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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526279/an-emerging-role-for-mitochondrial-dynamics-in-schizophrenia
#1
REVIEW
Kyle H Flippo, Stefan Strack
Abnormal brain development has long been thought to contribute to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Impaired dendritic arborization, synaptogenesis, and long term potentiation and memory have been demonstrated in animal models of schizophrenia. In addition to aberrant nervous system development, altered brain metabolism and mitochondrial function has long been observed in schizophrenic patients. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the mitochondrial genome as well as impaired mitochondrial function have both been associated with increased risk for developing schizophrenia...
May 16, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522608/altered-learning-memory-and-social-behavior-in-type-1-taste-receptor-subunit-3-knockout-mice-is-associated-with-neuronal-dysfunction
#2
Bronwen Martin, Rui Wang, Wei-Na Cong, Caitlin M Daimon, Wells W Wu, Bin Ni, Kevin G Becker, Elin Lehrmann, William H Wood, Yongqing Zhang, Harmonie Etienne, Jaana van Gastel, Abdelkrim Azmi, Jonathan Janssens, Stuart Maudsley
The type 1 taste receptor member 3 (T1R3) is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) involved in sweet taste perception. Besides the tongue, the T1R3 receptor is highly expressed in brain areas implicated in cognition, including the hippocampus and cortex. As cognitive decline is often preceded by significant metabolic or endocrinological dysfunctions, regulated by the sweet taste perception system, we hypothesized that a disruption of the sweet taste perception in the brain could have a key role in the development of cognitive dysfunction...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522222/neurochemical-correlates-of-functional-plasticity-in-the-mature-cortex-of-the-brain-of-rodents
#3
REVIEW
Ewa Siucinska
It is commonly accepted that increase of input to sensory structures in mammals is known to produce marked changes in cortical recipient areas. This paper reviews the data concerning manifestations of changes in primary somatosensory cortex of adult animals caused by classical conditioning with reinforcement: aversive (whisker-shock) and appetitive (whisker-water) trainings. These include: anatomical, electrophysiological responses, receptor autoradiography, expression of GABA, GAD at mRNA and protein levels, expression of neuronal and astroglial GAT-1 puncta and inhibitory synaptogenesis in the hollows of "trained" barrels of the adult mouse...
May 15, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513774/hippocampal-overexpression-of-down-syndrome-cell-adhesion-molecule-in-amyloid-precursor-protein-transgenic-mice
#4
Y L Jia, Z X Fu, B H Zhang, Y J Jia
Down syndrome cell adhesion molecule (DSCAM) is located within the Down syndrome critical region of chromosome 21. DSCAM is a broadly expressed neurodevelopmental protein involved in synaptogenesis, neurite outgrowth, and axon guidance. We previously demonstrated DSCAM overexpression in the cortex of amyloid precursor protein (APP) transgenic mice, suggesting possible regulatory interactions between APP and DSCAM. APP mice exhibit deficits in hippocampus-dependent learning and memory. In this preliminary study, we examined age-related changes in DSCAM expression within the hippocampus in 16 APP transgenic mice (1, 3, 6 and 12 months old)...
May 15, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508316/trpc-channels-and-neuron-development-plasticity-and-activities
#5
Yilin Tai, Yichang Jia
In this chapter, we mainly focus on the functions of TRPC channels in brain development, including neural progenitor proliferation, neurogenesis, neuron survival, axon guidance, dendritic morphology, synaptogenesis, and neural plasticity. We also notice emerging advances in understanding the functions of TRPC channels in periphery, especially their functions in sensation and nociception in dorsal root ganglion (DRG). Because TRPC channels are expressed in all major types of glial cells, which account for at least half of total cells in the brain, TRPC channels may act as modulators for glial functions as well...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503368/running-wheel-training-does-not-change-neurogenesis-levels-or-alter-working-memory-tasks-in-adult-rats
#6
Cesar A Acevedo-Triana, Manuel J Rojas, Fernando Cardenas P
BACKGROUND: Exercise can change cellular structure and connectivity (neurogenesis or synaptogenesis), causing alterations in both behavior and working memory. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of exercise on working memory and hippocampal neurogenesis in adult male Wistar rats using a T-maze test. METHODS: An experimental design with two groups was developed: the experimental group (n = 12) was subject to a forced exercise program for five days, whereas the control group (n = 9) stayed in the home cage...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496398/growth-of-thalamocortical-fibers-to-the-somatosensory-cortex-in-the-human-fetal-brain
#7
Željka Krsnik, Visnja Majić, Lana Vasung, Hao Huang, Ivica Kostović
Thalamocortical (TH-C) fiber growth begins during the embryonic period and is completed by the third trimester of gestation in humans. Here we determined the timing and trajectories of somatosensory TH-C fibers in the developing human brain. We analyzed the periods of TH-C fiber outgrowth, path-finding, "waiting" in the subplate (SP), target selection, and ingrowth in the cortical plate (CP) using histological sections from post-mortem fetal brain [from 7 to 34 postconceptional weeks (PCW)] that were processed with acetylcholinesterase (AChE) histochemistry and immunohistochemical methods...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473760/persistent-effects-of-developmental-exposure-to-17%C3%AE-ethinylestradiol-on-the-zebrafish-danio-rerio-brain-transcriptome-and-behavior
#8
Tove Porseryd, Kristina Volkova, Nasim Reyhanian Caspillo, Thomas Källman, Patrik Dinnetz, Inger Porsh Hällström
The synthetic estrogen 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) is an endocrine disrupting compound of concern due to its persistence and widespread presence in the aquatic environment. Effects of developmental exposure to low concentrations of EE2 in fish on reproduction and behavior not only persisted to adulthood, but have also been observed to be transmitted to several generations of unexposed progeny. To investigate the possible biological mechanisms of the persistent anxiogenic phenotype, we exposed zebrafish embryos for 80 days post fertilization to 0, 3, and 10 ng/L EE2 (measured concentrations 2...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465430/molecular-codes-for-cell-type-specification-in-brn3-retinal-ganglion-cells
#9
Szilard Sajgo, Miruna Georgiana Ghinia, Matthew Brooks, Friedrich Kretschmer, Katherine Chuang, Suja Hiriyanna, Zhijian Wu, Octavian Popescu, Tudor Constantin Badea
Visual information is conveyed from the eye to the brain by distinct types of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). It is largely unknown how RGCs acquire their defining morphological and physiological features and connect to upstream and downstream synaptic partners. The three Brn3/Pou4f transcription factors (TFs) participate in a combinatorial code for RGC type specification, but their exact molecular roles are still unclear. We use deep sequencing to define (i) transcriptomes of Brn3a- and/or Brn3b-positive RGCs, (ii) Brn3a- and/or Brn3b-dependent RGC transcripts, and (iii) transcriptomes of retinorecipient areas of the brain at developmental stages relevant for axon guidance, dendrite formation, and synaptogenesis...
May 2, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459106/functional-assessment-of-the-nmda-receptor-variant-glun2a-r586k
#10
Katie F M Marwick, Peter Parker, Paul Skehel, Giles Hardingham, David J A Wyllie
Background: The N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) is an ionotropic glutamate receptor that has important roles in synaptogenesis, synaptic transmission, and synaptic plasticity. Recently, a large number of rare genetic variants have been found in NMDAR subunits in people with neurodevelopmental disorders, and also in healthy individuals. One such is the GluN2A(R586K) variant, found in a person with intellectual disability. Identifying the functional consequences, if any, of such variants allows their potential contribution to pathogenesis to be assessed...
March 17, 2017: Wellcome Open Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450540/aplp1-is-a-synaptic-cell-adhesion-molecule-supporting-maintenance-of-dendritic-spines-and-basal-synaptic-transmission
#11
Sandra Schilling, Annika Mehr, Susann Ludewig, Jonathan Stephan, Marius Zimmermann, Alexander August, Paul Strecker, Martin Korte, Edward H Koo, Ulrike Müller, Stefan Kins, Simone Eggert
The amyloid precursor protein (APP), a key player in Alzheimer's disease, belongs to the family of synaptic adhesion molecules (SAM's) due to its impact on synapse formation and synaptic plasticity. These functions are mediated by both, the secreted ectodomain (sAPP) that acts as a neurotrophic factor and full-length APP forming trans-cellular dimers. Two homologues of APP exist in mammals, the APP like proteins, APLP1 and APLP2, exhibiting partly overlapping functions to APP. Here we tested if APLP1 and APLP2 also show features of SAMs...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449070/in-situ-screening-for-postsynaptic-cell-adhesion-molecules-during-synapse-formation
#12
Takeshi Uemura, Tomoko Shiroshima, Asami Maeda, Misato Yasumura, Takashi Shimada, Yuko Fukata, Masaki Fukata, Tomoyuki Yoshida
Neuronal synapse formation is regulated by pre- and postsynaptic cell adhesion molecules. Presynaptic neurexins (NRXNs) and receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases (RPTPs; PTPδ, PTPσ, and LAR in mammals) can induce postsynaptic differentiation through the interaction with various postsynaptic cell adhesion molecules. Here, we developed a novel in situ screening method to identify postsynaptic membranous proteins involved in synaptogenesis. Magnetic beads coated with the extracellular domains of NRXN1β(-S4) and PTPδ-A6 variants preferentially induced excitatory postsynaptic differentiation on the beads' surface when co-cultured with cortical neurons...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444230/apoe-%C3%AE%C2%B54-%C3%AE%C2%B54-diminishes-neurotrophic-function-of-human-ipsc-derived-astrocytes
#13
Jing Zhao, Mary D Davis, Yuka Atagi, Mitsuru Shinohara, Neill R Graff-Radford, Steven G Younkin, Zbigniew K Wszolek, Takahisa Kanekiyo, Guojun Bu
The ε4 allele of the APOE gene encoding apolipoprotein E (apoE) is a strong genetic risk factor for aging-related cognitive decline as well as late-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD) compared to the common ε3 allele. In the central nervous system, apoE is produced primarily by astrocytes and functions in transporting lipids including cholesterol to support neuronal homeostasis and synaptic integrity. Although mouse models and corresponding primary cells have provided valuable tools for studying apoE isoform-dependent functions, recent studies have shown that human astrocytes have distinct gene expression profile compare with rodent astrocytes...
April 21, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435999/neonatal-propofol-anesthesia-changes-expression-of-synaptic-plasticity-proteins-and-increases-stereotypic-and-anxyolitic-behavior-in-adult-rats
#14
Desanka Milanovic, Vesna Pesic, Natasa Loncarevic-Vasiljkovic, Vladimir Avramovic, Vesna Tesic, Vesna Jevtovic-Todorovic, Selma Kanazir, Sabera Ruzdijic
Propofol is a general anesthetic commonly used in pediatric clinical practices. Experimental findings demonstrate that anesthetics induce widespread apoptosis and cognitive decline in a developing brain. Although anesthesia-mediated neurotoxicity is the most prominent during intense period of synaptogenesis, the effects of an early anesthesia exposure on the synapses are not well understood. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of neonatal propofol anesthesia on the expression of key proteins that participate in synaptogenesis and synaptic plasticity and to evaluate long-term neurobehavioral abnormalities in the mature adult brain...
April 24, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435465/hypertension-cerebrovascular-impairment-and-cognitive-decline-in-aged-a%C3%AE-pp-ps1-mice
#15
Maximilian Wiesmann, Valerio Zerbi, Diane Jansen, Dieter Lütjohann, Andor Veltien, Arend Heerschap, Amanda J Kiliaan
Cardiovascular risk factors, especially hypertension, are also major risk factors for Alzheimer's disease (AD). To elucidate the underlying vascular origin of neurodegenerative processes in AD, we investigated the relation between systolic blood pressure (SBP) cerebral blood flow (CBF) and vasoreactivity with brain structure and function in a 16-18 months old double transgenic AβPPswe/PS1dE9 (AβPP/PS1) mouse model for AD. These aging AβPP/PS1 mice showed an increased SBP linked to a declined regional CBF...
2017: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424010/olfactory-development-part-1-function-from-fetal-perception-to-adult-wine-tasting
#16
Harvey B Sarnat, Laura Flores-Sarnat, Xing-Chang Wei
Discrimination of odorous molecules in amniotic fluid occur after 30 weeks' gestation; fetuses exhibit differential responses to maternal diet. Olfactory reflexes enable reliable neonatal testing. Olfactory bulbs can be demonstrated reliably by MRI after 30 weeks' gestation, and their hypoplasia or aplasia also documented by late prenatal and postnatal MRI. Olfactory axons project from nasal epithelium to telencephalon before olfactory bulbs form. Fetal olfactory maturation remains incomplete at term for neuronal differentiation, synaptogenesis, myelination, and persistence of the transitory fetal ventricular recess...
May 2017: Journal of Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424008/olfactory-development-part-2-neuroanatomic-maturation-and-dysgeneses
#17
Harvey B Sarnat, Laura Flores-Sarnat
Olfactory axons project from nasal epithelium to the primitive telencephalon before olfactory bulbs form. Olfactory bulb neurons do not differentiate in situ but arrive via the rostral migratory stream. Synaptic glomeruli and concentric laminar architecture are unlike other cortices. Fetal olfactory maturation of neuronal differentiation, synaptogenesis, and myelination remains incomplete at term and have a protracted course of postnatal development. The olfactory ventricular recess involutes postnatally but dilates in congenital hydrocephalus...
May 2017: Journal of Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422706/adult-hippocampal-neurogenesis-an-important-target-associated-with-antidepressant-effects-of-exercise
#18
Lina Sun, Qingshan Sun, Jinshun Qi
Depression is a prevalent devastating mental disorder that affects the normal life of patients and brings a heavy burden to whole society. Although many efforts have been made to attenuate depressive/anxiety symptoms, the current clinic antidepressants have limited effects. Scientists have long been making attempts to find some new strategies that can be applied as the alternative antidepressant therapy. Exercise, a widely recognized healthy lifestyle, has been suggested as a therapy that can relieve psychiatric stress...
April 19, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403821/defining-the-transcriptomic-landscape-of-the-developing-enteric-nervous-system-and-its-cellular-environment
#19
Sweta Roy-Carson, Kevin Natukunda, Hsien-Chao Chou, Narinder Pal, Caitlin Farris, Stephan Q Schneider, Julie A Kuhlman
BACKGROUND: Motility and the coordination of moving food through the gastrointestinal tract rely on a complex network of neurons known as the enteric nervous system (ENS). Despite its critical function, many of the molecular mechanisms that direct the development of the ENS and the elaboration of neural network connections remain unknown. The goal of this study was to transcriptionally identify molecular pathways and candidate genes that drive specification, differentiation and the neural circuitry of specific neural progenitors, the phox2b expressing ENS cell lineage, during normal enteric nervous system development...
April 12, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381833/genetic-and-activity-dependent-mechanisms-underlying-interneuron-diversity
#20
REVIEW
Brie Wamsley, Gord Fishell
The proper construction of neural circuits requires the generation of diverse cell types, their distribution to defined regions, and their specific and appropriate wiring. A major objective in neurobiology has been to understand the molecular determinants that link neural birth to terminal specification and functional connectivity, a task that is especially daunting in the case of cortical interneurons. Considerable evidence supports the idea that an interplay of intrinsic and environmental signalling is crucial to the sequential steps of interneuron specification, including migration, selection of a settling position, morphogenesis and synaptogenesis...
May 2017: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
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