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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821665/molecular-and-functional-properties-of-regional-astrocytes-in-the-adult-brain
#1
Lydie Morel, Ming Sum R Chiang, Haruki Higashimori, Temitope Shoneye, Lakshmanan K Iyer, Julia Yelick, Albert Tai, Yongjie Yang
The molecular signature and functional properties of astroglial subtypes in the adult central nervous system (CNS) remain largely undefined. By employing translational ribosome affinity purification (TRAP) followed by RNA-seq, we profiled astroglial ribosome-associated (presumably translating) mRNAs in major cortical and subcortical brain regions (cortex, hippocampus, caudate putamen, nucleus accumbens, thalamus, and hypothalamus) of BAC aldh1l1-TRAP mice (both sexes). We found that the expression of astroglial translating mRNAs closely follows the dorsoventral axis especially from cortex/hippocampus to thalamus/hypothalamus posteriorly...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815295/loss-of-kirrel-family-members-alters-glomerular-structure-and-synapse-numbers-in-the-accessory-olfactory-bulb
#2
Alexandra C Brignall, Reesha Raja, Alina Phen, Janet E A Prince, Emilie Dumontier, Jean-François Cloutier
The accessory olfactory system controls social and sexual behaviours in mice, both of which are critical for their survival. Vomeronasal sensory neuron (VSN) axons form synapses with mitral cell dendrites in glomeruli of the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB). Axons of VSNs expressing the same vomeronasal receptor (VR) converge into multiple glomeruli within spatially conserved regions of the AOB. Here, we have examined the role of the cell adhesion molecule Kirrel2 in the formation of glomeruli within the AOB...
August 16, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809922/increased-signaling-by-the-autism-related-engrailed-2-protein-enhances-dendritic-branching-and-spine-density-alters-synaptic-structural-matching-and-exaggerates-protein-synthesis
#3
Asma Soltani, Solène Lebrun, Gilles Carpentier, Giulia Zunino, Sandrine Chantepie, Auriane Maïza, Yuri Bozzi, Claire Desnos, François Darchen, Olivier Stettler
Engrailed 1 (En1) and 2 (En2) code for closely related homeoproteins acting as transcription factors and as signaling molecules that contribute to midbrain and hindbrain patterning, to development and maintenance of monoaminergic pathways, and to retinotectal wiring. En2 has been suggested to be an autism susceptibility gene and individuals with autism display an overexpression of this homeogene but the mechanisms remain unclear. We addressed in the present study the effect of exogenously added En2 on the morphology of hippocampal cells that normally express only low levels of Engrailed proteins...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806446/sema3a-reduces-sprouting-of-adult-rod-photoreceptors-in-vitro
#4
Frank Kung, Weiwei Wang, Tracy S Tran, Ellen Townes-Anderson
Purpose: Rod photoreceptor terminals respond to retinal injury with retraction and sprouting. Since the guidance cue Semaphorin3A (Sema3A) is observed in the retina after injury, we asked whether Sema3A contributes to structural plasticity in rod photoreceptors. Methods: We used Western blots and alkaline phosphatase (AP)-tagged neuropilin-1 (NPN-1) to detect the expression of Sema3A in an organotypic model of porcine retinal detachment. We then examined Sema3A binding to cultured salamander rod photoreceptors using AP-tagged Sema3A...
August 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795356/drosophila-studies-on-autism-spectrum-disorders
#5
REVIEW
Yao Tian, Zi Chao Zhang, Junhai Han
In the past decade, numerous genes associated with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) have been identified. These genes encode key regulators of synaptogenesis, synaptic function, and synaptic plasticity. Drosophila is a prominent model system for ASD studies to define novel genes linked to ASDs and decipher their molecular roles in synaptogenesis, synaptic function, synaptic plasticity, and neural circuit assembly and consolidation. Here, we review Drosophila studies on ASD genes that regulate synaptogenesis, synaptic function, and synaptic plasticity through modulating chromatin remodeling, transcription, protein synthesis and degradation, cytoskeleton dynamics, and synaptic scaffolding...
August 9, 2017: Neuroscience Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790189/microrna-mediated-disruption-of-dendritogenesis-during-a-critical-period-of-development-influences-cognitive-capacity-later-in-life
#6
Quan Lin, Ravikumar Ponnusamy, Jocelyn Widagdo, Jung A Choi, Weihong Ge, Christine Probst, Tyler Buckley, Mimi Lou, Timothy W Bredy, Michael S Fanselow, Keqiang Ye, Yi E Sun
The prenatal period of cortical development is important for the establishment of neural circuitry and functional connectivity of the brain; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying this process remain unclear. Here we report that disruption of the actin-cytoskeletal network in the developing mouse prefrontal cortex alters dendritic morphogenesis and synapse formation, leading to enhanced formation of fear-related memory in adulthood. These effects are mediated by a brain-enriched microRNA, miR-9, through its negative regulation of diaphanous homologous protein 1 (Diap1), a key organizer of the actin cytoskeletal assembly...
August 8, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780733/brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-increases-synaptic-protein-levels-via-the-mapk-erk-signaling-pathway-and-nrf2-trx-axis-following-the-transplantation-of-neural-stem-cells-in-a-rat-model-of-traumatic-brain-injury
#7
Tao Chen, Yu Wu, Yuzi Wang, Jigao Zhu, Haiying Chu, Li Kong, Liangwei Yin, Haiying Ma
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays an important role in promoting the growth, differentiation, survival and synaptic stability of neurons. Presently, the transplantation of neural stem cells (NSCs) is known to induce neural repair to some extent after injury or disease. In this study, to investigate whether NSCs genetically modified to encode the BDNF gene (BDNF/NSCs) would further enhance synaptogenesis, BDNF/NSCs or naive NSCs were directly engrafted into lesions in a rat model of traumatic brain injury (TBI)...
August 5, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770114/human-app-gene-expression-alters-active-zone-distribution-and-spontaneous-neurotransmitter-release-at-the-drosophila-larval-neuromuscular-junction
#8
Ekaterina A Saburova, Alexander N Vasiliev, Violetta V Kravtsova, Elena V Ryabova, Andrey L Zefirov, Olga I Bolshakova, Svetlana V Sarantseva, Igor I Krivoi
This study provides further insight into the molecular mechanisms that control neurotransmitter release. Experiments were performed on larval neuromuscular junctions of transgenic Drosophila melanogaster lines with different levels of human amyloid precursor protein (APP) production. To express human genes in motor neurons of Drosophila, the UAS-GAL4 system was used. Human APP gene expression increased the number of synaptic boutons per neuromuscular junction. The total number of active zones, detected by Bruchpilot protein puncta distribution, remained unchanged; however, the average number of active zones per bouton decreased...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764913/microrna-124-targets-glucocorticoid-receptor-and-is-involved-in-depression-like-behaviors
#9
Shuang-Shuang Wang, Rong-Hao Mu, Cheng-Fu Li, Shu-Qi Dong, Di Geng, Qing Liu, Li-Tao Yi
Dysregulation of microRNA (miRNA) has been shown to be involved in early observations of depression. MicroRNA-124-3p (miR-124) is the most abundant microRNA in the brain. Previous studies have shown that miR-124 plays a major role in depression. Here we showed that miR-124 directly targeted glucocorticoid receptor (GR) in HEK 293 cells. In addition, inhibition of miR-124 by its antagomir (2nmol/every two days) could reverse the decrease of sucrose preference and the increase of immobility time in mice exposed to chronic corticosterone (CORT, 40mg/kg) injection...
July 29, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751069/activity-dependent-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-release-is-required-for-the-rapid-antidepressant-actions-of-scopolamine
#10
Sriparna Ghosal, Eunyoung Bang, Wenzhu Yue, Brendan D Hare, Ashley E Lepack, Matthew J Girgenti, Ronald S Duman
BACKGROUND: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a key role in the pathophysiology and treatment of depression. Recent clinical studies demonstrate that scopolamine, a nonselective muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist, produces rapid antidepressant effects in patients with depression. Rodent studies demonstrate that scopolamine increases glutamate transmission and synaptogenesis in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Here we tested the hypothesis that activity-dependent BDNF release within the mPFC is necessary for the antidepressant actions of scopolamine...
June 23, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738393/estrogen-and-environmental-enrichment-differentially-affect-neurogenesis-dendritic-spine-immunolabeling-and-synaptogenesis-in-the-hippocampus-of-young-and-reproductively-senescent-female-rats
#11
Tina Sager, Michael Kashon, Kristine Krajnak
<br>Background: Studies examining the ability of estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) to enhance memory in women, and in animal models, have not produced consistent results. However, studies examining the effects of activity and exposure to novel environments consistently find enhancement of memory. METHODS: An animal model of reproductive aging was used to determine if estradiol (E2) replacement, activity, and/or exposure to an enriched environment could act synergistically to improve memory, and neural correlates of memory...
July 24, 2017: Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737698/platycodon-grandiflorus-root-extract-improves-learning-and-memory-by-enhancing-synaptogenesis-in-mice-hippocampus
#12
Jin-Il Kim, Seong Gak Jeon, Kyoung Ah Kim, Jwa-Jin Kim, Eun Ji Song, Yukyoung Jeon, Eunbin Kim, Kyung Bok Lee, Jong Hwan Kwak, Minho Moon
Platycodon grandiflorus (Jacq.) A.DC. (PG) has long been used as an ingredient of foods and is known to have beneficial effects on cognitive functions as well. The present study examined the effect of each PG extract (PGE) from root, aerial part, and seeds on cognitive functions in mice. Changes in spatial learning and memory using a Y-maze test, and markers of adult hippocampal neurogenesis and synaptogenesis were examined. Moreover, changes in neuritogenesis and activation of the ERK1/2 pathway were investigated...
July 23, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736980/diverse-roles-for-glycosaminoglycans-in-neural-patterning
#13
REVIEW
Kristian Saied-Santiago, Hannes E Bülow
The nervous system coordinates the functions of most multicellular organisms and, their response to the surrounding environment. Its development involves concerted cellular interactions, including migration, axon guidance and synapse formation. These processes depend on the molecular constituents and structure of the extracellular matrices (ECM). An essential component of ECMs are proteoglycans, i.e. proteins containing unbranched glycan chains known as glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). A defining characteristic of GAGs is their enormous molecular diversity, created by extensive modifications of the glycans during their biosynthesis...
July 24, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735747/a-requirement-for-mena-an-actin-regulator-in-local-mrna-translation-in-developing-neurons
#14
Marina Vidaki, Frauke Drees, Tanvi Saxena, Erwin Lanslots, Matthew J Taliaferro, Antonios Tatarakis, Christopher B Burge, Eric T Wang, Frank B Gertler
During neuronal development, local mRNA translation is required for axon guidance and synaptogenesis, and dysregulation of this process contributes to multiple neurodevelopmental and cognitive disorders. However, regulation of local protein synthesis in developing axons remains poorly understood. Here, we uncover a novel role for the actin-regulatory protein Mena in the formation of a ribonucleoprotein complex that involves the RNA-binding proteins HnrnpK and PCBP1 and regulates local translation of specific mRNAs in developing axons...
August 2, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734961/radix-puerariae-modulates-glutamatergic-synaptic-architecture-and-potentiates-functional-synaptic-plasticity-in-primary-hippocampal-neurons
#15
Mohammad Maqueshudul Haque Bhuiyan, Md Nazmul Haque, Md Mohibbullah, Yung Kyu Kim, Il Soo Moon
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Neurologic disorders are frequently characterized by synaptic pathology, including abnormal density and morphology of dendritic spines, synapse loss, and aberrant synaptic signaling and plasticity. Therefore, to promote and/or protect synapses by the use of natural molecules capable of modulating neurodevelopmental events, such as, spinogenesis and synaptic plasticity, could offer a preventive and curative strategy for nervous disorders associated with synaptic pathology...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729535/pld1-promotes-dendritic-spine-development-by-inhibiting-adam10-mediated-n-cadherin-cleavage
#16
Li-Da Luo, Gang Li, Yun Wang
Synapses are the basic units of information transmission, processing and integration in the nervous system. Dysfunction of the synaptic development has been recognized as one of the main reasons for mental dementia and psychiatric diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and autism. However, the underlying mechanisms of the synapse formation are far from clear. Here we report that phospholipase D1 (PLD1) promotes the development of dendritic spines in hippocampal neurons. We found that overexpressing PLD1 increases both the density and the area of dendritic spines...
July 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710397/brain-specific-lamellipodin-knockout-results-in-hyperactivity-and-increased-anxiety-of-mice
#17
Cristian Bodo, Cathy Fernandes, Matthias Krause
Lamellipodin (Lpd) functions as an important signalling integrator downstream of growth factor and axon guidance receptors. Mechanistically, Lpd promotes actin polymerization by interacting with F-actin and the actin effectors Ena/VASP proteins and the SCAR/WAVE complex. Thereby, Lpd supports lamellipodia protrusion, cell migration and endocytosis. In the mammalian central nervous system, Lpd contributes to neuronal morphogenesis, neuronal migration during development and its C. elegans orthologue MIG-10 also supports synaptogenesis...
July 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701415/structure-of-psd-95-map1a-complex-reveals-unique-target-recognition-mode-of-maguk-gk-domain
#18
Yitan Xia, Yuan Shang, Rongguang Zhang, Jinwei Zhu
The PSD-95 family of membrane-associated guanylate kinases (MAGUKs) are major synaptic scaffold proteins and play crucial roles in the dynamic regulation of dendritic remodeling which is understood to be the foundation of synaptogenesis and synaptic plasticity. The guanylate kinase (GK) domain of MAGUK family proteins functions as a phosphor-peptide binding module. However, the GK domain of PSD-95 has been found to directly bind to a peptide sequence within the C-terminal region of neuronal-specific microtubule-associated protein 1A (MAP1A), though the detailed molecular mechanism governing this phosphorylation-independent interaction at the atomic level is missing...
July 12, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698220/activation-of-camkiv-by-soluble-amyloid-%C3%AE-1-42-impedes-trafficking-of-axonal-vesicles-and-impairs-activity-dependent-synaptogenesis
#19
Daehun Park, Myeongsu Na, Jung Ah Kim, Unghwi Lee, Eunji Cho, Mirye Jang, Sunghoe Chang
The prefibrillar form of soluble amyloid-β (sAβ1-42) impairs synaptic function and is associated with the early phase of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We investigated how sAβ1-42 led to presynaptic defects using a quantum dot-based, single particle-tracking method to monitor synaptic vesicle (SV) trafficking along axons. We found that sAβ1-42 prevented new synapse formation induced by chemical long-term potentiation (cLTP). In cultured rat hippocampal neurons, nanomolar amounts of sAβ1-42 impaired Ca(2+) clearance from presynaptic terminals and increased the basal Ca(2+) concentration...
July 11, 2017: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686557/the-biopsychosocial-model-40-years-of-application-in-psychiatry
#20
G Papadimitriou
In 1977, the American pathologist and psychiatrist George Engel (1913-1999) published in the Journal Science his paper "TheIn 1977, the American pathologist and psychiatrist George Engel (1913-1999) published in the Journal Science his paper "Theneed for a new medical model: A challenge for biomedicine", introducing the term Biopsychosocial Model. This model basedon the results of Engel's studies in ulcerative colitis, depression and psychogenic pain, constituted a challenge for biomedicineand the biomedical model...
April 2017: Psychiatrikē, Psychiatriki
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