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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230631/aerobic-exercise-and-its-effects-on-cognition-in-schizophrenia
#1
Peter Falkai, Berend Malchow, Andrea Schmitt
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Schizophrenia is a severe neuropsychiatric disorder with incomplete remission because of negative and cognitive symptoms in a large proportion of patients. Antipsychotic medication is successful in modulating positive symptoms, but only to a lower extent negative symptoms including cognitive dysfunction. Therefore, development of innovative add-on treatment is highly needed. In this review, recent evidence from clinical studies reveals effects of aerobic exercise on cognitive deficits in schizophrenia patients...
February 21, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228546/a-minimal-actomyosin-based-model-predicts-the-dynamics-of-filopodia-on-neuronal-dendrites
#2
Olena O Marchenko, Sulagna Das, Ji Yu, Igor L Novak, Vladimir I Rodionov, Nadia Efimova, Tatyana Svitkina, Charles W Wolgemuth, Leslie M Loew
Dendritic filopodia are actin-filled dynamic subcellular structures that sprout on neuronal dendrites during neurogenesis. The exploratory motion of the filopodia is crucial for synaptogenesis but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. To study the filopodial motility, we collected and analyzed image data on filopodia in cultured rat hippocampal neurons. We hypothesized that mechanical feedback among the actin retrograde flow, myosin activity and substrate adhesion gives rise to various filopodial behaviors...
February 22, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220838/pan-neurexin-perturbation-results-in-compromised-synapse-stability-and-a-reduction-in-readily-releasable-synaptic-vesicle-pool-size
#3
Dylan P Quinn, Annette Kolar, Michael Wigerius, Rachel N Gomm-Kolisko, Hanine Atwi, James P Fawcett, Stefan R Krueger
Neurexins are a diverse family of cell adhesion molecules that localize to presynaptic specializations of CNS neurons. Heterologous expression of neurexins in non-neuronal cells leads to the recruitment of postsynaptic proteins in contacting dendrites of co-cultured neurons, implicating neurexins in synapse formation. However, isoform-specific knockouts of either all α- or all β-neurexins show defects in synaptic transmission but an unaltered density of glutamatergic synapses, a finding that argues against an essential function of neurexins in synaptogenesis...
February 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197078/redundant-postsynaptic-functions-of-syncams-1-3-during-synapse-formation
#4
Daniel K Fowler, James H Peters, Carly Williams, Philip Washbourne
Investigating the roles of synaptogenic adhesion molecules during synapse formation has proven challenging, often due to compensatory functions between additional family members. The synaptic cell adhesion molecules 1-3 (SynCAM1-3) are expressed both pre- and postsynaptically, share highly homologous domains and are synaptogenic when ectopically presented to neurons; yet their endogenous functions during synaptogenesis are unclear. Here we report that SynCAM1-3 are functionally redundant and collectively necessary for synapse formation in cultured hippocampal neurons...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193459/epileptiform-activity-and-behavioral-arrests-in-mice-overexpressing-the-calcium-channel-subunit-%C3%AE-2%C3%AE-1
#5
Leonardo C Faria, Feng Gu, Isabel Parada, Ben Barres, Z David Luo, David A Prince
: The alpha2delta-1 subunit (α2δ-1) of voltage-gated calcium channels is a receptor for astrocyte-secreted thrombospondins that promote developmental synaptogenesis.Alpha2delta-1 receptors are upregulated in models of injury-induced peripheral pain and epileptogenic neocortical trauma associated with an enhancement of excitatory synaptic connectivity. These results lead to the hypothesis that overexpression of α2δ-1 alone in neocortex of uninjured transgenic (TG) mice might result in increased excitatory connectivity and consequent cortical hyperexcitability and epileptiform activity...
February 10, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188834/amelioration-of-cerebellar-dysfunction-in-rats-following-postnatal-ethanol-exposure-using-low-intensity-pulsed-ultrasound
#6
Hiva Mohammadi Bolbanabad, Enayat Anvari, Mohammad Jafar Rezai, Ardashir Moayeri, Mohammad Reza Kaffashian
BACKGROUND: The neonatal development stage of the cerebellum in rats is equivalent to a human foetus in the third trimester of pregnancy. In this stage, cell proliferation, migration, differentiation, and synaptogenesis occur. Clinical and experimental findings have shown that ethanol exposure during brain development causes a variety of disruptions to the brain, including neurogenesis depression, delayed neuronal migration, changes in neurotransmitter synthesis, and neuronal depletion...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28180029/the-major-histocompatibility-complex-mhc-in-schizophrenia-a-review
#7
Ryan Mokhtari, Herbert M Lachman
Epidemiological studies and mouse models suggest that maternal immune activation, induced clinically through prenatal exposure to one of several infectious diseases, is a risk factor in the development of schizophrenia. This is supported by the strong genetic association established by genome wide association studies (GWAS) between the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) locus and schizophrenia. HLA proteins (also known in mice as the major histocompatibility complex; MHC) are mediators of the T-lymphocyte responses, and genetic variability is well-established as a risk factor for autoimmune diseases and susceptibility to infectious diseases...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical & Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178750/prolonged-maternal-separation-attenuates-bdnf-erk-signaling-correlated-with-spine-formation-in-the-hippocampus-during-early-brain-development
#8
Ken-Ichi Ohta, Shingo Suzuki, Katsuhiko Warita, Tomohiro Kaji, Takashi Kusaka, Takanori Miki
Maternal separation (MS) is known to affect hippocampal function such as learning and memory, yet the molecular mechanism remains unknown. We hypothesized that these impairments are attributed to abnormities of neural circuit formation by MS, and focused on brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) as key factor because BDNF signaling has an essential role in synapse formation during early brain development. Using rat offspring exposed to MS for 6 h/day during postnatal days (PD) 2-20, we estimated BDNF signaling in the hippocampus during brain development...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166219/identification-of-diverse-astrocyte-populations-and-their-malignant-analogs
#9
Chia-Ching John Lin, Kwanha Yu, Asante Hatcher, Teng-Wei Huang, Hyun Kyoung Lee, Jeffrey Carlson, Matthew C Weston, Fengju Chen, Yiqun Zhang, Wenyi Zhu, Carrie A Mohila, Nabil Ahmed, Akash J Patel, Benjamin R Arenkiel, Jeffrey L Noebels, Chad J Creighton, Benjamin Deneen
Astrocytes are the most abundant cell type in the brain, where they perform a wide array of functions, yet the nature of their cellular heterogeneity and how it oversees these diverse roles remains shrouded in mystery. Using an intersectional fluorescence-activated cell sorting-based strategy, we identified five distinct astrocyte subpopulations present across three brain regions that show extensive molecular diversity. Application of this molecular insight toward function revealed that these populations differentially support synaptogenesis between neurons...
February 6, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163913/where-does-axon-guidance-lead-us
#10
REVIEW
Esther Stoeckli
During neural circuit formation, axons need to navigate to their target cells in a complex, constantly changing environment. Although we most likely have identified most axon guidance cues and their receptors, we still cannot explain the molecular background of pathfinding for any subpopulation of axons. We lack mechanistic insight into the regulation of interactions between guidance receptors and their ligands. Recent developments in the field of axon guidance suggest that the regulation of surface expression of guidance receptors comprises transcriptional, translational, and post-translational mechanisms, such as trafficking of vesicles with specific cargos, protein-protein interactions, and specific proteolysis of guidance receptors...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161493/lysine-acetylation-and-deacetylation-in-brain-development-and-neuropathies
#11
REVIEW
Alicia Tapias, Zhao-Qi Wang
Embryonic development is critical for the final functionality and maintenance of the adult brain. Brain development is tightly regulated by intracellular and extracellular signaling. Lysine acetylation and deacetylation are posttranslational modifications that are able to link extracellular signals to intracellular responses. A wealth of evidence indicates that lysine acetylation and deacetylation are critical for brain development and functionality. Indeed, mutations of the enzymes and cofactors responsible for these processes are often associated with neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders...
February 1, 2017: Genomics, Proteomics & Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152565/sphere-induced-rejuvenation-of-swine-and-human-m%C3%A3-ller-glia-is-primarily-caused-by-telomere-elongation
#12
Ni Xu, Yao Chen, Kevin C Dean, Xiaoqin Lu, Xiao Liu, Wei Wang, Douglas C Dean, Henry J Kaplan, Ling Gao, Fangtian Dong, Yongqing Liu
Müller cells are the major supportive and protective glial cells in the retina with important functions in histogenesis and synaptogenesis during development, and in maintenance of mature neurons as they show to secrete various cytokines and manifest potentials of self-renewal and transdifferentiation into retinal neurons following injury in the vertebrate retinas. The swine retina has a visual streak structure similar to the human macular where cone photoreceptors are highly concentrated, thereby can serve as a better model for studying retinal diseases and for formulating cell-based therapeutics than the rodent retinas...
February 2, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152499/contributions-of-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-pufa-on-cerebral-neurobiology-an-integrated-omics-approach-with-epigenomic-focus
#13
Nabarun Chakraborty, Seid Muhie, Raina Kumar, Aarti Gautam, Seshamalini Srinivasan, Bintu Sowe, George Dimitrov, Stacy-Ann Miller, Marti Jett, Rasha Hammamieh
The epigenetic landscape is vulnerable to diets. Here, we investigated the influence of different polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) dietary supplements on rodents' nervous system development and functions and potential consequences to neurodegenerative disorders. Our previous nutrigenomics study showed significant impact of high n-3 PUFA-enriched diet (ERD) on synaptogenesis and various neuromodulators. The present study introduced a second equicaloric diet with n-6 PUFA balanced by n-3 PUFA (BLD). The typical lab diet with high n-6 PUFA was the baseline...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122114/serotonin-5-ht7-receptor-increases-the-density-of-dendritic-spines-and-facilitates-synaptogenesis-in-forebrain-neurons
#14
Luisa Speranza, Josephine Labus, Floriana Volpicelli, Daria Guseva, Enza Lacivita, Marcello Leopoldo, Gian Carlo Bellenchi, Umberto di Porzio, Monika Bijata, Carla Perrone-Capano, Evgeni Ponimaskin
Precise control of dendritic spine density and synapse formation is critical for normal and pathological brain functions. Therefore, signaling pathways influencing dendrite outgrowth and remodeling remain a subject of extensive investigations. Here we report that prolonged activation of the serotonin 5-HT7 receptor (5-HT7R) with selective agonist LP-211 promotes formation of dendritic spines and facilitates synaptogenesis in postnatal cortical and striatal neurons. Critical role of 5-HT7R in neuronal morphogenesis was confirmed by analysis of neurons isolated from 5-HT7R-deficient mice and by pharmacological inactivation of the receptor...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102082/characterization-of-the-molecular-mechanisms-underlying-the-chronic-phase-of-stroke-in-a-cynomolgus-monkey-model-of-induced-cerebral-ischemia
#15
Henry C H Law, Samuel S W Szeto, Quan Quan, Yun Zhao, Zaijun Zhang, Olga Krakovska, Leong Ting Lui, Chengyou Zheng, Simon Ming Yuen Lee, K W Michael Siu, Yuqiang Wang, Ivan K Chu
Stroke is one of the main causes of mortality and long-term disability worldwide. The pathophysiological mechanisms underlying this disease are not well understood, particularly in the chronic phase after the initial ischemic episode. In this study, a Macaca fascicularis stroke model consisting of two sample groups, as determined by MRI-quantified infarct volumes as a measure of the stroke severity 28 days after the ischemic episode, was evaluated using qualitative and quantitative proteomics analyses. By using multiple online multidimensional liquid chromatography platforms, 8790 non-redundant proteins that condensed to 5223 protein groups at 1% global false discovery rate (FDR)...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100586/axon-termination-pruning-and-synaptogenesis-in-the-giant-fiber-system-of-drosophila-melanogaster-is-promoted-by-highwire
#16
Melissa Borgen, Kimberly Rowland, Jana Boerner, Brandon Lloyd, Aruna Khan, Rod Murphey
The ubiquitin ligase Highwire has a conserved role in synapse formation. Here we show that Highwire coordinates several facets of central synapse formation in the Drosophila melanogaster giant fiber system, including axon termination, axon pruning, and synaptic function. Despite the similarities to the fly neuromuscular junction, the role of Highwire and the underlying signaling pathways are distinct in the fly's giant fiber system. During development, branching of the giant fiber presynaptic terminal occurs and, normally, the transient branches are pruned away...
January 18, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099414/neurotoxic-reactive-astrocytes-are-induced-by-activated-microglia
#17
Shane A Liddelow, Kevin A Guttenplan, Laura E Clarke, Frederick C Bennett, Christopher J Bohlen, Lucas Schirmer, Mariko L Bennett, Alexandra E Münch, Won-Suk Chung, Todd C Peterson, Daniel K Wilton, Arnaud Frouin, Brooke A Napier, Nikhil Panicker, Manoj Kumar, Marion S Buckwalter, David H Rowitch, Valina L Dawson, Ted M Dawson, Beth Stevens, Ben A Barres
Reactive astrocytes are strongly induced by central nervous system (CNS) injury and disease, but their role is poorly understood. Here we show that a subtype of reactive astrocytes, which we termed A1, is induced by classically activated neuroinflammatory microglia. We show that activated microglia induce A1 astrocytes by secreting Il-1α, TNF and C1q, and that these cytokines together are necessary and sufficient to induce A1 astrocytes. A1 astrocytes lose the ability to promote neuronal survival, outgrowth, synaptogenesis and phagocytosis, and induce the death of neurons and oligodendrocytes...
January 26, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088900/synaptic-plasticity-dementia-and-alzheimer-disease
#18
Stephen D Skaper, Laura Facci, Morena Zusso, Pietro Giusti
Neuroplasticity is not only shaped by learning and memory but is also a mediator of responses to neuron attrition and injury (compensatory plasticity). As an ongoing process it reacts to neuronal cell activity and injury, death, and genesis, which encompasses the modulation of structural and functional processes of axons, dendrites, and synapses. The range of structural elements that comprise plasticity includes long-term potentiation (a cellular correlate of learning and memory), synaptic efficacy and remodelling, synaptogenesis, axonal sprouting and dendritic remodelling, and neurogenesis and recruitment...
13, 2017: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087334/the-short-and-long-term-proteomic-effects-of-sleep-deprivation-on-the-cortical-and-thalamic-synapses
#19
Attila Simor, Balázs András Györffy, Péter Gulyássy, Katalin Völgyi, Vilmos Tóth, Mihail Ivilinov Todorov, Viktor Kis, Zsolt Borhegyi, Zoltán Szabó, Tamás Janáky, László Drahos, Gábor Juhász, Katalin Adrienna Kékesi
Acute total sleep deprivation (SD) impairs memory consolidation, attention, working memory and perception. Structural, electrophysiological and molecular experimental approaches provided evidences for the involvement of sleep in synaptic functions. Despite the wide scientific interest on the effects of sleep on the synapse, there is a lack of systematic investigation of sleep-related changes in the synaptic proteome. We isolated parietal cortical and thalamic synaptosomes of rats after 8h of total SD by gentle handling and 16h after the end of deprivation to investigate the short- and longer-term effects of SD on the synaptic proteome, respectively...
January 10, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074469/development-of-cone-photoreceptors-and-their-synapses-in-the-human-and-monkey-fovea
#20
Anita Hendrickson, Chi Zhang
During retinal development, ribbon synapse assembly in the photoreceptors is a crucial step involving numerous molecules. While the developmental sequence of plexiform layers in human retina has been characterized, the molecular steps of synaptogenesis remain largely unknown. In the present study, we focused on the central rod-free region of primate retina, the fovea, to specifically investigate the development of cone photoreceptor ribbon synapses. Immunocytochemistry and electron microscopy were utilized to track the expression of photoreceptor transduction proteins and ribbon and synaptic markers in fetal human and Macaca retina...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
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