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Cascading failure

Shara I Feld, Sarah E Tevis, Alexander G Cobian, Mark W Craven, Gregory D Kennedy
BACKGROUND: Many studies have evaluated predictors of postoperative complications, yet little is known about the development of multiple complications. The goal of this study was to assess complication timing in cascades of multiple complications and the risk of future complications given a patient's first complication. METHODS: This study includes 30-day, postoperative complications from the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program for all patients who underwent major inpatient and outpatient operative procedures from 2005-2013...
October 18, 2016: Surgery
Valentina Talarico, Monica Aloe, Alice Monzani, Roberto Miniero, Gianni Bona
Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) is a thrombotic microangiopathy defined by thrombocytopenia, non-immune microangiopathic hemolytic anemia and acute renal failure. HUS is typically classified into two primary types: 1) HUS due to infections, often associated with diarrhea (D+HUS, Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia Coli-HUS), with the rare exception of HUS due to a severe disseminated infection caused by Streptococcus; 2) HUS related to complement, such HUS is also known as "atypical HUS" and is not diarrhea associated (D-HUS, aHUS); but recent studies have shown other forms of HUS, that can occur in the course of systemic diseases or physiopathological conditions such as pregnancy, after transplantation or after drug assumption...
December 2016: Minerva Pediatrica
Lijun Liu, Yongfeng Yin, Zenghu Zhang, Yashwant K Malaiya
Modern infrastructure networks are often coupled together and thus could be modeled as interdependent networks. Overload and interdependent effect make interdependent networks more fragile when suffering from attacks. Existing research has primarily concentrated on the cascading failure process of interdependent networks without load, or the robustness of isolated network with load. Only limited research has been done on the cascading failure process caused by overload in interdependent networks. Redundant design is a primary approach to enhance the reliability and robustness of the system...
2016: PloS One
Naftali Stern
As both the rate of hypertension and cancer rise with age, concomitant hypertension in patients receiving treatment for cancer is very common. Increase in blood pressure during cancer treatment requires careful clinical assessment. Distinction between discontinuation or malabsorption of antihypertensive treatment due to factors such as nausea/vomiting/diarrhea and anti-cancer drug specific effects must be first made. De-novo hypertension during cancer treatment is likely related to anticancer drugs per se. Classical chemotherapeutic agents such as cyclophosphamide, cisplatin and busulfan have been previously linked to rising blood pressure...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Run-Ran Liu, Ming Li, Chun-Xiao Jia
The robustness of coupled networks against node failure has been of interest in the past several years, while most of the researches have considered a very strong node-coupling method, i.e., once a node fails, its dependency partner in the other network will fail immediately. However, this scenario cannot cover all the dependency situations in real world, and in most cases, some nodes cannot go so far as to fail due to theirs self-sustaining ability in case of the failures of their dependency partners. In this paper, we use the percolation framework to study the robustness of interdependent networks with weak node-coupling strength across networks analytically and numerically, where the node-coupling strength is controlled by an introduced parameter α...
October 17, 2016: Scientific Reports
Julian Mustroph, Stefan Neef, Lars S Maier
Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) has emerged as key enzyme in many cardiac pathologies, especially heart failure (HF), myocardial infarction and cardiomyopathies, thus leading to contractile dysfunction and malignant arrhythmias. While many pathways leading to CaMKII activation have been elucidated in recent years, hardly any clinically viable compounds affecting CaMKII activity have progressed from basic in vitro science to in vivo studies. This review focuses on recent advances in anti-arrhythmic strategies involving CaMKII...
October 11, 2016: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Martin Rohden, Daniel Jung, Samyak Tamrakar, Stefan Kettemann
Sudden failure of a single transmission element in a power grid can induce a domino effect of cascading failures, which can lead to the isolation of a large number of consumers or even to the failure of the entire grid. Here we present results of the simulation of cascading failures in power grids, using an alternating current (AC) model. We first apply this model to a regular square grid topology. For a random placement of consumers and generators on the grid, the probability to find more than a certain number of unsupplied consumers decays as a power law and obeys a scaling law with respect to system size...
September 2016: Physical Review. E
Joachim Behar, Ambhighainath Ganesan, Jin Zhang, Yael Yaniv
Sinoatrial nodal cells (SANCs) generate spontaneous action potentials (APs) that control the cardiac rate. The brain modulates SANC automaticity, via the autonomic nervous system, by stimulating membrane receptors that activate (adrenergic) or inactivate (cholinergic) adenylyl cyclase (AC). However, these opposing afferents are not simply additive. We showed that activation of adrenergic signaling increases AC-cAMP/PKA signaling, which mediates the increase in the SANC AP firing rate (i.e., positive chronotropic modulation)...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
Run-Ran Liu, Ming Li, Chun-Xiao Jia, Bing-Hong Wang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 10, 2016: Scientific Reports
Zaffar K Haque, Da-Zhi Wang
In the past decades, the cardiovascular community has laid out the fundamental signaling cascades that become awry in the cardiomyocyte during the process of pathologic cardiac remodeling. These pathways are initiated at the cell membrane and work their way to the nucleus to mediate gene expression. Complexity is multiplied as the cardiomyocyte is subjected to cross talk with other cells as well as a barrage of extracellular stimuli and mechanical stresses. In this review, we summarize the signaling cascades that play key roles in cardiac function and then we proceed to describe emerging concepts of how the cardiomyocyte senses the mechanical and environmental stimuli to transition to the deleterious genetic program that defines pathologic cardiac remodeling...
October 6, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
Lukas Martin, Patrick Koczera, Elisabeth Zechendorf, Tobias Schuerholz
Sepsis is defined as a life-threatening organ dysfunction caused by a dysregulated host response to infection. The endothelial glycocalyx is one of the earliest sites involved during sepsis. This fragile layer is a complex network of cell-bound proteoglycans, glycosaminoglycan side chains, and sialoproteins lining the luminal side of endothelial cells with a thickness of about 1 to 3 μm. Sepsis-associated alterations of its structure affect endothelial permeability and result in the liberation of endogenous damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs)...
2016: BioMed Research International
Francisca Dias-Freitas, Catarina Metelo-Coimbra, Roberto Roncon-Albuquerque
The management of acute hypoxemic respiratory failure frequently includes the use of supraphysiological fractions of inspired oxygen (FiO2), which can be beneficial in the short-term but not without risks in the long-term, causing acute lung injury (ALI). Over the last few years, much attention has been devoted to the intracellular signaling transduction pathways that lead to hyperoxia-induced cell damage, particularly MAP kinase cascades. Identification of involved signaling molecules and understanding of the regulation of the main signal transduction pathways might provide the basis for improving the outcome of patients under high FiO2 exposure through more effective therapeutic interventions...
October 2016: Respiratory Medicine
Barbara Castelnuovo, Rachel Musomba, Joseph Musaazi, Agnes N Kiragga
In resource-limited settings, a number of patients do not receive continuous HIV care. In this analysis, we compared outcomes in patients who entered care by different modality of entry. This was a retrospective analysis of all patients started on antiretroviral treatment (ART) at a large urban center in Uganda from 2005 to 2012. Patients were categorized into three groups (1) Front door: started on ART without interruption during follow-up; (2) drop-out side door: restarted on ART after having an interruption >6 months and (3) transfer-in side door: transferred-in after being started on ART somewhere else...
August 15, 2016: AIDS Care
Izumi Kawachi, Hans Lassmann
Multiple sclerosis (MS) and neuromyelitis optica (NMO) are autoimmune demyelinating diseases of the central nervous system (CNS), having distinct immunological and pathological features. They have two pathogenic components, 'inflammation' and 'neurodegeneration', with different degrees of severity and pathogenetic mechanisms. The target antigen of autoimmunity in NMO is the water channel aquaporin-4 (AQP4), and antibodies directed against this antigen result in astrocyte damage. MS is a disease primarily affecting myelin and oligodendrocytes, but thus far, no MS-specific autoantigen has been identified...
September 26, 2016: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
Seth Levy, Joseph M Feduska, Anandi Sawant, Shawn R Gilbert, Jonathan A Hensel, Selvarangan Ponnazhagan
Bone fractures heal with overlapping phases of inflammation, cell proliferation, and bone remodeling. Osteogenesis and angiogenesis work in concert to control many stages of this process, and when one is impaired it leads to failure of bone healing, termed a nonunion. During fracture repair, there is an infiltration of immune cells at the fracture site that not only mediate the inflammatory responses, but we hypothesize they also exert influence on neovasculature. Thus, further understanding the effects of immune cell participation throughout fracture healing will reveal additional knowledge as to why some fractures heal while others form nonunions, and lead to development of novel therapeutics modulating immune cells, to increase fracture healing and prevent nonunions...
September 21, 2016: Bone
Thomas H Sharp, Frank G A Faas, Abraham J Koster, Piet Gros
Phase plates in cryo-electron tomography (cryoET) improve contrast, increasing the ability to discern separate molecules and molecular complexes in dense biomolecular environments. Here, we applied this new technology to the activation of the human complement system. Binding of C1 to antigen-antibody complexes initiates a cascade of proteolytic events that deposits molecules onto adjacent surfaces and terminates with the formation of membrane-attack-complex (MAC) pores in the targeted membranes. We imaged steps in this process using a Volta phase plate mounted on a Titan Krios equipped with a Falcon-II direct electron detector...
September 20, 2016: Journal of Structural Biology
Ching-Yi Tsai, Faith C H Li, Carol H Y Wu, Alice Y W Chang, Samuel H H Chan
BACKGROUND: Small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO) is a group of proteins that participates in post-translational modifications. One known SUMO target is the transcription factor nuclear factor-kB (NF-kB) that plays a pivotal role in many disease processes; sumoylation inactivates NF-kB by conjugation with inhibitors of NF-kB (IkB). Our laboratory demonstrated previously that transcriptional upregulation of nitric oxide synthase II (NOS II) by NF-kB, leading to nitrosative stress by the formation of peroxynitrite in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM), underpins the defunct brain stem cardiovascular regulation that precedes brain death...
2016: Journal of Biomedical Science
Naftali Stern
As both the rate of hypertension and cancer rise with age, concomitant hypertension in patients receiving treatment for cancer is very common. Increase in blood pressure during cancer treatment requires careful clinical assessment. Distinction between discontinuation or malabsorption of antihypertensive treatment due to factors such as nausea/vomiting/diarrhea and anti-cancer drug specific effects must be first made. De-novo hypertension during cancer treatment is likely related to anticancer drugs per se. Classical chemotherapeutic agents such as cyclophosphamide, cisplatin and busulfan have been previously linked to rising blood pressure...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Sebastiano Buti, Alessandro Leonetti, Alice Dallatomasina, Melissa Bersanelli
INTRODUCTION: Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the most common type of kidney cancer in adults, and its pathogenesis is strictly related to altered cellular response to hypoxia, in which mTOR signaling pathway is implicated. Everolimus, an mTOR serine/threonine kinase inhibitor, represents a therapeutic option for the treatment of advanced RCC. AIM: The objective of this article is to review the evidence for the treatment of metastatic RCC with everolimus. EVIDENCE REVIEW: Everolimus was approved for second- and third-line therapy in patients with advanced RCC according to the results of a Phase III pivotal trial that demonstrated a benefit in median progression-free survival of ~2 months compared to placebo after failure of previous lines of therapy, of which at least one was an anti-VEGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI)...
2016: Core Evidence
Deniz Akdis, Corinna Brunckhorst, Firat Duru, Ardan M Saguner
This overview gives an update on the molecular mechanisms, clinical manifestations, diagnosis and therapy of arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy (ACM). ACM is mostly hereditary and associated with mutations in genes encoding proteins of the intercalated disc. Three subtypes have been proposed: the classical right-dominant subtype generally referred to as ARVC/D, biventricular forms with early biventricular involvement and left-dominant subtypes with predominant LV involvement. Typical symptoms include palpitations, arrhythmic (pre)syncope and sudden cardiac arrest due to ventricular arrhythmias, which typically occur in athletes...
August 2016: Arrhythmia & Electrophysiology Review
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