases that occurred in Porto district between 1998 and 2013 were studied. The firearms used were 7.65 mm (n = 1) or 9 mm (n = 3) calibre semi-automatic pistols and 9 mm calibre submachine guns (n = 2); the bullets were full metal jacket type. The metal jacket of the collected projectiles was totally or partially destroyed in 3 cases...
April 2016: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26765073/predictors-of-needle-exchange-program-utilization-during-its-implementation-and-expansion-in-tijuana-mexico
#11
Danielle M Smith, Dan Werb, Daniela Abramovitz, Carlos Magis-Rodriguez, Alicia Vera, Thomas L Patterson, Steffanie A Strathdee
OBJECTIVE: Until the early 2000s, there was only one needle exchange program (NEP) offered in Mexico. In 2004, the second Mexican NEP opened in Tijuana, but its utilization has not been studied. We studied predictors of initiating NEP during its early expansion in Tijuana, Mexico. METHODS: From April 2006 to April 2007, people who inject drugs (PWID) residing in Tijuana who had injected within the last month were recruited using respondent-driven sampling. Weighted Poisson regression incorporating generalized estimating equations was used to identify predictors of initiating NEP, while accounting for correlation between recruiter and recruits...
March 2016: American Journal on Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26696002/protecting-urban-health-and-safety-balancing-care-and-harm-in-the-era-of-mass-incarceration
#12
Nadia Gaber, Anthony Wright
This paper explores theoretical, spatial, and mediatized pathways through which policing poses harms to the health of marginalized communities in the urban USA, including analysis of two recent and widely publicized incidents of officer-involved killings in Ferguson, Missouri and Staten Island, New York. We examine the influence of the "broken windows" model in both policing and public health, revealing alternate institutional strategies for responding to urban disorder in the interests of the health and safety of the city...
April 2016: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26678070/who-shot-ya-how-emergency-departments-can-collect-reliable-police-shooting-data
#13
Joseph B Richardson, Christopher St Vil, Carnell Cooper
This paper examines an alternative solution for collecting reliable police shooting data. One alternative is the collection of police shooting data from hospital trauma units, specifically hospital-based violence intervention programs. These programs are situated in Level I trauma units in many major cities in USA. While the intent of these programs is to reduce the risk factors associated with trauma recidivism among victims of violent injury, they also collect reliable data on the number of individuals treated for gunshot wounds...
April 2016: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26666251/beacon-of-hope-lessons-learned-from-efforts-to-reduce-civilian-deaths-from-police-shootings-in-an-australian-state
#14
Jessica Saligari, Richard Evans
In the 1990s, the police service in Victoria, Australia, faced a crisis of community confidence due to a spate of civilian deaths from police shootings. In that decade, twice as many civilians died at the hands of the police in Victoria than in every other Australian state combined. Most of those killed were mentally ill and affected by drugs and alcohol, and were rarely a serious threat except to themselves. The problem was also almost entirely an urban phenomenon. Shootings in rural communities, where mentally ill people were more likely to be personally known to local police, were (and remain) almost unknown...
April 2016: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26540108/a-multi-level-bayesian-analysis-of-racial-bias-in-police-shootings-at-the-county-level-in-the-united-states-2011-2014
#15
Cody T Ross
A geographically-resolved, multi-level Bayesian model is used to analyze the data presented in the U.S. Police-Shooting Database (USPSD) in order to investigate the extent of racial bias in the shooting of American civilians by police officers in recent years. In contrast to previous work that relied on the FBI's Supplemental Homicide Reports that were constructed from self-reported cases of police-involved homicide, this data set is less likely to be biased by police reporting practices. County-specific relative risk outcomes of being shot by police are estimated as a function of the interaction of: 1) whether suspects/civilians were armed or unarmed, and 2) the race/ethnicity of the suspects/civilians...
2015: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26467525/the-impact-of-personality-traits-and-professional-experience-on-police-officers-shooting-performance-under-pressure
#16
Annemarie Landman, Arne Nieuwenhuys, Raôul R D Oudejans
We explored the impact of professional experience and personality on police officers' shooting performance under pressure. We recruited: (1) regular officers, (2) officers wanting to join a specialised arrest unit (AU) (expected to possess more stress-resistant traits; pre-AU) and (3) officers from this unit (expected to also possess more professional experience; AU) (all male). In Phase 1, we determined personality traits and experience. In Phase 2, state anxiety, shot accuracy, decision-making (shoot/don't shoot), movement speed and gaze behaviour were measured while officers performed a shooting test under low and high pressure...
July 2016: Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26224045/severe-mental-illness-somatic-delusions-and-attempted-mass-murder
#17
Christine M Sarteschi
A case of an attempted mass shooting at a large psychiatric hospital in the United States by a 30-year-old male with severe mental illness, somatic delusions, and exceptional access to healthcare professionals is reported. Six persons were shot, one died at the scene, and the shooter was then killed by the police. Data were gathered from court documents and media accounts. An analysis of the shooter's psychiatric history, his interactions with healthcare professionals, and communications prior to the shooting suggest a rare form of mass murder, a random attack by a documented psychotic and delusional individual suffering with somatic delusions...
January 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26215425/decision-related-action-orientation-predicts-police-officers-shooting-performance-under-pressure
#18
Annemarie Landman, Arne Nieuwenhuys, Raôul R D Oudejans
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: We aimed to test whether police officers' trait self-control strength decreases negative effects of high pressure (HP) on state anxiety, shooting behavior, and shooting performance. DESIGN AND METHODS: Forty-two officers performed a shooting test under both high and low-pressure (LP) conditions. Self-control strength was assessed with the decision-related action orientation (AOD) scale of the Action Control Scale (ACS-90). Effects of AOD on perceived anxiety, heart rate, shooting time, and shot accuracy were estimated and controlled for those of other individual difference measures (i...
September 2016: Anxiety, Stress, and Coping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26130748/severe-craniocerebral-trauma-with-sequelae-caused-by-flash-ball%C3%A2-shot-a-less-lethal-weapon-report-of-one-case-and-review-of-the-literature
#19
Jean Hiquet, Sophie Gromb-Monnoyeur
The use of Flash-Ball® as a non-lethal weapon by several special units within the police and police forces started in France in 1995. Little literature is available concerning injuries caused by Flash-Ball® shooting. However, we report the case of a healthy 34-year-old male victim of a Flash-Ball® shooting during a riot following a sports event. This young man presented serious craniocerebral injuries with a left temporal fracture, moderate cerebral oedema, fronto-temporal haemorrhagic contusion along with an extra-dural hematoma and subarachnoid hemorrhage requiring neurological and rehabilitation care for two months leaving important sequelae...
July 2016: Medicine, Science, and the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26048497/police-shootings-against-civilians-in-portugal-contextual-forensic-medical-and-judicial-characterization
#20
Ezequiel Rodrigues, Paula Faria, Agostinho Santos, Sílvia Fraga
The aim of this study was to analyse the circumstances, the forensic assessment and the legal assessment of police shootings of civilians, according to the severity of the victim's injuries. Sixty-nine cases tried in Portuguese criminal courts were analysed. Of the 32 cases that resulted in death, 16 were on the public thoroughfare and 13 were in the victim's vehicle or in third-party vehicles. The majority of the lethal cases occurred when the region of the body hit was the thorax/abdomen. The firearm most frequently used was a semi-automatic 9 mm pistol...
July 2015: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
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