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Heather L Benz, Eugene F Civillico
Safe and effective neuroprosthetic systems are of great interest to both DARPA and CDRH, due to their innovative nature and their potential to aid severely disabled populations.By expanding technological boundaries in human-device interfaces, these devices introduce new potential benefits and risks. Therefore patient input, which is increasingly important in weighing benefits and risks, is particularly relevant for this class of devices. FDA has been a significant contributor to an ongoing stakeholder conversation about the inclusion of the patient voice, working collaboratively to create a new framework for a patient-centered approach to medical device development...
July 22, 2016: Experimental Neurology
Kristina Grifantini
It seems simple: send a small electrical current to a major nerve in the body and stimulate hormones and organs to react in the way you want. New efforts by research teams are doing just that, zapping peripheral nerves attached to major organs in the hopes of addressing problems as diverse as inflammatory bowel disease, chronic pain, and posttraumatic stress disorder. Thanks to the continued advance of smaller and more efficient electronics, researchers are finding new ways to develop implantable bioelectrical devices to treat a wide range of ailments...
July 2016: IEEE Pulse
Charles Tarrio, Steven Grantham, Matthew B Squires, Robert E Vest, Thomas B Lucatorto
Currently the most demanding application of extreme ultraviolet optics is connected with the development of extreme ultraviolet lithography. Not only does each of the Mo/Si multilayer extreme-ultraviolet stepper mirrors require the highest attainable reflectivity at 13 nm (nearly 70 %), but the central wavelength of the reflectivity of these mirrors must be measured with a wavelength repeatability of 0.001 nm and the peak reflectivity of the reflective masks with a repeatability of 0.12 %. We report on two upgrades of our NIST/DARPA Reflectometry Facility that have given us the ability to achieve 0...
2003: Journal of Research of the National Institute of Standards and Technology
J M Nichols, K P Judd, C C Olson, K Novak, J R Waterman, S Feller, S McCain, J Anderson, D Brady
In a prior paper, we described a new imaging architecture that addresses the need for wide field-of-view imaging combined with the resolution required to identify targets at long range. Over the last two years substantive improvements have been made to the system, both in terms of the size, weight, and power of the camera as well as to the optics and data management software. The result is an overall improvement in system performance, which we demonstrate via a maritime target identification experiment.
June 1, 2016: Applied Optics
Jeffrey Mervis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 5, 2016: Science
Stuart F Cogan, Kip A Ludwig, Cristin G Welle, Pavel Takmakov
OBJECTIVE: Recent initiatives in bioelectronic modulation of the nervous system by the NIH (SPARC), DARPA (ElectRx, SUBNETS) and the GlaxoSmithKline Bioelectronic Medicines effort are ushering in a new era of therapeutic electrical stimulation. These novel therapies are prompting a re-evaluation of established electrical thresholds for stimulation-induced tissue damage. APPROACH: In this review, we explore what is known and unknown in published literature regarding tissue damage from electrical stimulation...
April 2016: Journal of Neural Engineering
John J Lewin, Eugene J Choi, Geoffrey Ling
PURPOSE: Developmental pharmaceutical manufacturing systems and techniques designed to overcome the shortcomings of traditional batch processing methods are described. SUMMARY: Conventional pharmaceutical manufacturing processes do not adequately address the needs of military and civilian patient populations and healthcare providers. Recent advances within the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) Battlefield Medicine program suggest that miniaturized, flexible platforms for end-to-end manufacturing of pharmaceuticals are possible...
January 15, 2016: American Journal of Health-system Pharmacy: AJHP
Barry R Holtz, Brian R Berquist, Lindsay D Bennett, Vally J M Kommineni, Ranjith K Munigunti, Earl L White, Don C Wilkerson, Kah-Yat I Wong, Lan H Ly, Sylvain Marcel
Rapid, large-scale manufacture of medical countermeasures can be uniquely met by the plant-made-pharmaceutical platform technology. As a participant in the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) Blue Angel project, the Caliber Biotherapeutics facility was designed, constructed, commissioned and released a therapeutic target (H1N1 influenza subunit vaccine) in <18 months from groundbreaking. As of 2015, this facility was one of the world's largest plant-based manufacturing facilities, with the capacity to process over 3500 kg of plant biomass per week in an automated multilevel growing environment using proprietary LED lighting...
October 2015: Plant Biotechnology Journal
Paul R Cohen
Reductionist science produces causal models of small fragments of complicated systems. Causal models of entire systems can be hard to construct because what is known of them is distributed across a vast amount of literature. The Big Mechanism program aims to have machines read the literature and assemble the causal fragments found in individual papers into huge causal models, automatically. The current domain of the program is cell signalling associated with Ras-driven cancers.
July 2015: Physical Biology
Ljupcho Prodanov, Rohit Jindal, Shyam Sundhar Bale, Manjunath Hegde, William J McCarty, Inna Golberg, Abhinav Bhushan, Martin L Yarmush, Osman Berk Usta
The development of long-term human organotypic liver-on-a-chip models for successful prediction of toxic response is one of the most important and urgent goals of the NIH/DARPA's initiative to replicate and replace chronic and acute drug testing in animals. For this purpose, we developed a microfluidic chip that consists of two microfluidic chambers separated by a porous membrane. The aim of this communication is to demonstrate the recapitulation of a liver sinusoid-on-a-chip, using human cells only for a period of 28 days...
January 2016: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
Xavier Aimé, Jean Charlet, Didier Maillet, Catherine Belin
Artificial intelligence (IA) is the subject of much research, but also many fantasies. It aims to reproduce human intelligence in its learning capacity, knowledge storage and computation. In 2014, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) started the restoring active memory (RAM) program that attempt to develop implantable technology to bridge gaps in the injured brain and restore normal memory function to people with memory loss caused by injury or disease. In another IA's field, computational ontologies (a formal and shared conceptualization) try to model knowledge in order to represent a structured and unambiguous meaning of the concepts of a target domain...
March 2015: Gériatrie et Psychologie Neuropsychiatrie du Vieillissement
Jia You
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 30, 2015: Science
Deepak Khosla, Yang Chen, Kyungnam Kim
Automated video object recognition is a topic of emerging importance in both defense and civilian applications. This work describes an accurate and low-power neuromorphic architecture and system for real-time automated video object recognition. Our system, Neuormorphic Visual Understanding of Scenes (NEOVUS), is inspired by computational neuroscience models of feed-forward object detection and classification pipelines for processing visual data. The NEOVUS architecture is inspired by the ventral (what) and dorsal (where) streams of the mammalian visual pathway and integrates retinal processing, object detection based on form and motion modeling, and object classification based on convolutional neural networks...
2014: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
Sapna Chourasiya, P S Khillare, Darpa Saurav Jyethi
The study investigated the levels of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in different types of vegetables grown in periurban area of National Capital Region (NCR), India. Vegetable sampling was carried out in winter and summer season of 2012. A total of 20 different OCPs were determined using gas chromatography (GC) assembled with electron capture detector (ECD). Obtained results showed that average levels of ∑(20)OCP ranged from 83.8 ± 25.5 ng g(-1) in smooth gourd to 222.4 ± 90.0 ng g(-1) in cauliflower...
April 2015: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
David Holmes
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2014: Lancet Neurology
Deyu Zhou, Yulan He
Natural language understanding is to specify a computational model that maps sentences to their semantic mean representation. In this paper, we propose a novel framework to train the statistical models without using expensive fully annotated data. In particular, the input of our framework is a set of sentences labeled with abstract semantic annotations. These annotations encode the underlying embedded semantic structural relations without explicit word/semantic tag alignment. The proposed framework can automatically induce derivation rules that map sentences to their semantic meaning representations...
2014: TheScientificWorldJournal
Robbin A Miranda, William D Casebeer, Amy M Hein, Jack W Judy, Eric P Krotkov, Tracy L Laabs, Justin E Manzo, Kent G Pankratz, Gill A Pratt, Justin C Sanchez, Douglas J Weber, Tracey L Wheeler, Geoffrey S F Ling
The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) has funded innovative scientific research and technology developments in the field of brain-computer interfaces (BCI) since the 1970s. This review highlights some of DARPA's major advances in the field of BCI, particularly those made in recent years. Two broad categories of DARPA programs are presented with respect to the ultimate goals of supporting the nation's warfighters: (1) BCI efforts aimed at restoring neural and/or behavioral function, and (2) BCI efforts aimed at improving human training and performance...
April 15, 2015: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
David M Brown, Juan C Juarez, Andrea M Brown
A laser differential image-motion monitor (DIMM) system was designed and constructed as part of a turbulence characterization suite during the DARPA free-space optical experimental network experiment (FOENEX) program. The developed link measurement system measures the atmospheric coherence length (r0), atmospheric scintillation, and power in the bucket for the 1550 nm band. DIMM measurements are made with two separate apertures coupled to a single InGaAs camera. The angle of arrival (AoA) for the wavefront at each aperture can be calculated based on focal spot movements imaged by the camera...
December 1, 2013: Applied Optics
Geoffrey Ling
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 29, 2013: Science
Linda Resnik, Shana Lieberman Klinger, Katherine Etter, Christopher Fantini
PURPOSE: The DEKA Arm, a pre-commercial upper limb prosthesis, funded by the DARPA Revolutionizing Prosthetics Program, offers increased degrees of freedom while requiring a large number of user control inputs to operate. To address this challenge, DEKA developed prototype foot controls. Although the concept of utilizing foot controls to operate an upper limb prosthesis has been discussed for decades, only small-sized studies have been performed and no commercial product exists. The purpose of this paper is to report amputee user perspectives on using three different iterations of foot controls to operate the DEKA Arm...
July 2014: Disability and Rehabilitation. Assistive Technology
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