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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449070/in-situ-screening-for-postsynaptic-cell-adhesion-molecules-during-synapse-formation
#1
Takeshi Uemura, Tomoko Shiroshima, Asami Maeda, Misato Yasumura, Takashi Shimada, Yuko Fukata, Masaki Fukata, Tomoyuki Yoshida
Neuronal synapse formation is regulated by pre- and postsynaptic cell adhesion molecules. Presynaptic neurexins (NRXNs) and receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases (RPTPs; PTPδ, PTPσ, and LAR in mammals) can induce postsynaptic differentiation through the interaction with various postsynaptic cell adhesion molecules. Here, we developed a novel in situ screening method to identify postsynaptic membranous proteins involved in synaptogenesis. Magnetic beads coated with the extracellular domains of NRXN1β(-S4) and PTPδ-A6 variants preferentially induced excitatory postsynaptic differentiation on the beads' surface when co-cultured with cortical neurons...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444230/apoe-%C3%AE%C2%B54-%C3%AE%C2%B54-diminishes-neurotrophic-function-of-human-ipsc-derived-astrocytes
#2
Jing Zhao, Mary D Davis, Yuka Atagi, Mitsuru Shinohara, Neill R Graff-Radford, Steven G Younkin, Zbigniew K Wszolek, Takahisa Kanekiyo, Guojun Bu
The ε4 allele of the APOE gene encoding apolipoprotein E (apoE) is a strong genetic risk factor for aging-related cognitive decline as well as late-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD) compared to the common ε3 allele. In the central nervous system, apoE is produced primarily by astrocytes and functions in transporting lipids including cholesterol to support neuronal homeostasis and synaptic integrity. Although mouse models and corresponding primary cells have provided valuable tools for studying apoE isoform-dependent functions, recent studies have shown that human astrocytes have distinct gene expression profile compare with rodent astrocytes...
April 21, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435999/neonatal-propofol-anesthesia-changes-expression-of-synaptic-plasticity-proteins-and-increases-stereotypic-and-anxyolitic-behavior-in-adult-rats
#3
Desanka Milanovic, Vesna Pesic, Natasa Loncarevic-Vasiljkovic, Vladimir Avramovic, Vesna Tesic, Vesna Jevtovic-Todorovic, Selma Kanazir, Sabera Ruzdijic
Propofol is a general anesthetic commonly used in pediatric clinical practices. Experimental findings demonstrate that anesthetics induce widespread apoptosis and cognitive decline in a developing brain. Although anesthesia-mediated neurotoxicity is the most prominent during intense period of synaptogenesis, the effects of an early anesthesia exposure on the synapses are not well understood. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of neonatal propofol anesthesia on the expression of key proteins that participate in synaptogenesis and synaptic plasticity and to evaluate long-term neurobehavioral abnormalities in the mature adult brain...
April 24, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435465/hypertension-cerebrovascular-impairment-and-cognitive-decline-in-aged-a%C3%AE-pp-ps1-mice
#4
Maximilian Wiesmann, Valerio Zerbi, Diane Jansen, Dieter Lütjohann, Andor Veltien, Arend Heerschap, Amanda J Kiliaan
Cardiovascular risk factors, especially hypertension, are also major risk factors for Alzheimer's disease (AD). To elucidate the underlying vascular origin of neurodegenerative processes in AD, we investigated the relation between systolic blood pressure (SBP) cerebral blood flow (CBF) and vasoreactivity with brain structure and function in a 16-18 months old double transgenic AβPPswe/PS1dE9 (AβPP/PS1) mouse model for AD. These aging AβPP/PS1 mice showed an increased SBP linked to a declined regional CBF...
2017: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424010/olfactory-development-part-1-function-from-fetal-perception-to-adult-wine-tasting
#5
Harvey B Sarnat, Laura Flores-Sarnat, Xing-Chang Wei
Discrimination of odorous molecules in amniotic fluid occur after 30 weeks' gestation; fetuses exhibit differential responses to maternal diet. Olfactory reflexes enable reliable neonatal testing. Olfactory bulbs can be demonstrated reliably by MRI after 30 weeks' gestation, and their hypoplasia or aplasia also documented by late prenatal and postnatal MRI. Olfactory axons project from nasal epithelium to telencephalon before olfactory bulbs form. Fetal olfactory maturation remains incomplete at term for neuronal differentiation, synaptogenesis, myelination, and persistence of the transitory fetal ventricular recess...
May 2017: Journal of Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424008/olfactory-development-part-2-neuroanatomic-maturation-and-dysgeneses
#6
Harvey B Sarnat, Laura Flores-Sarnat
Olfactory axons project from nasal epithelium to the primitive telencephalon before olfactory bulbs form. Olfactory bulb neurons do not differentiate in situ but arrive via the rostral migratory stream. Synaptic glomeruli and concentric laminar architecture are unlike other cortices. Fetal olfactory maturation of neuronal differentiation, synaptogenesis, and myelination remains incomplete at term and have a protracted course of postnatal development. The olfactory ventricular recess involutes postnatally but dilates in congenital hydrocephalus...
May 2017: Journal of Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422706/adult-hippocampal-neurogenesis-an-important-target-associated-with-antidepressant-effects-of-exercise
#7
Lina Sun, Qingshan Sun, Jinshun Qi
Depression is a prevalent devastating mental disorder that affects the normal life of patients and brings a heavy burden to whole society. Although many efforts have been made to attenuate depressive/anxiety symptoms, the current clinic antidepressants have limited effects. Scientists have long been making attempts to find some new strategies that can be applied as the alternative antidepressant therapy. Exercise, a widely recognized healthy lifestyle, has been suggested as a therapy that can relieve psychiatric stress...
April 19, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403821/defining-the-transcriptomic-landscape-of-the-developing-enteric-nervous-system-and-its-cellular-environment
#8
Sweta Roy-Carson, Kevin Natukunda, Hsien-Chao Chou, Narinder Pal, Caitlin Farris, Stephan Q Schneider, Julie A Kuhlman
BACKGROUND: Motility and the coordination of moving food through the gastrointestinal tract rely on a complex network of neurons known as the enteric nervous system (ENS). Despite its critical function, many of the molecular mechanisms that direct the development of the ENS and the elaboration of neural network connections remain unknown. The goal of this study was to transcriptionally identify molecular pathways and candidate genes that drive specification, differentiation and the neural circuitry of specific neural progenitors, the phox2b expressing ENS cell lineage, during normal enteric nervous system development...
April 12, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381833/genetic-and-activity-dependent-mechanisms-underlying-interneuron-diversity
#9
REVIEW
Brie Wamsley, Gord Fishell
The proper construction of neural circuits requires the generation of diverse cell types, their distribution to defined regions, and their specific and appropriate wiring. A major objective in neurobiology has been to understand the molecular determinants that link neural birth to terminal specification and functional connectivity, a task that is especially daunting in the case of cortical interneurons. Considerable evidence supports the idea that an interplay of intrinsic and environmental signalling is crucial to the sequential steps of interneuron specification, including migration, selection of a settling position, morphogenesis and synaptogenesis...
May 2017: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380075/repeated-brief-isoflurane-anesthesia-during-early-postnatal-development-produces-negligible-changes-on-adult-behavior-in-male-mice
#10
Marko Rosenholm, Emmi Paro, Hanna Antila, Vootele Võikar, Tomi Rantamäki
Brain development is a complex process regulated by genetic programs and activity-dependent neuronal connectivity. Anesthetics profoundly alter neuronal excitability, and anesthesia during early brain development has been consistently associated with neuroapoptosis, altered synaptogenesis, and persistent behavioral abnormalities in experimental animals. However, the depth, and even more the duration and developmental time point(s) of exposure to anesthesia determine the neuropathological and long-term behavioral consequences of anesthetics...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348137/early-golgi-abnormalities-and-neurodegeneration-upon-loss-of-presynaptic-proteins-munc18-1-syntaxin-1-or-snap-25
#11
Tatiana C Santos, Keimpe Wierda, Jurjen H Broeke, Ruud F Toonen, Matthijs Verhage
The loss of presynaptic proteins Munc18-1, syntaxin-1 or SNAP-25 is known to produce cell death, but the underlying features have not been compared experimentally. Here, we investigated these features in cultured mouse CNS and dorsal root ganglion neurons. Side-by-side comparisons confirmed massive cell death, before synaptogenesis, within 1-4 days in vitro (DIV) upon loss of t-SNAREs (syntaxin-1, SNAP-25) or Munc18-1, but not v-SNAREs (synaptobrevins/VAMP1/2/3 using Tetanus Neurotoxin (TeNT), also in TI-VAMP/VAMP7 knock-out (KO) neurons)...
March 27, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341478/importance-of-major-histocompatibility-complex-of-class-i-mhc-i-expression-for-astroglial-reactivity-and-stability-of-neural-circuits-in-vitro
#12
André Luis Bombeiro, Rafaela Chitarra Rodrigues Hell, Gustavo Ferreira Simões, Mateus Vidigal de Castro, Alexandre Leite Rodrigues de Oliveira
MHC-I molecules are involved in the antigenic presentation of cytosol-derived peptides to CD8T lymphocytes. In the nervous system, MHC-I expression is low to absent, occurring only during certain phases of development and aging or after injuries. The involvement of MHC-I in synaptic plasticity has been reported and, following lesion, astrocytes become reactive, limiting tissue damage. Such cells also attempt to restore homeostasis by secreting cytokines and neurotrophic factors. Moreover, astrocytes modulate synapse function, by taking up and releasing neurotransmitters and by limiting the synaptic cleft...
March 21, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337771/5-ht7-receptor-shapes-spinogenesis-in-cortical-and-striatal-neurons-an-editorial-highlight-for-serotonin-5-ht7-receptor-increases-the-density-of-dendritic-spines-and-facilitates-synaptogenesis-in-forebrain-neurons
#13
EDITORIAL
Philippe Marin, Alexander Dityatev
Read the highlighted article 'Serotonin 5-HT7 receptor increases the density of dendritic spines and facilitates synaptogenesis in forebrain neurons' on doi: 10.1111/jnc.13962.
March 24, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323038/monocular-denervation-of-visual-nuclei-modulates-app-processing-and-sapp%C3%AE-production-a-possible-role-on-neural-plasticity
#14
Juliana Ferreira Vasques, Pedro Vinícius Bastos Heringer, Renata Guedes de Jesus Gonçalves, Paula Campello-Costa, Claudio Alberto Serfaty, Adriana da Cunha Faria-Melibeu
Amyloid precursor protein (APP) is essential to physiological processes such as synapse formation and neural plasticity. Sequential proteolysis of APP by beta- and gamma-secretases generates amyloid-beta peptide (Aβ), the main component of senile plaques in Alzheimer Disease. Alternative APP cleavage by alpha-secretase occurs within Aβ domain, releasing soluble α-APP (sAPPα), a neurotrophic fragment. Among other functions, sAPPα is important to synaptogenesis, neural survival and axonal growth. APP and sAPPα levels are increased in models of neuroplasticity, which suggests an important role for APP and its metabolites, especially sAPPα, in the rearranging brain...
March 18, 2017: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322827/structural-divergence-of-essential-triad-ribbon-synapse-proteins-among-placental-mammals-implications-for-preclinical-trials-in-photoreceptor-transplantation-therapy
#15
Christopher R J Laver, Joanne A Matsubara
As photoreceptor transplantation rapidly moves closer to the clinic, verifying graft efficacy in animal models may have unforeseen xenogeneic barriers. Although photoreceptor transplants have most convincingly exhibited functional synaptogenesis in conspecific studies, such evidence (while ruling out false-positives due to: viral graft labeling, fusion/cytosolic transfer, or neuroprotection) has not yet been shown for discordant xenografts. From this, a fundamental question should be raised: is useful xenosynaptogenesis likely between human photoreceptors and mouse retina? The triad ribbon synapse (TRS) that would normally form is unique and contains trans-synaptic proteins essential to its formation and function...
March 18, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320272/neurotrophic-factors-bdnf-and-gdnf-and-the-serotonergic-system-of-the-brain
#16
REVIEW
N K Popova, T V Ilchibaeva, V S Naumenko
Neurotrophic factors play a key role in development, differentiation, synaptogenesis, and survival of neurons in the brain as well as in the process of their adaptation to external influences. The serotonergic (5-HT) system is another major factor in the development and neuroplasticity of the brain. In the present review, the results of our own research as well as data provided in the corresponding literature on the interaction of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) with the 5-HT-system of the brain are considered...
March 2017: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316878/report-on-the-national-eye-institute-audacious-goals-initiative-replacement-of-retinal-ganglion-cells-from-endogenous-cell-sources
#17
Monica L Vetter, Peter F Hitchcock
This report emerges from a workshop convened by the National Eye Institute (NEI) as part of the "Audacious Goals Initiative" (AGI). The workshop addressed the replacement of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) from exogenous and endogenous sources, and sought to identify the gaps in our knowledge and barriers to progress in devising cellular replacement therapies for diseases where RGCs die. Here, we briefly review relevant literature regarding common diseases associated with RGC death, the genesis of RGCs in vivo, strategies for generating transplantable RGCs in vitro, and potential endogenous cellular sources to regenerate these cells...
March 2017: Translational Vision Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315884/complementary-feeding-micronutrients-and-developmental-outcomes-of-children
#18
Jacqueline F Gould
The period of complementary feeding (6-24 months of age) can be a challenging and vulnerable time for infant nutrition due to disproportionately high requirements for metabolic processes, rapid developmental processes, and limited gastric capacity. This is a period of crucial brain development where high caloric intake is necessary to allow synaptogenesis (creation of channels between neurons for communication), and maintenance of established synapses, myelination (laying the myelin sheath around neuronal axons) and everyday psychological functioning...
2017: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301408/k-cl-cotransporter-2-mediated-cl-extrusion-determines-developmental-stage-dependent-impact-of-propofol-anesthesia-on-dendritic-spines
#19
Martin Puskarjov, Hubert Fiumelli, Adrian Briner, Timea Bodogan, Kornel Demeter, Claudia-Marvine Lacoh, Martina Mavrovic, Peter Blaesse, Kai Kaila, Laszlo Vutskits
BACKGROUND: General anesthetics potentiating γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-mediated signaling are known to induce a persistent decrement in excitatory synapse number in the cerebral cortex when applied during early postnatal development, while an opposite action is produced at later stages. Here, the authors test the hypothesis that the effect of general anesthetics on synaptogenesis depends upon the efficacy of GABA receptor type A (GABAA)-mediated inhibition controlled by the developmental up-regulation of the potassium-chloride (K-Cl) cotransporter 2 (KCC2)...
May 2017: Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300657/expression-patterns-of-prune2-is-regulated-by-notch-and-retinoic-acid-signaling-pathways-in-the-zebrafish-embryogenesis
#20
Mrudhula Anuppalle, Sateesh Maddirevula, Ajeet Kumar, Tae-Lin Huh, Joonho Choe, Myungchull Rhee
PRUNE2 has been identified as a susceptible gene for Alzheimer's disease and a marker for leiomyosarcomas. Isoforms of Prune2 regulate neuronal cell differentiation and synaptogenesis. Although expression pattern of Prune2 has been reported in the murine brain, its expression patterns and regulation along vertebrate embryogenesis remain to be further investigated. We thus defined the expression profiles and transcriptional regulation of prune2 in zebrafish embryos. prune2 exhibits maternal expression, but is increased in later embryonic stages, and expressed in the telencephalon, epiphysis cluster, nucleus of the tract of the post optic commissure, spinal cord, cerebellum, tegmentum, anterior lateral line ganglion, posterior lateral line ganglion and rhombomeres 2 through 5...
January 2017: Gene Expression Patterns: GEP
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