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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920126/postnatal-activation-of-tlr4-in-astrocytes-promotes-excitatory-synaptogenesis-in-hippocampal-neurons
#1
Yi Shen, Huaping Qin, Juan Chen, Lingyan Mou, Yang He, Yixiu Yan, Hang Zhou, Ya Lv, Zhong Chen, Junlu Wang, Yu-Dong Zhou
Astrocytes are critical in synapse development, and their dysfunction in crucial developmental stages leads to serious neurodevelopmental diseases, including seizures and epilepsy. Immune challenges not only affect brain development, but also promote seizure generation and epileptogenesis, implying immune activation is one of the key factors linking seizures and epilepsy to abnormal brain development. In this study, we report that activating astrocytes by systemic lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenges in the second postnatal week promotes excitatory synapse development, leading to enhanced seizure susceptibility in mice...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915209/development-of-neural-population-activity-toward-self-organized-criticality
#2
Yuichiro Yada, Takeshi Mita, Akihiro Sanada, Ryuichi Yano, Ryohei Kanzaki, Douglas J Bakkum, Andreas Hierlemann, Hirokazu Takahashi
Self-organized criticality (SoC), a spontaneous dynamic state established and maintained in networks of moderate complexity, is a universal characteristic of neural systems. Such systems produce cascades of spontaneous activity that are typically characterized by power-law distributions and rich, stable spatiotemporal patterns (i.e., neuronal avalanches). Since the dynamics of the critical state confer advantages in information processing within neuronal networks, it is of great interest to determine how criticality emerges during development...
November 30, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911307/a-high-cholesterol-diet-increases-27-hydroxycholesterol-and-modifies-estrogen-receptor-expression-and-neurodegeneration-in-rabbit-hippocampus
#3
Sylwia W Brooks, Ava C Dykes, Bernard G Schreurs
Hypercholesterolemia has been implicated in numerous health problems from cardiovascular disease to neurodegeneration. High serum cholesterol levels in midlife have been associated with an increased risk of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD) later in life which suggests that the pathways leading to AD pathology might be activated decades before the symptoms of the disease are detected. Cholesterol-fed animals, particularly cholesterol-fed rabbits, exhibit brain pathology similar to the changes found in brains of AD patients...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898583/genetic-control-of-postnatal-human-brain-growth
#4
Laura I van Dyck, Eric M Morrow
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Studies investigating postnatal brain growth disorders inform the biology underlying the development of human brain circuitry. This research is becoming increasingly important for the diagnosis and treatment of childhood neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism and related disorders. Here, we review recent research on typical and abnormal postnatal brain growth and examine potential biological mechanisms. RECENT FINDINGS: Clinically, brain growth disorders are heralded by diverging head size for a given age and sex, but are more precisely characterized by brain imaging, post-mortem analysis, and animal model studies...
November 24, 2016: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893610/slit2-robo1-promotes-synaptogenesis-and-functional-recovery-of-spinal-cord-injury
#5
Yang Li, Yan Gao, Xueqin Xu, Ruoshi Shi, Juying Liu, Wanjun Yao, Changbin Ke
Neuronal network reconstruction is a pivotal determinant for functional recovery after spinal cord injury (SCI), the process of which includes synaptogenesis. Slit2 protein has been identified as a key regulator of axon regeneration and synapse formation in the vertebrate. Meanwhile, RhoA is the converging cascade of inhibitory molecules that interrupt synaptic plasticity in SCI. In the present study, we investigated the interaction among Slit2, Robo1, and RhoA and the potential roles of Slit2 in the pathological process of SCI...
November 23, 2016: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883356/a-human-brain-microphysiological-system-derived-from-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-to-study-neurological-diseases-and-toxicity
#6
David Pamies, Paula Barreras, Katharina Block, Georgia Makri, Anupama Kumar, Daphne Wiersma, Lenna Smirnova, Ce Zhang, Joseph Bressler, Kimberly M Christian, Georgina Harris, Guo-Li Ming, Cindy J Berlinicke, Kelly Kyro, Hongjun Song, Carlos A Pardo, Thomas Hartung, Helena T Hogberg
Human in-vitro models of brain neurophysiology are needed to investigate molecular and cellular mechanisms associated with neurological disorders and neurotoxicity. We have developed a reproducible iPSC-derived human 3D brain microphysiological system (BMPS), comprised of differentiated mature neurons and glial cells (astrocytes and oligodendrocytes) that reproduce neuronal-glial interactions and connectivity. BMPS mature over eight weeks and show the critical elements of neuronal function: synaptogenesis and neuron-to-neuron (e...
November 24, 2016: ALTEX
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881712/astrocytic-tlr4-at-the-crossroads-of-inflammation-and-seizure-susceptibility
#7
Christian Henneberger, Christian Steinhäuser
Astrocytes have been implicated in epilepsy development, but their contribution is under debate. In this issue, Shen et al. (2016. J. Cell Biol. https://doi.org/10.1083/jcb.201605046) demonstrate that early postnatal inflammatory stimuli activate toll-like receptor 4 signaling in astrocytes and promote excitatory synaptogenesis, thereby increasing seizure susceptibility in young and adult mice.
December 5, 2016: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877121/the-indispensable-roles-of-microglia-and-astrocytes-during-brain-development
#8
REVIEW
Kitty Reemst, Stephen C Noctor, Paul J Lucassen, Elly M Hol
Glia are essential for brain functioning during development and in the adult brain. Here, we discuss the various roles of both microglia and astrocytes, and their interactions during brain development. Although both cells are fundamentally different in origin and function, they often affect the same developmental processes such as neuro-/gliogenesis, angiogenesis, axonal outgrowth, synaptogenesis and synaptic pruning. Due to their important instructive roles in these processes, dysfunction of microglia or astrocytes during brain development could contribute to neurodevelopmental disorders and potentially even late-onset neuropathology...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877105/extended-postnatal-brain-development-in-the-longest-lived-rodent-prolonged-maintenance-of-neotenous-traits-in-the-naked-mole-rat-brain
#9
Miranda E Orr, Valentina R Garbarino, Angelica Salinas, Rochelle Buffenstein
The naked mole-rat (NMR) is the longest-lived rodent with a maximum lifespan >31 years. Intriguingly, fully-grown naked mole-rats (NMRs) exhibit many traits typical of neonatal rodents. However, little is known about NMR growth and maturation, and we question whether sustained neotenous features when compared to mice, reflect an extended developmental period, commensurate with their exceptionally long life. We tracked development from birth to 3 years of age in the slowest maturing organ, the brain, by measuring mass, neural stem cell proliferation, axonal, and dendritic maturation, synaptogenesis and myelination...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871670/convergence-of-sex-differences-and-the-neuroimmune-system-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#10
REVIEW
Margaret M McCarthy, Christopher L Wright
The male bias in autism spectrum disorder incidence is among the most extreme of all neuropsychiatric disorders, yet the origins of the sex difference remain obscure. Developmentally, males are exposed to high levels of testosterone and its byproduct, estradiol. Together these steroids modify the course of brain development by altering neurogenesis, cell death, migration, differentiation, dendritic and axonal growth, synaptogenesis, and synaptic pruning, all of which can be deleteriously impacted during the course of developmental neuropsychiatric disorders...
October 11, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852736/the-role-of-retinoic-acid-in-the-formation-and-modulation-of-invertebrate-central-synapses
#11
Cailin M Rothwell, Eric de Hoog, Gaynor Elizabeth Spencer
Trophic factors can influence many aspects of nervous system function, such as neurite outgrowth, synapse formation and synapse modulation. The vitamin A metabolite, retinoic acid can exert trophic effects to promote neuronal survival and outgrowth in many species, and is also known to modulate vertebrate hippocampal synapses. However, its role in synaptogenesis has not been well studied, and whether it can modulate existing invertebrate synapses is also not known. In this study, we first examined a potential trophic effect of retinoic acid on the formation of excitatory synapses, independently of its role in neurite outgrowth, using cultured neurons of the mollusc Lymnaea stagnalis...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27844023/could-folic-acid-influence-growth-cone-motility-during-the-development-of-neural-connectivity
#12
COMMENT
Darrell Wiens
Perinatal dietary supplementation, together with widespread fortification of grain-based foods with synthetic folic acid (FA) has resulted in rising concentrations of unmetabolized plasma FA in pregnant women. In a recently published study we reported on experiments in which we cultured dorsal root ganglia from chick embryos in a range of FA concentrations. We found that FA inhibited neurite extension, synaptogenesis, and growth cone motility. In this commentary we consider the possible mechanism further. The effect of FA is more likely to be on motility processes of growth cones with their exploratory filapodia than on neurotrophic stimulation...
2016: Neurogenesis (Austin, Tex.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832492/adhesion-gpcrs-as-novel-actors-in-neural-and-glial-cell-functions-from-synaptogenesis-to-myelination
#13
Séverine M Sigoillot, Kelly R Monk, Xianhua Piao, Fekrije Selimi, Breanne L Harty
Adhesion G-protein-coupled receptors (aGPCRs) are emerging as key regulators of nervous system development and health. aGPCRs can regulate many aspects of neural development, including cell signaling, cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions, and, potentially, mechanosensation. Here, we specifically focus on the roles of several aGPCRs in synapse biology, dendritogenesis, and myelinating glial cell development. The lessons learned from these examples may be extrapolated to other contexts in the nervous system and beyond...
2016: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821848/depression-like-phenotype-by-deletion-of-%C3%AE-7-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-role-of-bdnf-trkb-in-nucleus-accumbens
#14
Ji-Chun Zhang, Wei Yao, Qian Ren, Chun Yang, Chao Dong, Min Ma, Jin Wu, Kenji Hashimoto
The α7 subtype of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) plays a role in the inflammation which is implicated in depression. This study was undertaken to examine the role of α7 nAChR in depression using α7 nAChR knock-out (KO) mice. Serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-α and interlukin-1β in KO mice were higher than wild-type mice, suggesting an inflammatory process in KO mice. α7 nAChR KO mice showed depression-like phenotype. Furthermore, KO mice showed increased brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its receptor TrkB signaling, as well as increased synaptogenesis and spine density in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), although BDNF-TrkB signaling and synaptogenesis were not altered in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus...
November 8, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818624/glial-cell-contributions-to-auditory-brainstem-development
#15
REVIEW
Karina S Cramer, Edwin W Rubel
Glial cells, previously thought to have generally supporting roles in the central nervous system, are emerging as essential contributors to multiple aspects of neuronal circuit function and development. This review focuses on the contributions of glial cells to the development of auditory pathways in the brainstem. These pathways display specialized synapses and an unusually high degree of precision in circuitry that enables sound source localization. The development of these pathways thus requires highly coordinated molecular and cellular mechanisms...
2016: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815416/s-ketamine-rapidly-reverses-synaptic-and-vascular-deficits-of-hippocampus-in-genetic-animal-model-of-depression
#16
Maryam Ardalan, Gregers Wegener, Ali H Rafati, Jens R Nyengaard
BACKGROUND: The neurovascular plasticity of hippocampus is an important theory underlying major depression. Ketamine as a novel glutamatergic antidepressant drug can induce a rapid antidepressant effect within hours. In a mechanistic proof of this concept, we examined whether ketamine leads to an increase in synaptogenesis and vascularization within 24 hours after a single injection in a genetic rat model of depression. METHODS: Flinders Sensitive Line and Flinders Resistant Line rats were given a single intraperitoneal injection of ketamine (15 mg/kg) or saline...
December 8, 2016: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807169/p39-is-responsible-for-increasing-cdk5-activity-during-postnatal-neuron-differentiation-and-governs-neuronal-network-formation-and-epileptic-responses
#17
Wenqi Li, Megan E Allen, Yanfang Rui, Li Ku, Guanglu Liu, Andrew N Bankston, James Q Zheng, Yue Feng
: Two distinct protein cofactors, p35 and p39, independently activate Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5), which plays diverse roles in normal brain function and the pathogenesis of many neurological diseases. The initial discovery that loss of p35 impairs neuronal migration in the embryonic brain prompted intensive research exploring the function of p35-dependent Cdk5 activity. In contrast, p39 expression is restricted to the postnatal brain and its function remains poorly understood. Despite the robustly increased Cdk5 activity during neuronal differentiation, which activator is responsible for enhancing Cdk5 activation and how the two distinct activators direct Cdk5 signaling to govern neuronal network formation and function still remains elusive...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793698/evidence-for-a-role-of-glycoprotein-m6a-in-dendritic-spine-formation-and-synaptogenesis
#18
Karina Formoso, Micaela D Garcia, Alberto C Frasch, Camila Scorticati
Neuronal glycoprotein M6a belongs to the tetraspan proteolipid protein (PLP) family. Mutations in GPM6A gene have been related to mental disorders like schizophrenia, bipolar disorders and claustrophobia. M6a is expressed mainly in neuronal cells of the central nervous system and it has been extensively related to neuronal plasticity. M6a induces neuritogenesis and axon/filopodium outgrowth; however its mechanism of action is still unresolved. We recently reported that the integrity of the transmembrane domains (TMDs) 2 and 4 are critical for M6a filopodia induction...
December 2016: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765808/rapid-and-sustained-antidepressant-action-of-the-mglu2-3-receptor-antagonist-mgs0039-in-the-social-defeat-stress-model-comparison-with-ketamine
#19
Chao Dong, Ji-Chun Zhang, Wei Yao, Qian Ren, Min Ma, Chun Yang, Shigeyuki Chaki, Kenji Hashimoto
BACKGROUND: Similar to the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist ketamine, the metabotropic glutamate 2/3 receptor antagonist, MGS0039, shows antidepressant effects. However, there are no reports comparing these 2 compounds in the social defeat stress model of depression. METHODS: We examined the effects of MGS0039 (1 mg/kg) and ketamine (10 mg/kg) on depression-like behavior in susceptible mice after repeated social defeat stress. Protein levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, TrkB, phospho-TrkB, α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (GluA1), postsynaptic density protein 95, and dendritic spine density in selected brain regions were measured...
October 27, 2016: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27764741/elevated-levels-of-insulin-like-growth-factor-1-igf-1-in-drug-na%C3%A3-ve-patients-with-psychosis
#20
Petros Petrikis, Vassiliki A Boumba, Alexandros T Tzallas, Paraskevi V Voulgari, Dimitra T Archimandriti, Petros Skapinakis, Venetsanos Mavreas
Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) plays an important role in neurogenesis and synaptogenesis and may be implicated in schizophrenia, although data so far have been inconclusive. The aim of our study was to compare levels of IGF-1 in drug-naïve patients with a first episode of schizophrenia and related disorders with matched healthy controls. Forty drug naïve first-episode patients with schizophrenia and related disorders and forty healthy subjects matched for age, gender, body mass index (BMI) and smoking status were enrolled in the study...
September 28, 2016: Psychiatry Research
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