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State of the art surgery

Wail Alkashkari, Amani Alsubei, Ziyad M Hijazi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The past couple of decades have brought tremendous advances to the field of pediatric and adult congenital heart disease (CHD). Percutaneous valve interventions are now a cornerstone of not just the congenital cardiologist treating patients with congenital heart disease, but also-and numerically more importantly-for adult interventional cardiologists treating patients with acquired heart valve disease. Transcatheter pulmonary valve replacement (tPVR) is one of the most exciting recent developments in the treatment of CHD and has evolved to become an attractive alternative to surgery in patients with right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) dysfunction...
March 15, 2018: Current Cardiology Reports
Long Chen, Wen Tang, Nigel W John, Tao Ruan Wan, Jian Jun Zhang
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: While Minimally Invasive Surgery (MIS) offers considerable benefits to patients, it also imposes big challenges on a surgeon's performance due to well-known issues and restrictions associated with the field of view (FOV), hand-eye misalignment and disorientation, as well as the lack of stereoscopic depth perception in monocular endoscopy. Augmented Reality (AR) technology can help to overcome these limitations by augmenting the real scene with annotations, labels, tumour measurements or even a 3D reconstruction of anatomy structures at the target surgical locations...
May 2018: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
Morteza Modarresi Asem, Iman Sheikh Oveisi, Mona Janbozorgi
Retinal blood vessels indicate some serious health ramifications, such as cardiovascular disease and stroke. Thanks to modern imaging technology, high-resolution images provide detailed information to help analyze retinal vascular features before symptoms associated with such conditions fully develop. Additionally, these retinal images can be used by ophthalmologists to facilitate diagnosis and the procedures of eye surgery. A fuzzy noise reduction algorithm was employed to enhance color images corrupted by Gaussian noise...
July 2018: Journal of Medical Imaging
A Klingenstein, C Hintschich
BACKGROUND: Upper eyelid blepharoplasty is among the most frequent oculoplastic surgical procedures. It is often performed as one of the first esthetic surgical interventions by surgeons of various disciplines. While there is a high probability of happy and satisfied patients postoperatively, there are important potential surgical complications that should be prevented. This requires a careful preoperative, perioperative and postoperative approach. OBJECTIVE: This synopsis presents the basic considerations concerning upper eyelid blepharoplasty to serve as practical surgical guidelines...
March 7, 2018: Der Ophthalmologe: Zeitschrift der Deutschen Ophthalmologischen Gesellschaft
Anna Maria Ierardi, Valeria Savasi, Salvatore Alessio Angileri, Mario Petrillo, Sara Sbaraini, Antonio Pinto, Francesco Hanozet, Anna Maria Marconi, Gianpaolo Carrafiello
Uterine fibroids are the most common benign pelvic tumor of the female genital tract and tend to increase with age; they cause menorrhagia, dysmenorrhea, pelvic pressure symptoms, back pain, and subfertility. Currently, the management is based mainly on medical or surgical approaches. The nonsurgical and minimally invasive therapies are emerging approaches that to the state of the art include uterine artery embolization (UAE), image-guided thermal ablation techniques like magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound surgery (MRgFUS) or radiofrequency ablation (RF), and percutaneous microwave ablation (PMWA)...
2018: BioMed Research International
Jianguo Zhu, Haige Li, Liucheng Ding, Hongyong Cheng
RATIONALE: Epithelioid angiomyolipoma (EAML) is an extremely rare disease. It commonly occurs in middle-aged females and mainly involves the kidney. Histological and immunohistochemical examination play important roles in differentiating EAML from renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and poor-fat angiomyolipoma (AML). PATIENT CONCERNS: Here, We report the imaging phenotype, as well as the pathological findings of a case of EAML in a 39-year-old female. DIAGNOSES: Preoperative noncontrast computed tomography (CT) scan revealed a 6...
January 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Andrew Seok Min Moon, Sakthivel Rajan Rajaram Manoharan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: Asian Spine Journal
Johannes Fauser, Georgios Sakas, Anirban Mukhopadhyay
PURPOSE: Interventions at the otobasis operate in the narrow region of the temporal bone where several highly sensitive organs define obstacles with minimal clearance for surgical instruments. Nonlinear trajectories for potential minimally invasive interventions can provide larger distances to risk structures and optimized orientations of surgical instruments, thus improving clinical outcomes when compared to existing linear approaches. In this paper, we present fast and accurate planning methods for such nonlinear access paths...
March 3, 2018: International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery
Shlomit Strulov Shachar, Trevor A Jolly, Ellen Jones, Hyman B Muss
Triple-negative breast cancer, which affects about 10% of older women with breast cancer, represents a major treatment challenge in this population. Treatment decisions for these patients can best be made based on geriatric assessment, estimated life expectancy, whether the treatment goal is prolonged survival or palliation, the potential benefits and toxicities of a specific treatment, and the patient's personal goals for treatment. Treatment outcomes for healthy older and younger women are similar, but great challenges exist in managing the vulnerable and frail patient...
February 15, 2018: Oncology (Williston Park, NY)
John D Cramer, Andrew G Shuman, Michael J Brenner
Objective The aim of this report is to present a cohesive evidence-based approach to reducing venous thromboembolism (VTE) in otolaryngology-head and neck surgery. VTE prevention includes deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. Despite national efforts in VTE prevention, guidelines do not exist for otolaryngology-head and neck surgery in the United States. Data Sources PubMed/MEDLINE. Review Methods A comprehensive review of literature pertaining to VTE in otolaryngology-head and neck surgery was performed, identifying data on incidence of thrombotic complications and the outcomes of regimens for thromboprophylaxis...
February 1, 2018: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
Roger Jelliffe, David Bayard
The healing professions have only about four main therapeutic tools at their disposal-surgery, drugs, physical therapy, and psychotherapy. For the general profession of internal medicine, drug therapy is its primary tool. Providing an understanding of the state-of-the-art in therapeutic methods, grounded in solid scientific and mathematical rigor, is therefore of the utmost clinical importance for both physicians and clinical pharmacists. This is particularly true where rapidly evolving scientific changes require an up-to-date education upon which students can rely...
February 26, 2018: AAPS Journal
Dong Sun Shin, YoungJoo Shim, Bong Chul Kim
The purpose of this study was to describe anatomical consideration with reference to dermal filler injection on sectioned images and three dimensional (3D) models using Visible Korean for medical education and clinical training purposes in the field of facial surgery. Serially sectioned images of the head were acquired from a cadaver. Anatomic structures related to dermal filler injection were 3D-reconstructed based on sectioned images, and additional structures were built on the basis of the established ones using a semi-automatic method...
February 23, 2018: Annals of Anatomy, Anatomischer Anzeiger: Official Organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft
Kevin J McHugh, Lihong Jing, Adam M Behrens, Surangi Jayawardena, Wen Tang, Mingyuan Gao, Robert Langer, Ana Jaklenec
Approximately 1.7 million new cases of cancer will be diagnosed this year in the United States leading to 600 000 deaths. Patient survival rates are highly correlated with the stage of cancer diagnosis, with localized and regional remission rates that are much higher than for metastatic cancer. The current standard of care for many solid tumors includes imaging and biopsy with histological assessment. In many cases, after tomographical imaging modalities have identified abnormal morphology consistent with cancer, surgery is performed to remove the primary tumor and evaluate the surrounding lymph nodes...
February 22, 2018: Advanced Materials
Malte Ottenhausen, Georgios Ntoulias, Imithri Bodhinayake, Finn-Hannes Ruppert, Stefan Schreiber, Annette Förschler, John A Boockvar, Andreas Jödicke
Among spinal tumors that occur intradurally, meningiomas, nerve sheath tumors, ependymomas, and astrocytomas are the most common. While a spinal MRI is the state of the art to diagnose intradural spinal tumors, in some cases CT scans, angiography, CSF analyses, and neurophysiological examination can be valuable. The management of these lesions depends not only on the histopathological diagnosis but also on the clinical presentation and the anatomical location, allowing either radical resection as with most extramedullary lesions or less invasive strategies as with intramedullary lesions...
February 17, 2018: Neurosurgical Review
Pan Wu, Haojiao Chen, Ronghua Jin, Tingting Weng, Jon Kee Ho, Chuangang You, Liping Zhang, Xingang Wang, Chunmao Han
Critical tissue defects frequently result from trauma, burns, chronic wounds and/or surgery. The ideal treatment for such tissue loss is autografting, but donor sites are often limited. Tissue engineering (TE) is an inspiring alternative for tissue repair and regeneration (TRR). One of the current state-of-the-art methods for TRR is gene therapy. Non-viral gene delivery systems (nVGDS) have great potential for TE and have several advantages over viral delivery including lower immunogenicity and toxicity, better cell specificity, better modifiability, and higher productivity...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Translational Medicine
Alessandro Guidi, Carla Codecà, Daris Ferrari
Head and neck cancer (HNC) is a fatal malignancy with an overall long-term survival of about 50% for all stages. The diagnosis is not rarely delayed, and the majority of patients present with loco-regionally advanced disease. The rate of second primary tumors after a diagnosis of HNC is about 3-7% per year, the highest rate among solid tumors. Currently, a single-modality or a combination of surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy (CHT), is the standard treatment for stage III-IV HNC. For the recurrent/metastatic setting, in the last 40 years great efforts have been made in order to develop a more effective CHT regimen, from the use of methotrexate alone, to the combination of cisplatin (CDDP) and 5-fluorouracile (5FU) or paclitaxel...
February 13, 2018: Medical Oncology
Raffaele Nuzzi, Luca Brusasco
Background: Robot-assisted surgery has revolutionized many surgical subspecialties, mainly where procedures have to be performed in confined, difficult to visualize spaces. Despite advances in general surgery and neurosurgery, in vivo application of robotics to ocular surgery is still in its infancy, owing to the particular complexities of microsurgery. The use of robotic assistance and feedback guidance on surgical maneuvers could improve the technical performance of expert surgeons during the initial phase of the learning curve...
2018: Eye and Brain
Elizabeth M Robinson, Rachel Baker, Md Monir Hossain
Anxiety is common among pediatric surgical patients and their parents. Numerous studies have examined interventions to reduce pediatric patients' anxiety; however, less is known about reducing parental anxiety. In other populations, producing art has been shown to significantly reduce anxiety. PURPOSE: This study aimed to determine whether parents' anxiety decreased after coloring while their child is in surgery. DESIGN AND METHODS: A block randomized controlled trial was conducted with a convenience sample of 106 parents of children who were having a scheduled surgery...
February 10, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Nursing
Chongjun Yang, Yu Xie, Shuang Liu, Dong Sun
Robot-assisted surgery is of growing interest in the surgical and engineering communities. The use of robots allows surgery to be performed with precision using smaller instruments and incisions, resulting in shorter healing times. However, using current technology, an operator cannot directly feel the operation because the surgeon-instrument and instrument-tissue interaction force feedbacks are lost during needle insertion. Advancements in force feedback and control not only help reduce tissue deformation and needle deflection but also provide the surgeon with better control over the surgical instruments...
February 12, 2018: Sensors
John D Cramer, Brad Wisler, And Christopher J Gouveia
Objective The United States is facing an epidemic of opioid addiction. Deaths from opioid overdose have quadrupled in the past 15 years and now surpass annual deaths during the height of the human immunodeficiency virus epidemic. There is a link between opioid prescriptions after surgery, opioid misuse, opioid diversion, and use of other drugs of abuse. As surgeons, otolaryngologists contribute to this crisis. Our objective is to outline the risk of abuse from opioids in the management of acute postoperative pain in otolaryngology-head and neck surgery (OHNS) and strategies to avoid misuse...
February 1, 2018: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
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