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Chagam Koteswara Reddy, M Suriya, P V Vidya, Sundaramoorthy Haripriya
This study describes a simple method of preparation and physico-chemical properties of modified starches (type-3 resistant starches) from banana (Musa AAB), and the modified starches investigated as functional food with a beneficial effect on type-2 diabetes. RS3 was prepared using a method combined with debranching modification and physical modification; native and modifies starches were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and rapid visco analyzer (RVA)...
October 18, 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Leyou Zhang, Qing Wu, Yi Mu, Jingxia Zhang
As a new summarized record of an individual's medical data and information, Personal Health Record (PHR) can be accessible online. The owner can control fully his/her PHR files to be shared with different users such as doctors, clinic agents, and friends. However, in an open network environment like in the Cloud, these sensitive privacy information may be gotten by those unauthorized parties and users. In this paper, we consider how to achieve PHR data confidentiality and provide fine-grained access control of PHR files in the public Cloud based on Attribute Based Encryption(ABE)...
December 2016: Journal of Medical Systems
M Incani, C Serafini, C Satta, L Perra, F Scano, P Frongia, R Ricciardi, C Ripoli, M Soro, A Strazzera, S Zampetti, R Buzzetti, M G Cavallo, E Cossu, M G Baroni
BACKGROUND: The incidence of T1DM In Sardinia is among the highest in the world (44.8 cases/100,000 person-years). Recommendations of the Immunology of Diabetes Society (IDS) advise evaluating autoantibody positivity in first-degree relatives (FDR) of patients with T1DM, for their higher risk to develop the disease. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of beta-cell autoimmunity in first-degree relatives of T1DM patients in Sardinia. METHODS: 188 Sardinian families were recruited in collaboration between Diabetes and Paediatric Units of University and District Hospitals in Sardinia...
October 11, 2016: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
Julia U Brandt, Frank Jakob, Jürgen Behr, Andreas J Geissler, Rudi F Vogel
BACKGROUND: Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) are well known producers of commercially used exopolysaccharides, such as cellulose and levan. Kozakia (K.) baliensis is a relatively new member of AAB, which produces ultra-high molecular weight levan from sucrose. Throughout cultivation of two K. baliensis strains (DSM 14400, NBRC 16680) on sucrose-deficient media, we found that both strains still produce high amounts of mucous, water-soluble substances from mannitol and glycerol as (main) carbon sources...
October 4, 2016: Microbial Cell Factories
Vladimir V Zhivonitko, Kristina Sorochkina, Konstantin Chernichenko, Bianka Kótai, Tamás Földes, Imre Pápai, Ville-Veikko Telkki, Timo Repo, Igor Koptyug
The parahydrogen-induced polarization (PHIP) phenomenon, observed when parahydrogen is used in H2 addition processes, provides a means for substantial NMR signal enhancements and mechanistic studies of chemical reactions. Commonly, noble metal complexes are used for parahydrogen activation, whereas metal-free activation is rare. Herein, we report a series of unimolecular metal-free frustrated Lewis pairs based on an ansa-aminoborane (AAB) moiety in the context of PHIP. These molecules, which have a "molecular tweezers" structure, differ in their substituents at the boryl site (-H, -Ph, -o-iPr-Ph, and -Mes)...
October 12, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Neil Stringer, Michael Chan, Yaw Bimpeh, Philip Chan
This study investigates the effects of socioeconomic status and schooling on the academic attainment of a cohort of students at a single medical school (N = 240). Partial least squares structural equation modelling was used to explore how students' summative assessment scores over 4 years of medical school were affected by: attainment in secondary school examinations (GCSEs and A-levels); the Income Deprivation Affecting Children Index (IDACI) rank associated with students' home postcodes; the performance of students' A-level institutions, measured as the percentage of A-level students achieving 3 A-levels at AAB or higher in two or more facilitating subjects...
October 4, 2016: Advances in Health Sciences Education: Theory and Practice
Miriam C Jiménez-Martínez, Efigenia Montalvo-González, Sonia G Sáyago-Ayerdi, Gil Mercado-Mercado, José A Ramírez- de León, Paz-Gamboa Ernestina, Maria A Vivar-Vera
BACKGROUND: The impact of high hydrostatic pressure processing (HPP) on the polyphenol (PP) content and antioxidant activity (AOX) of plantain pulp was evaluated. Pressures of 400, 500 and 600 MPa were applied to plantain pulp for 90 and 180 s at room temperature (25 °C). The polyphenoloxidase activity, extractable (EPP) and non-extractable PP (NEPP) contents, flavonoid content and AOX (FRAP, ABTS(•+) ) were evaluated. In addition, PP identification was performed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)...
October 4, 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Xiaofang Bian, Clive Wasserfall, Garrick Wallstrom, Jie Wang, Haoyu Wang, Kristi Barker, Desmond Schatz, Mark Atkinson, Ji Qiu, Joshua LaBaer
We performed an unbiased proteome-scale profiling of humoral autoimmunity in recent-onset type 1 diabetes (T1D) patients and non-diabetic controls against ~10,000 human proteins using a Nucleic Acid Programmable Protein Array (NAPPA) platform, complemented by a knowledge-based selection of proteins from genes enriched in human pancreas. Although the global response was similar between cases and controls, we identified and then validated six specific novel T1D-associated autoantibodies (AAbs) with sensitivities that ranged from 16% to 27% at 95% specificity...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Proteome Research
Florencia Sainz, María Jesús Torija, Minenosuke Matsutani, Naoya Kataoka, Toshiharu Yakushi, Kazunobu Matsushita, Albert Mas
Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) are known for rapid and incomplete oxidation of an extensively variety of alcohols and carbohydrates, resulting in the accumulation of organic acids as the final products. These oxidative fermentations in AAB are catalyzed by PQQ- or FAD- dependent membrane-bound dehydrogenases. In the present study, the enzyme activity of the membrane-bound dehydrogenases [membrane-bound PQQ-glucose dehydrogenase (mGDH), D-gluconate dehydrogenase (GADH) and membrane-bound glycerol dehydrogenase (GLDH)] involved in the oxidation of D-glucose and D-gluconic acid (GA) was determined in six strains of three different species of AAB (three natural and three type strains)...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Doua F Azzouz, Gabriel V Martin, Fanny Arnoux, Nathalie Balandraud, Thierry Martin, Sylvain Dubucquoi, Eric Hachulla, Dominique Farge-Bancel, Kiet Tiev, Jean Cabane, Nathalie Bardin, Laurent Chiche, Marielle Martin, Eléonore C Caillet, Sami B Kanaan, Jean Robert Harlé, Brigitte Granel, Elisabeth Diot, Jean Roudier, Isabelle Auger, Nathalie C Lambert
In a pilot ProtoArray analysis, we identified 6 proteins out of 9483 recognized by autoantibodies (AAb) from patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc). We further investigated the 6 candidates by ELISA on hundreds of controls and patients, including patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE), known for high sera reactivity and overlapping AAb with SSc. Only 2 of the 6 candidates, Ephrin type-B receptor 2 (EphB2) and Three prime Histone mRNA EXonuclease 1 (THEX1), remained significantly recognized by sera samples from SSc compared to controls (healthy or with rheumatic diseases) with, respectively, 34% versus 14% (P = 2...
2016: PloS One
Andrea Schuette, Arash Moghaddam, Petra Seemann, Georg N Duda, Gerhard Schmidmaier, Lutz Schomburg
BACKGROUND: Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 7 (rhBMP7) is applied for treatment of bone fractures, especially tibial non-unions. Its application may induce autoantibodies (aAB) affecting the targeted and endogenous signaling pathways and in turn negatively impact treatment efficacy. METHODS: Novel and sensitive assays for the quantification of BMP7-aAB and BMP2-aAB were established and used to analyze serum samples from healthy controls (n = 100 men, n = 100 women) and patients with long bone fracture (n = 265) treated or not with rhBMP7...
December 2016: BBA Clinical
Gourav Bhardwaj, Marcus Dörr, Praveen Kumar Sappa, Sabine Ameling, Vishnu Dhople, Leif Steil, Karin Klingel, Klaus Empen, Daniel Beug, Uwe Völker, Stephan B Felix, Elke Hammer
: Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a disease of the myocardium with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). Cardiac autoantibodies (AAbs) play a causal role in the development and progression of DCM. Removal of AAbs using immunoadsorption (IA/IgG) has been shown as a therapeutic option to improve cardiac function. However, the response to therapy differs significantly among patients. The reasons for this variability are not completely understood. Hitherto, no potential biomarker is available to predict improvement of cardiac function after therapy accurately...
September 9, 2016: Journal of Proteomics
J Isherwood, D Bilku, M S Metcalfe, A R Dennison, G Garcea
INTRODUCTION: Despite increasingly mixed communities in large cities, there remains a paucity of absolute and comparative data concerning the treatment, access and survival of British Asians with pancreatic cancer. METHODS: A prospective database of 1038 patients with a diagnosis of pancreatic cancer from 2003 to 2012 was analysed. Asian/Asian British was defined as patients identifying themselves as originating from India, Bangladesh or Pakistan. RESULTS: No significant difference was observed in gender split for both Asian/Asian British and White British (AAB and WB)...
September 6, 2016: World Journal of Surgery
Eric A Thrailkill, Jeremy M Trott, Christopher L Zerr, Mark E Bouton
Recent studies suggest a significant role for context in controlling the acquisition and extinction of simple operant responding. The present experiments examined the contextual control of a heterogeneous behavior chain. Rats first learned a chain in which a discriminative stimulus set the occasion for a procurement response (e.g., pulling a chain), which led to a second discriminative stimulus that occasion-set a consumption response (e.g., pressing a lever) that produced a food-pellet reinforcer. Experiment 1 showed that, after separate extinction of procurement and consumption, each response increased when it was returned to the acquisition context (ABA renewal) or was tested in a new context (AAB renewal)...
October 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Animal Learning and Cognition
J Sardos, X Perrier, J Doležel, E Hřibová, P Christelová, I Van den Houwe, A Kilian, N Roux
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Dessert and cooking bananas are vegetatively propagated crops of great importance for both the subsistence and the livelihood of people in developing countries. A wide diversity of diploid and triploid cultivars including AA, AB, AS, AT, AAA, AAB, ABB, AAS and AAT genomic constitutions exists. Within each of this genome groups, cultivars are classified into subgroups that are reported to correspond to varieties clonally derived from each other after a single sexual event...
September 1, 2016: Annals of Botany
Mübeccel Akdis, Alar Aab, Can Altunbulakli, Kursat Azkur, Rita A Costa, Reto Crameri, Su Duan, Thomas Eiwegger, Andrzej Eljaszewicz, Ruth Ferstl, Remo Frei, Mattia Garbani, Anna Globinska, Lena Hess, Carly Huitema, Terufumi Kubo, Zsolt Komlosi, Patricia Konieczna, Nora Kovacs, Umut C Kucuksezer, Norbert Meyer, Hideaki Morita, Judith Olzhausen, Liam O'Mahony, Marija Pezer, Moira Prati, Ana Rebane, Claudio Rhyner, Arturo Rinaldi, Milena Sokolowska, Barbara Stanic, Kazunari Sugita, Angela Treis, Willem van de Veen, Kerstin Wanke, Marcin Wawrzyniak, Paulina Wawrzyniak, Oliver F Wirz, Josefina Sierra Zakzuk, Cezmi A Akdis
There have been extensive developments on cellular and molecular mechanisms of immune regulation in allergy, asthma, autoimmune diseases, tumor development, organ transplantation, and chronic infections during the last few years. Better understanding the functions, reciprocal regulation, and counterbalance of subsets of immune and inflammatory cells that interact through interleukins, interferons, TNF-α, and TGF-β offer opportunities for immune interventions and novel treatment modalities in the era of development of biological immune response modifiers particularly targeting these molecules or their receptors...
October 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Victor Kuete, Cedric F Tchinda, Flora T Mambe, Veronique P Beng, Thomas Efferth
BACKGROUND: Cancer chemotherapy is still hampered by clinical failures due to multi-drug resistance (MDR) of tumor cells. In the present study, we have investigated the cytotoxicity of 20 methanol extracts from 10 medicinal plants against the sensitive leukemia CCRF-CEM cells. The most cytotoxic extracts were then further tested on a panel of 8 human cancer cell lines, including various MDR phenotypes. METHODS: The cytotoxicity of the 20 methanol extracts from 10 Cameroonian medicinal plants was determined using a resazurin reduction assay...
2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Cristian Bortolini, Vania Patrone, Edoardo Puglisi, Lorenzo Morelli
The quality of chocolate is influenced by several parameters, one of which is bacterial diversity during fermentation and drying; a crucial factor for the generation of the optimal cocoa flavor precursors. Our understanding of the bacterial populations involved in chocolate fermentation can be improved by the use of high-throughput sequencing technologies (HTS), combined with PCR amplification of the 16S rRNA subunit. Here, we have conducted a high-throughput assessment of bacterial diversity in four processed samples of cocoa beans from different geographic origins...
November 7, 2016: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Roberto Assandri, Marta Monari, Alessandro Montanelli
AIM: We described two case reports of AIH/SSc overlap syndrome and reviewed literatures regarding this issue. BACKGROUND: AIH is a chronic hepatitis of unknown aetiology characterized by continuing hepatocellular necrosis and inflammation. AIH overlap syndromes have been reported with other autoimmune diseases. PATIENTS AND METHODS: According to the classification criteria for SSc, we conducted a retrospective chart review of 35 cases with biopsy-proven AIH over the past 5 years at our institution...
2016: Gastroenterology and Hepatology From Bed to Bench
Bryan P Brown, Jennifer J Wernegreen
BACKGROUND: Symbiotic associations between gut microbiota and their animal hosts shape the evolutionary trajectories of both partners. The genomic consequences of these relationships are significantly influenced by a variety of factors, including niche localization, interaction potential, and symbiont transmission mode. In eusocial insect hosts, socially transmitted gut microbiota may represent an intermediate point between free living or environmentally acquired bacteria and those with strict host association and maternal transmission...
2016: BMC Microbiology
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