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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668986/hits-clip-in-various-brain-areas-reveals-new-targets-and-new-modalities-of-rna-binding-by-fragile-x-mental-retardation-protein
#1
Thomas Maurin, Kevin Lebrigand, Sara Castagnola, Agnès Paquet, Marielle Jarjat, Alexandra Popa, Mauro Grossi, Florence Rage, Barbara Bardoni
Fragile X syndrome (FXS), the most common form of inherited intellectual disability, is due to the functional deficiency of the fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP), an RNA-binding protein involved in translational regulation of many messenger RNAs, playing key roles in synaptic morphology and plasticity. To date, no effective treatment for FXS is available. We searched for FMRP targets by HITS-CLIP during early development of multiple mouse brain regions (hippocampus, cortex and cerebellum) at a time of brain development when FMRP is most highly expressed and synaptogenesis reaches a peak...
April 14, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667473/harnessing-neuroplasticity-modern-approaches-and-clinical-future
#2
Andrew Octavian Sasmita, Joshua Kuruvilla, Anna Pick Kiong Ling
Neurological diseases and injuries to the nervous system may cause inadvertent damage to neuronal and synaptic structures. Such phenomenon would catastrophically accumulate, leading to the development of neurological and neurodegenerative disorders which might affect memory, cognition, and motoric functions. The body has various negative feedback systems which are able to induce beneficial neuroplastic changes in mediating some neuronal damage, however, such efforts are often not enough to ameliorate the derogatory changes...
April 18, 2018: International Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626487/testing-for-developmental-neurotoxicity-using-a-battery-of-in-vitro-assays-for-key-cellular-events-in-neurodevelopment
#3
Joshua A Harrill, Theresa Freudenrich, Kathleen Wallace, Kenneth Ball, Timothy J Shafer, William R Mundy
Medium- to high-throughput in vitro assays that recapitulate the critical processes of nervous system development have been proposed as a means to facilitate rapid testing and identification of chemicals which may affect brain development. In vivo neurodevelopment is a complex progression of distinct cellular processes. Therefore, batteries of in vitro assays that model and quantify effects on a variety of neurodevelopmental processes have the potential to identify chemicals which may affect brain development at different developmental stages...
April 4, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619741/expression-of-mir-145-and-its-target-proteins-are-regulated-by-mir-29b-in-differentiated-neurons
#4
Abhishek Jauhari, Tanisha Singh, Sanjay Yadav
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are emerging as the most potential regulator of neuronal development. Recent studies from our lab and elsewhere have demonstrated a direct role of miRNAs in regulating neuronal differentiation and synaptogenesis. MicroRNA-145, a miRNA identified to regulate pluripotency of stem cells, downregulates the protein levels of reprogramming transcription factors (RTFs) like OCT4, SOX2, and KLF4 (cell, 137,647-658,2009). Studies have shown that miR-145 is multifunctional and crucial for fate determination of neurons...
April 4, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615675/predicting-individual-responses-to-the-electroconvulsive-therapy-with-hippocampal-subfield-volumes-in-major-depression-disorder
#5
Bo Cao, Qinghua Luo, Yixiao Fu, Lian Du, Tian Qiu, Xiangying Yang, Xiaolu Chen, Qibin Chen, Jair C Soares, Raymond Y Cho, Xiang Yang Zhang, Haitang Qiu
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is one of the most effective treatments for major depression disorder (MDD). ECT can induce neurogenesis and synaptogenesis in hippocampus, which contains distinct subfields, e.g., the cornu ammonis (CA) subfields, a granule cell layer (GCL), a molecular layer (ML), and the subiculum. It is unclear which subfields are affected by ECT and whether we predict the future treatment response to ECT by using volumetric information of hippocampal subfields at baseline? In this study, 24 patients with severe MDD received the ECT and their structural brain images were acquired with magnetic resonance imaging before and after ECT...
April 3, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29600533/peptide-based-scaffold-for-nitric-oxide-induced-differentiation-of-neuroblastoma-cells
#6
Sandeep Verma, Ashok Kumar, Hilal Ahmed Pal, Parvaiz Sheikh, Anamika Singh, Apurva Panjla
Nitric oxide (NO) is a gaseous messenger involved in neuronal differentiation, development and synaptogenesis, in addition to many other physiological functions. Therefore, it is imperative to maintain optimal nitric oxide concentration to ensure its biochemical function. We describe a sustained NO-releasing scaffold, which supports neuronal cell differentiation as judged by morphometric analysis of neurite outgrowth. Moreover, its effect on neuroblastoma cell line was also confirmed by immunofluorescent analysis of NeuN (neuronal nuclear protein), specific neuronal marker, and neurofilament (NF) protein, which revealed a significant increase in their expression levels, when compared to undifferentiated cells...
March 30, 2018: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596897/mechanisms-of-neurotrophin-trafficking-via-trk-receptors
#7
REVIEW
Emily Scott-Solomon, Rejji Kuruvilla
In neurons, long-distance communication between axon terminals and cell bodies is a critical determinant in establishing and maintaining neural circuits. Neurotrophins are soluble factors secreted by post-synaptic target tissues that retrogradely control axon and dendrite growth, survival, and synaptogenesis of innervating neurons. Neurotrophins bind Trk receptor tyrosine kinases in axon terminals to promote endocytosis of ligand-bound phosphorylated receptors into signaling endosomes. Trk-harboring endosomes function locally in axons to acutely promote growth events, and can also be retrogradely transported long-distances to remote cell bodies and dendrites to stimulate cytoplasmic and transcriptional signaling necessary for neuron survival, morphogenesis, and maturation...
March 26, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29572646/knockout-of-amyloid-%C3%AE-protein-precursor-app-expression-alters-synaptogenesis-neurite-branching-and-axonal-morphology-of-hippocampal-neurons
#8
Katherine A Southam, Fiona Stennard, Cassandra Pavez, David H Small
The function of the β-A4 amyloid protein precursor (APP) of Alzheimer's disease (AD) remains unclear. APP has a number of putative roles in neuronal differentiation, survival, synaptogenesis and cell adhesion. In this study, we examined the development of axons, dendrites and synapses in cultures of hippocampus neutrons derived from APP knockout (KO) mice. We report that loss of APP function reduces the branching of cultured hippocampal neurons, resulting in reduced synapse formation. Using a compartmentalised culture approach, we found reduced axonal outgrowth in cultured hippocampal neurons and we also identified abnormal growth characteristics of isolated hippocampal neuron axons...
March 23, 2018: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29572109/n-docosahexaenoylethanolamine-a-neurotrophic-and-neuroprotective-metabolite-of-docosahexaenoic-acid
#9
REVIEW
Hee-Yong Kim, Arthur A Spector
N-Docosahexaenoylethanolamine (synaptamide) is an endocannabinoid-like metabolite endogenously synthesized from docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3), the major omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid present in the brain. Although its biosynthetic mechanism has yet to be established, there is a closely linked relationship between the levels of synaptamide and its precursor DHA in the brain. Synaptamide at nanomolar concentrations promotes neurogenesis, neurite outgrowth and synaptogenesis in developing neurons. Synaptamide also attenuates the lipopolysaccharide-induced neuroinflammatory response and reduce the deleterious effects of ethanol on neurogenic differentiation of neural stem cells (NSCs)...
March 20, 2018: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559501/synaptogenesis-is-modulated-by-heparan-sulfate-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#10
María Lázaro-Peña, Carlos Díaz-Balzac, Hannes Bülow, Scott Emmons
The nervous system regulates complex behaviors through a network of neurons interconnected by synapses. How specific synaptic connections are genetically determined is still unclear. Male mating is the most complex behavior in C. elegans It is composed of sequential steps that are governed by more than 3,000 chemical connections. Here we show that heparan sulfates (HS) play a role in the formation and function of the male neural network. HS, sulfated in position 3 by the HS modification enzyme HST-3.1 / HS 3- O -sulfotransferase and attached to the HSPG glypicans LON-2/glypican and GPN-1/glypican, functions cell-autonomously and non-autonomously for response to hermaphrodite contact during mating...
March 20, 2018: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29555638/the-teneurin-c-terminal-domain-possesses-nuclease-activity-and-is-apoptogenic
#11
Jacqueline Ferralli, Richard P Tucker, Ruth Chiquet-Ehrismann
Teneurins are type 2 transmembrane proteins expressed by developing neurons during periods of synaptogenesis and apoptosis. Neurons expressing teneurin-1 synapse with other teneurin-1-expressing neurons, and neurons expressing teneurin-2 synapse with other teneurin-2-expressing neurons. Knockdowns and mutations of teneurins lead to abnormal neuronal connections, but the mechanisms underlying teneurin action remain unknown. Teneurins appear to have evolved via horizontal gene transfer from prokaryotic proteins involved in bacterial self-recognition...
March 19, 2018: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29553565/rapid-detection-of-neurodevelopmental-phenotypes-in-human-neural-precursor-cells-npcs
#12
Madeline Williams, Smrithi Prem, Xiaofeng Zhou, Paul Matteson, Percy Luk Yeung, Chi-Wei Lu, Zhiping Pang, Linda Brzustowicz, James H Millonig, Emanuel Dicicco-Bloom
Human brain development proceeds through a series of precisely orchestrated processes, with earlier stages distinguished by proliferation, migration, and neurite outgrowth; and later stages characterized by axon/dendrite outgrowth and synapse formation. In neurodevelopmental disorders, often one or more of these processes are disrupted, leading to abnormalities in brain formation and function. With the advent of human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) technology, researchers now have an abundant supply of human cells that can be differentiated into virtually any cell type, including neurons...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29550513/lipid-profiling-as-an-effective-approach-for-identifying-biomarkers-adverse-events-associated-with-pediatric-anesthesia
#13
Cheng Wang, Xianlin Han, Fang Liu, Tucker A Patterson, Joseph P Hanig, Merle G Paule, William Slikker
Adverse effects related to central nervous system (CNS) function in pediatric populations may, at times, be difficult, if not impossible to evaluate. Prolonged anesthetic exposure affects brain excitability and anesthesia during the most sensitive developmental stages and has been associated with mitochondrial dysfunction, aberrant lipid metabolism and synaptogenesis, subsequent neuronal damage, as well as long-term behavioral deficits. There has been limited research evaluating whether and how anesthetic agents affect cellular lipids, the most abundant components of the brain other than water...
March 14, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29549711/molecular-control-of-local-translation-in-axon-development-and-maintenance
#14
REVIEW
Jean-Michel Cioni, Max Koppers, Christine E Holt
The tips of axons are often far away from the cell soma where most proteins are synthesized. Recent work has revealed that axonal mRNA transport and localised translation are key regulatory mechanisms that allow these distant outposts of the cell to respond rapidly to extrinsic factors and maintain axonal homeostasis. Here, we review recent evidence pointing to an increasingly broad role for local protein synthesis in controlling axon shape, synaptogenesis and axon survival by regulating diverse cellular processes such as vesicle trafficking, cytoskeletal remodelling and mitochondrial integrity...
March 14, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29545398/hormonal-and-nutritional-regulation-of-postnatal-hypothalamic-development
#15
REVIEW
Luba Sominsky, Christine L Jasoni, Hannah R Twigg, Sarah J Spencer
The hypothalamus is a key centre for regulation of vital physiological functions, such as appetite, stress responsiveness and reproduction. Development of the different hypothalamic nuclei and its major neuronal populations begins prenatally in both altricial and precocial species, with the fine tuning of neuronal connectivity and attainment of adult function established postnatally and maintained throughout adult life. The perinatal period is highly susceptible to environmental insults that, by disrupting critical developmental processes, can set the tone for the establishment of adult functionality...
May 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29544513/neonatal-hyperglycemia-induces-cxcl10-cxcr3-signaling-and-microglial-activation-and-impairs-long-term-synaptogenesis-in-the-hippocampus-and-alters-behavior-in-rats
#16
Katherine M Satrom, Kathleen Ennis, Brian M Sweis, Tatyana M Matveeva, Jun Chen, Leif Hanson, Akhil Maheshwari, Raghavendra Rao
BACKGROUND: Hyperglycemia is common in extremely low gestational age newborns (ELGAN) and is associated with increased mortality and morbidity, including abnormal neurodevelopment. Hippocampus-mediated cognitive deficits are common in this population, but the specific effects of hyperglycemia on the developing hippocampus are not known. METHODS: The objective of this study was to determine the acute and long-term effects of hyperglycemia on the developing hippocampus in neonatal rats using a streptozotocin (STZ)-induced model of hyperglycemia...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29534847/neuregulin1-modulation-of-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-eae
#17
Elise Allender, Harvinderjeet Deol, Sarah Schram, Kathleen J Maheras, Alexander Gow, Eleanor H Simpson, Fei Song
Neuregulin1 (NRG1) is a differentiation factor that regulates glial development, survival, synaptogenesis, axoglial interactions, and microglial activation. We previously reported that a targeted NRG1 antagonist (HBD-S-H4) given intrathecally, reduces inflammatory microglial activation in a spinal cord pain model and a neurodegenerative disease mouse model in vivo, suggesting that it may have effects in neuroninflammatory and neuronal disorders. We hypothesized that expression of HBD-S-H4 in the central nervous system (CNS) could reduce disease severity in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a widely used animal model for multiple sclerosis (MS)...
March 10, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29532181/the-presynaptic-machinery-at-the-synapse-of-c-elegans
#18
REVIEW
Fernando Calahorro, Patricia G Izquierdo
Synapses are specialized contact sites that mediate information flow between neurons and their targets. Important physical interactions across the synapse are mediated by synaptic adhesion molecules. These adhesions regulate formation of synapses during development and play a role during mature synaptic function. Importantly, genes regulating synaptogenesis and axon regeneration are conserved across the animal phyla. Genetic screens in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans have identified a number of molecules required for synapse patterning and assembly...
March 12, 2018: Invertebrate Neuroscience: IN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29531828/thrombospondin-1-protects-against-a%C3%AE-induced-mitochondrial-fragmentation-and-dysfunction-in-hippocampal-cells
#19
Seokjo Kang, Jayoung Byun, Sung Min Son, Inhee Mook-Jung
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is often characterized by the impairment of mitochondrial function caused by excessive mitochondrial fragmentation. Thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1), which is primarily secreted from astrocytes in the central nervous system (CNS), has been suggested to play a role in synaptogenesis, spine morphology, and synaptic density of neurons. In this study, we investigate the protective role of TSP-1 in the recovery of mitochondrial morphology and function in amyloid β (Aβ)-treated mouse hippocampal neuroblastoma cells (HT22)...
December 2018: Cell Death Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29525411/can-we-increase-the-speed-and-efficacy-of-antidepressant-treatments-part-ii-glutamatergic-and-rna-interference-strategies
#20
REVIEW
F Artigas, P Celada, A Bortolozzi
In the second part we focus on two treatment strategies that may overcome the main limitations of current antidepressant drugs. First, we review the experimental and clinical evidence supporting the use of glutamatergic drugs as fast-acting antidepressants. Secondly, we review the involvement of microRNAs (miRNAs) in the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD) and the use of small RNAs (e.g.., small interfering RNAs or siRNAs) to knockdown genes in monoaminergic and non-monoaminergic neurons and induce antidepressant-like responses in experimental animals...
March 7, 2018: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
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