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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451203/a-growing-field-the-regulation-of-axonal-regeneration-by-wnt-signaling
#1
REVIEW
Armando L Garcia, Adanna Udeh, Karthik Kalahasty, Abigail S Hackam
The canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway is a highly conserved signaling cascade that plays critical roles during embryogenesis. Wnt ligands regulate axonal extension, growth cone guidance and synaptogenesis throughout the developing central nervous system (CNS). Recently, studies in mammalian and fish model systems have demonstrated that Wnt/β-catenin signaling also promotes axonal regeneration in the adult optic nerve and spinal cord after injury, raising the possibility that Wnt could be developed as a therapeutic strategy...
January 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431645/subretinal-human-umbilical-tissue-derived-cell-transplantation-preserves-retinal-synaptic-connectivity-and-attenuates-m%C3%A3-ller-glial-reactivity
#2
Sehwon Koh, William J Chen, Nadine S Dejneka, Ian R Harris, Bin Lu, Sergey Girman, Joshua Saylor, Shaomei Wang, Cagla Eroglu
Human umbilical tissue-derived cells (hUTC or palucorcel) are currently under clinical investigation for the treatment of geographic atrophy, a late stage of macular degeneration, but how hUTC transplantation mediates vision recovery is not fully elucidated. Subretinal administration of hUTC preserves visual function in the Royal College of Surgeons (RCS) rat, a genetic model of retinal degeneration caused by Mertk loss-of-function. hUTC secrete synaptogenic and neurotrophic factors that improve the health and connectivity of the neural retina...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428530/rotenone-exerts-developmental-neurotoxicity-in-a-human-brain-spheroid-model
#3
David Pamies, Katharina Block, Pierre Lau, Laura Gribaldo, Carlos Pardo, Paula Barreras, Lena Smirnova, Daphne Wiersma, Liang Zhao, Georgina Harris, Thomas Hartung, Helena T Hogberg
Growing concern suggests that some chemicals exert (developmental) neurotoxicity (DNT and NT) and are linked to the increase in incidence of autism, attention deficit and hyperactivity disorders. The high cost of routine tests for DNT and neurotoxicity (NT) assessment make it difficult to test the high numbers of existing chemicals. Thus, more cost effective neurodevelopmental models are needed. The use of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) in combination with the emerging human 3D tissue culture platforms, present a novel tool to predicting and study human toxicity...
February 8, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29409855/pdgf-pdgfr-axis-in-the-neural-systems
#4
REVIEW
Susmita Sil, Palsamy Periyasamy, Annadurai Thangaraj, Ernest T Chivero, Shilpa Buch
Platelet-derived growth factors (PDGFs) and their receptors (PDGFRs) are expressed in several cells types including the brain cells such as neuronal progenitors, neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes. Emerging evidence shows that PDGF-mediated signaling regulates diverse functions in the central nervous system (CNS) such as neurogenesis, cell survival, synaptogenesis, modulation of ligand-gated ion channels, and development of specific types of neurons. Interestingly, PDGF/PDFGR signaling can elicit paradoxical roles in the CNS, depending on the cell type and the activation stimuli and is implicated in the pathogenesis of various neurodegenerative diseases...
January 31, 2018: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29404643/baicalin-reverses-the-impairment-of-synaptogenesis-induced-by-dopamine-burden-via-the-stimulation-of-gabaar-trkb-interaction-in-minimal-hepatic-encephalopathy
#5
Saidan Ding, Weishan Zhuge, Jiangnan Hu, Jianjing Yang, Xuebao Wang, Fangfang Wen, Chengde Wang, Qichuan Zhuge
BACKGROUND: It has been reported that D1 receptor (D1R) activation reduces GABAA receptor (GABAAR) current, and baicalin (BAI) displays therapeutic efficacy in diseases involving cognitive impairment. METHODS: We investigated the mechanisms by which BAI could improve DA-induced minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) using immunoblotting, immunofluorescence, and co-immunoprecipitation. RESULTS: BAI did not induce toxicity on the primary cultured neurons...
February 6, 2018: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29401485/rbfox3-neun-is-dispensable-for-visual-function
#6
Yi-Sian Lin, Kuan-Ting Kuo, Shih-Kuo Chen, Hsien-Sung Huang
RBFOX3/NeuN is a neuronal splicing regulator involved in neural circuitry balance, as well as neurogenesis and synaptogenesis. Rbfox3 is expressed in neurons; however, in the retina, expression is restricted to cells in the ganglion cell layer and some cells of the inner nuclear layer. Rbfox3 is expressed in a layer-specific manner in the retina, which implies a functional role, however, the role of RBFOX3 in the retina is unknown. Rbfox3 homozygous knockout (Rbfox3-/-) mice exhibit deficits in visual learning; therefore, understanding the role of RBFOX3 in the retina is critical for interpreting behavioral results...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29357818/the-association-between-bdnf-val66met-polymorphism-and-emotional-symptoms-after-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#7
Yu-Jia Wang, Kai-Yun Chen, Li-Na Kuo, Wen-Chang Wang, Yu-Wen Hsu, Henry Sung-Ching Wong, Chien-Min Lin, Kuo-Hsing Liao, Yan-Feng Zhang, Yung-Hsiao Chiang, Wei-Chiao Chang
BACKGROUND: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is one of the most abundant neurotrophins in the adult brain, and it plays important roles in modulating synaptic plasticity and synaptogenesis. This study attempted to elucidate the role of the BDNF variant rs6265 in emotional symptoms following mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). METHODS: To investigate the association between BDNF Val66Met polymorphism (rs6265) and emotional symptoms in mTBI patients, we recruited 192 mTBI patients and evaluated their Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) scores in the first and sixth week after mTBI...
January 22, 2018: BMC Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356691/the-epileptic-encephalopathy-jungle-from-dr-west-to-the-concepts-of-aetiology-related-and-developmental-encephalopathies
#8
Judith Kalser, Judith H Cross
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We aim to further disentangle the jungle of terminology of epileptic encephalopathy and provide some insights into the current understanding about the aetiology and pathophysiology of this process. We cover also the key features of epilepsy syndromes of infancy and childhood which are considered at high risk of developing an epileptic encephalopathy. RECENT FINDINGS: The concept of 'epileptic encephalopathy' has progressively been elaborated by the International League Against Epilepsy according to growing clinical and laboratory evidence...
January 19, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352468/developmental-plasticity-of-gabaergic-neurotransmission-to-brainstem-motoneurons
#9
Lila Buls Wollman, Richard B Levine, Ralph F Fregosi
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) signalling regulates neuronal differentiation and synaptogenesis. Here we test the hypothesis that developmental nicotine exposure (DNE) disrupts the development of GABAergic synaptic transmission to hypoglossal motoneurons (XIIMNs). GABAergic spontaneous and miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents (sIPSC/mIPSC) were recorded from XIIMNs in brainstem slices from control and DNE rat pups of either sex, 1-5 days old, at baseline and following acute stimulation of nAChRs with nicotine...
January 20, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349289/mixed-neurodevelopmental-and-neurodegenerative-pathology-in-nhe6-null-mouse-model-of-christianson-syndrome
#10
Meiyu Xu, Qing Ouyang, Jingyi Gong, Matthew F Pescosolido, Brandon S Pruett, Sasmita Mishra, Michael Schmidt, Richard N Jones, Ece D Gamsiz Uzun, Sofia B Lizarraga, Eric M Morrow
Christianson syndrome (CS) is an X-linked disorder resulting from loss-of-function mutations in SLC9A6, which encodes the endosomal Na+/H+ exchanger 6 (NHE6). Symptoms include early developmental delay, seizures, intellectual disability, nonverbal status, autistic features, postnatal microcephaly, and progressive ataxia. Neuronal development is impaired in CS, involving defects in neuronal arborization and synaptogenesis, likely underlying diminished brain growth postnatally. In addition to neurodevelopmental defects, some reports have supported neurodegenerative pathology in CS with age...
November 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343640/single-cell-transcriptomics-of-the-developing-lateral-geniculate-nucleus-reveals-insights-into-circuit-assembly-and-refinement
#11
Brian T Kalish, Lucas Cheadle, Sinisa Hrvatin, M Aurel Nagy, Samuel Rivera, Megan Crow, Jesse Gillis, Rory Kirchner, Michael E Greenberg
Coordinated changes in gene expression underlie the early patterning and cell-type specification of the central nervous system. However, much less is known about how such changes contribute to later stages of circuit assembly and refinement. In this study, we employ single-cell RNA sequencing to develop a detailed, whole-transcriptome resource of gene expression across four time points in the developing dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN), a visual structure in the brain that undergoes a well-characterized program of postnatal circuit development...
January 17, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338087/thrombospondin-4-acts-on-pre-synaptic-calcium-channel-alpha-2-delta-1-subunit-to-induce-synaptogenesis-between-sensory-and-spinal-cord-neurons-through-a-t-type-calcium-channel-dependent-pathway-that-is-blocked-by-early-low-dose-gabapentin-treatments
#12
Yanhui Peter Yu, Nian Gong, Tae Dong Kweon, Benjamin Vo, Z David Luo
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Nerve injury induces concurrent upregulation of calcium channel alpha-2-delta-1 subunit (Cav α2 δ1 ) and extracellular matrix protein thrombospondin-4 (TSP4) in dorsal root ganglia and dorsal spinal cord, leading to neuropathic pain state development. Interactions of these proteins promote aberrant excitatory synaptogenesis that contributes to neuropathic pain state development through unknown mechanisms. We investigated the contributory role of Cav α2 δ1 /TSP4 to synaptogenesis, and pathway involved in vitro, and whether gabapentin could block this process and pain development in vivo...
January 16, 2018: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337302/critical-roles-of-%C3%AE-ii-spectrin-in-brain-development-and-epileptic-encephalopathy
#13
Yu Wang, Tuo Ji, Andrew D Nelson, Katarzyna Glanowska, Geoffrey G Murphy, Paul M Jenkins, Jack M Parent
The nonerythrocytic α-spectrin-1 (SPTAN1) gene encodes the cytoskeletal protein αII spectrin. Mutations in SPTAN1 cause early infantile epileptic encephalopathy type 5 (EIEE5); however, the role of αII spectrin in neurodevelopment and EIEE5 pathogenesis is unknown. Prior work suggests that αII spectrin is absent in the axon initial segment (AIS) and contributes to a diffusion barrier in the distal axon. Here, we have shown that αII spectrin is expressed ubiquitously in rodent and human somatodendritic and axonal domains...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330744/c-fos-downregulation-positively-regulates-epha5-expression-in-a-congenital-hypothyroidism-rat-model
#14
Honghua Song, Yuqin Zheng, Fuying Cai, Yanyan Ma, Jingyue Yang, Youjia Wu
The EphA5 receptor is well established as an axon guidance molecule during neural system development and plays an important role in dendritic spine formation and synaptogenesis. Our previous study has showed that EphA5 is decreased in the developing brain of congenital hypothyroidism (CH) and the EphA5 promoter methylation modification participates in its decrease. c-Fos, a well-kown transcription factor, has been considered in association with brain development. Bioinformatics analysis showed that the EphA5 promoter region contained five putative c-fos binding sites...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Molecular Histology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327206/brain-photobiomodulation-therapy-a-narrative-review
#15
REVIEW
Farzad Salehpour, Javad Mahmoudi, Farzin Kamari, Saeed Sadigh-Eteghad, Seyed Hossein Rasta, Michael R Hamblin
Brain photobiomodulation (PBM) therapy using red to near-infrared (NIR) light is an innovative treatment for a wide range of neurological and psychological conditions. Red/NIR light is able to stimulate complex IV of the mitochondrial respiratory chain (cytochrome c oxidase) and increase ATP synthesis. Moreover, light absorption by ion channels results in release of Ca2+ and leads to activation of transcription factors and gene expression. Brain PBM therapy enhances the metabolic capacity of neurons and stimulates anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, and antioxidant responses, as well as neurogenesis and synaptogenesis...
January 11, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321712/sensorimotor-integration-during-motor-learning-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-studies
#16
REVIEW
Zeliha Matur, A Emre Öge
The effect of sensory signals coming from skin and muscle afferents on the sensorimotor cortical networks is entitled as sensory-motor integration (SMI). SMI can be studied electrophysiologically by the motor cortex excitability changes in response to peripheral sensory stimulation. These changes include the periods of short afferent inhibition (SAI), afferent facilitation (AF), and late afferent inhibition (LAI). During the early period of motor skill acquisition, motor cortex excitability increases and changes occur in the area covered by the relevant zone of the motor cortex...
December 2017: Noro Psikiyatri Arsivi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305910/the-development-of-brain-white-matter-microstructure
#17
Catherine Lebel, Sean Deoni
Throughout infancy, childhood, and adolescence, our brains undergo remarkable changes. Processes including myelination and synaptogenesis occur rapidly across the first 2-3 years of life, and ongoing brain remodeling continues into young adulthood. Studies have sought to characterize the patterns of structural brain development, and early studies predominately relied upon gross anatomical measures of brain structure, morphology, and organization. MRI offers the ability to characterize and quantify a range of microstructural aspects of brain tissue that may be more closely related to fundamental neurodevelopmental processes...
January 3, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305536/pou6f1-mediates-neuropeptide-dependent-plasticity-in-the-adult-brain
#18
Cynthia K McClard, Mikhail Y Kochukov, Isabella Herman, Zhandong Liu, Aiden Eblimit, Yalda Moayedi, Joshua Ortiz-Guzman, Daniel Colchado, Brandon Pekarek, Sugi Paneerselvam, Graeme Mardon, Benjamin R Arenkiel
The mouse olfactory bulb (OB) features continued, activity-dependent integration of adult-born neurons, providing a robust model to examine mechanisms of plasticity in the adult brain. We previously reported that local OB interneurons secrete the neuropeptide corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) in an activity-dependent manner onto adult-born granule neurons, and that local CRH signaling promotes expression of synaptic machinery in the bulb. This effect is mediated via activation of the CRH receptor 1 (CRHR1), which is developmentally regulated during adult-born neuron maturation...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305120/brain-docosahexaenoic-acid-uptake-and-metabolism
#19
REVIEW
R J Scott Lacombe, Raphaël Chouinard-Watkins, Richard P Bazinet
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is the most abundant n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid in the brain where it serves to regulate several important processes and, in addition, serves as a precursor to bioactive mediators. Given that the capacity of the brain to synthesize DHA locally is appreciably low, the uptake of DHA from circulating lipid pools is essential to maintaining homeostatic levels. Although, several plasma pools have been proposed to supply the brain with DHA, recent evidence suggests non-esterified-DHA and lysophosphatidylcholine-DHA are the primary sources...
January 2, 2018: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302837/up-regulated-pro-inflammatory-micrornas-mirnas-in-alzheimer-s-disease-ad-and-age-related-macular-degeneration-amd
#20
Aileen I Pogue, Walter J Lukiw
Alzheimer's disease (AD) of the brain neocortex and age-related macular degeneration (AMD) of the retina are two complex neurodegenerative disorders, which (i) involve the progressive dysregulation and deterioration of multiple neurobiological signaling pathways, (ii) exhibit the temporal accumulation of pro-inflammatory lesions including the amyloid beta (Aβ) peptide-containing senile plaques of AD and the drusen of AMD, and (iii) culminate in an insidious inflammatory neurodegeneration ending, respectively, in neural cell atrophy and death and progressive loss of cognition and central visual function...
January 4, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
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