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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053969/pebp1-wardens-ferroptosis-by-enabling-lipoxygenase-generation-of-lipid-death-signals
#1
Sally E Wenzel, Yulia Y Tyurina, Jinming Zhao, Claudette M St Croix, Haider H Dar, Gaowei Mao, Vladimir A Tyurin, Tamil S Anthonymuthu, Alexandr A Kapralov, Andrew A Amoscato, Karolina Mikulska-Ruminska, Indira H Shrivastava, Elizabeth M Kenny, Qin Yang, Joel C Rosenbaum, Louis J Sparvero, David R Emlet, Xiaoyan Wen, Yoshinori Minami, Feng Qu, Simon C Watkins, Theodore R Holman, Andrew P VanDemark, John A Kellum, Ivet Bahar, Hülya Bayır, Valerian E Kagan
Ferroptosis is a form of programmed cell death that is pathogenic to several acute and chronic diseases and executed via oxygenation of polyunsaturated phosphatidylethanolamines (PE) by 15-lipoxygenases (15-LO) that normally use free polyunsaturated fatty acids as substrates. Mechanisms of the altered 15-LO substrate specificity are enigmatic. We sought a common ferroptosis regulator for 15LO. We discovered that PEBP1, a scaffold protein inhibitor of protein kinase cascades, complexes with two 15LO isoforms, 15LO1 and 15LO2, and changes their substrate competence to generate hydroperoxy-PE...
October 19, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053592/platelets-and-multi-organ-failure-in-sepsis
#2
REVIEW
Elisabetta Greco, Enrico Lupia, Ornella Bosco, Barbara Vizio, Giuseppe Montrucchio
Platelets have received increasing attention for their role in the pathophysiology of infectious disease, inflammation, and immunity. In sepsis, a low platelet count is a well-known biomarker for disease severity and more recently authors have focused their attention on the active role of platelets in the pathogenesis of multi-organ failure. Septic shock is characterised by a dysregulated inflammatory response, which can impair the microcirculation and lead to organ injury. Being at the crossroads between the immune system, clotting cascade, and endothelial cells, platelets seem to be an appealing central mediator and possible therapeutic target in sepsis...
October 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052864/short-term-hypoxia-upregulated-mas-receptor-expression-to-repress-the-at1-r-signaling-pathway-and-attenuate-ang-ii-induced-cardiomyocyte-apoptosis
#3
Ruey-Lin Chang, Chih-Fen Chang, Da-Tong Ju, Tsung-Jung Ho, Tung-Ti Chang, Jing-Wei Lin, Jia-Chun Le, Shiu-Min Cheng, Cecilia-Hsuan Day, V Vijaya Padma, Chih-Yang Huang
Hypertension-stimulated cardiac hypertrophy and apoptosis play critical roles in the progression of heart failure. Our previous study suggested that hypertensive angiotensin II (Ang II) enhanced insulin-like growth factor receptor II (IGF-IIR) expression and cardiomyocyte apoptosis, which are involved JNK activation, sirtuin1 (SIRT1) degradation, and heat-shock transcription factor 1 (HSF1) acetylation. Moreover, previous studies have implied that short-term hypoxia (STH) might exert cardioprotective effects...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052848/beyond-amyloid-widening-the-view-on-alzheimer-s-disease
#4
Christian Behl, Christine Ziegler
For 25 years, the amyloid cascade hypothesis, based on the finding that mutations in the amyloid precursor protein are closely linked to familial forms of Alzheimer's disease (AD), dominated the research on this disease. Recent failures of clinical anti-amyloidogenic trials, however, substantially support the reasoning (i) that the pathomechanisms that trigger familial AD, namely the generation, aggregation, and deposition of amyloid beta, cannot necessarily be extrapolated to sporadic cases and (ii) that amyloid beta represents a prominent histopathological feature in AD but not its exclusive causative factor...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052542/wide-area-measurement-system-based-supervision-of-protection-schemes-with-minimum-number-of-phasor-measurement-units
#5
Swaroop Gajare, J Ganeswara Rao, O D Naidu, Ashok Kumar Pradhan
Cascade tripping of power lines triggered by maloperation of zone-3 relays during stressed system conditions, such as load encroachment, power swing and voltage instability, has led to many catastrophic power failures worldwide, including Indian blackouts in 2012. With the introduction of wide-area measurement systems (WAMS) into the grids, real-time monitoring of transmission network condition is possible. A phasor measurement unit (PMU) sends time-synchronized data to a phasor data concentrator, which can provide a control signal to substation devices...
August 13, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037556/transcutaneous-electrical-acupoint-stimulation-teas-treatment-improves-pregnancy-rate-and-implantation-rate-in-patients-with-implantation-failure
#6
Ya-Chiung Hsu, I-Ting Liang, Shang-Yu Huang, Hsin-Shih Wang, Yung-Kuei Soong, Chia-Lin Chang
OBJECTIVE: Although major advances have greatly improved the outcomes of assisted reproductive technology in the last two cascades, there remains significant difficulty in achieving pregnancy for many patients even after repeated attempts of IVF. Interestingly, recent studies have shown that transcutaneous electrical acupoint stimulation (TEAS) can improve the reproductive outcomes of select IVF patients. To determine the utility of TEAS in improving IVF outcomes in patients with a history of implantation failure, we conducted a retrospective study of clinical outcomes of women, who had a prior history of unsuccessful pregnancy outcome after IVF-embryo transfer (IVF-ET), following TEAS treatment...
October 2017: Taiwanese Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029178/expansion-of-viral-load-testing-and-the-potential-impact-on-human-immunodeficiency-virus-drug-resistance
#7
Helen M Chun, Yaa F Obeng-Aduasare, Laura N Broyles, Dennis Ellenberger
Increasing the volume, strengthening the quality, and proactively using data of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) load testing are pivotal to limiting the threat of HIV drug resistance (HIVDR) accumulation,and allow for optimal case-based HIVDR surveillance. Triangulation of viral load (VL) and HIVDR testing data could be pursued to answer key questions and translate data and results for program and public policy. Identification of virologic failure and early management mitigates the greater risk of HIVDR...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023983/age-vascular-health-and-alzheimer-s-disease-biomarkers-in-an-elderly-sample
#8
Prashanthi Vemuri, Timothy G Lesnick, Scott A Przybelski, David S Knopman, Val J Lowe, Jonathan Graff-Radford, Rosebud O Roberts, Michelle M Mielke, Mary M Machulda, Ronald C Petersen, Clifford R Jack
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the associations between age, vascular health, and Alzheimer's disease (AD) imaging biomarkers in an elderly sample. METHODS: We identified 430 individuals along the cognitive continuum aged>60 years with amyloid-PET, Tau-PET, and MRI scans from the population-based Mayo Clinic Study of Aging. A subset of 329 individuals had FDG-PET. We ascertained presently existing cardiovascular and metabolic conditions (CMC) from healthcare records and used the summation of presence/absence of hypertension, hyperlipidemia, cardiac-arrhythmias, coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure, diabetes mellitus, and stroke as a surrogate for vascular health...
October 10, 2017: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022266/cardiac-aging-benefits-of-exercise-nrf2-activation-and-antioxidant-signaling
#9
Madhusudhanan Narasimhan, Namakkal-Soorappan Rajasekaran
Cardiovascular dysfunction and heart failure associated with aging not only impairs the cardiac function but also the quality of life eventually decreasing the life expectancy of the elderly. Notably, cardiac tissue can prematurely age under certain conditions such as genetic mutation, persistent redox stress and overload, aberrant molecular signaling, DNA damage, telomere attrition, and other pathological insults. While cardiovascular-related morbidity and mortality is on the rise and remains a global health threat, there has been only little to moderate improvements in its medical management...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978332/central-venous-access-device-securement-and-dressing-effectiveness-for-peripherally-inserted-central-catheters-in-adult-acute-hospital-patients-cascade-a-pilot-randomised-controlled-trial
#10
Raymond J Chan, Sarah Northfield, Emily Larsen, Gabor Mihala, Amanda Ullman, Peter Hancock, Nicole Marsh, Nicole Gavin, David Wyld, Anthony Allworth, Emily Russell, Md Abu Choudhury, Julie Flynn, Claire M Rickard
BACKGROUND: Peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs) are commonly used for delivering intravenous therapy. PICC failure is unacceptably high (up to 40%) due to mechanical, infectious and thrombotic complications. Poor securement potentiates all complication types. This randomised controlled trial (RCT) aimed to examine the feasibility of a large RCT of four dressing and securement methods to prevent PICC failure. METHODS: This single-centre pilot RCT included 124 admitted medical/surgical/cancer patients aged ≥ 16 years with a PICC...
October 4, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28976966/hippo-pathway-deficiency-reverses-systolic-heart-failure-after-infarction
#11
John P Leach, Todd Heallen, Min Zhang, Mahdis Rahmani, Yuka Morikawa, Matthew C Hill, Ana Segura, James T Willerson, James F Martin
Mammalian organs vary widely in regenerative capacity. Poorly regenerative organs, such as the heart are particularly vulnerable to organ failure. Once established, heart failure commonly results in mortality. The Hippo pathway, a kinase cascade that prevents adult cardiomyocyte proliferation and regeneration, is upregulated in human heart failure. Here we show that deletion of the Hippo pathway component Salvador (Salv) in mouse hearts with established ischaemic heart failure after myocardial infarction induces a reparative genetic program with increased scar border vascularity, reduced fibrosis, and recovery of pumping function compared with controls...
October 12, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972998/estimating-risk-propagation-between-interacting-firms-on-inter-firm-complex-network
#12
Hayato Goto, Hideki Takayasu, Misako Takayasu
We derive a stochastic function of risk propagation empirically from comprehensive data of chain-reaction bankruptcy events in Japan from 2006 to 2015 over 5,000 pairs of firms. The probability is formulated by firm interaction between the pair of firms; it is proportional to the product of α-th power of the size of the first bankrupt firm and β-th power of that of the chain-reaction bankrupt firm. We confirm that α is positive and β is negative throughout the observing period, meaning that the probability of cascading failure is higher between a larger first bankrupt firm and smaller trading firm...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28957531/fibroblasts-and-the-extracellular-matrix-in-right-ventricular-disease
#13
Nikolaos G Frangogiannis
Right ventricular failure predicts adverse outcome in patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH), and in subjects with left ventricular heart failure and is associated with interstitial fibrosis. This review manuscript discusses the cellular effectors and molecular mechanisms implicated in right ventricular fibrosis. The right ventricular interstitium contains vascular cells, fibroblasts, and immune cells, enmeshed in a collagen-based matrix. Right ventricular pressure overload in PH is associated with the expansion of the fibroblast population, myofibroblast activation, and secretion of extracellular matrix proteins...
October 1, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951206/leptinotarsa-hormone-receptor-4-hr4-tunes-ecdysteroidogenesis-and-mediates-20-hydroxyecdysone-signaling-during-larval-pupal-metamorphosis
#14
Qing-Yu Xu, Qing-Wei Meng, Pan Deng, Wen-Chao Guo, Guo-Qing Li
Hormone receptor 4 (HR4) is involved in the regulation of 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) biosynthesis and the mediation of 20E signaling during larval-pupal transition in a holometabolan Drosophila melanogaster, whereas it acts as a repressor in 20E-responsive transcriptional cascade in a hemimetabolan, Blattella germanica. Here we characterized two HR4 splicing variants, LdHR4X1 and LdHR4X2, in a coleopteran Leptinotarsa decemlineata. LdHR4X1 was highly expressed in the prothoracic gland and epidermis while LdHR4X2 was abundantly transcribed in the nervous system...
September 22, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28949771/delirium-in-the-critically-ill-child-assessment-and-sequelae
#15
Rebecca S Paterson, Justin A Kenardy, Alexandra C De Young, Belinda L Dow, Debbie A Long
Delirium is a common and serious neuropsychiatric complication in critically ill patients of all ages. In the context of critical illness, delirium may emerge as a result of a cascade of underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms and signals organ failure of the brain. Awareness of the clinical importance of delirium in adults is growing as emerging research demonstrates that delirium represents a serious medical problem with significant sequelae. However, our understanding of delirium in children lags significantly behind the adult literature...
2017: Developmental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937598/the-effect-of-rankl-opg-balance-on-reducing-implant-complications
#16
REVIEW
Elizabeth R Kapasa, Peter V Giannoudis, Xiaodong Jia, Paul V Hatton, Xuebin B Yang
Despite the phenomenal success of implants particularly in the realms of dentistry and orthopaedics, there are still challenges to overcome. The failure of implants resulting from infection, prosthetic loosening, and non-union continue to be the most notorious examples. The cascade of fracture healing and bone repair, especially with the presence of an implant, is complex because it involves a multifaceted immune response alongside the intricate process of bone formation and remodelling. Bone loss is a serious clinical problem that is frequently accompanied by chronic inflammation, illustrating that there is a convoluted relationship between inflammation and bone erosion...
September 22, 2017: Journal of Functional Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933172/-development-of-views-on-pathophysiology-of-sepsis
#17
Jiří Beneš
Sepsis was understood as a disease caused by an invasive bacterial infection associated with deluging of organism with bacterial toxins (blood poisoning). Schottmüllers definition emphasized the existence of a focus as the source of invading bacteria. Further research led to the discovery of the cytokine cascade and to the recognition that sepsis is induced by our own endogenous mediators. The dysfunction or failure of various organs in sepsis can be explained both by hemodynamic disorders which originate in the altered microcapillars but also by a complex transformation of metabolism...
2017: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924872/-alzheimer-s-disease-from-auguste-deter-to-the-present-progress-disappointments-and-open-questions
#18
REVIEW
Johannes Pantel
AIM: The present article aims to provide a short overview of the discovery history, conceptual development, as well as on current neurobiological and pharmacological research questions in the field of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In view of the long hoped for but so far unachieved therapeutic breakthrough, this also includes a critical reflection of current research paradigms. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Starting from the first case report described by Alois Alzheimer in 1906, the historical impact of his seminal discovery is reconstructed...
September 18, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Gerontologie und Geriatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923277/animal-models-of-ischaemic-stroke-and-characterisation-of-the-ischaemic-penumbra
#19
REVIEW
Christopher McCabe, Mariana M Arroja, Emma Reid, I Mhairi Macrae
Over the past forty years, animal models of focal cerebral ischaemia have allowed us to identify the critical cerebral blood flow thresholds responsible for irreversible cell death, electrical failure, inhibition of protein synthesis, energy depletion and thereby the lifespan of the potentially salvageable penumbra. They have allowed us to understand the intricate biochemical and molecular mechanisms within the 'ischaemic cascade' that initiate cell death in the first minutes, hours and days following stroke...
September 18, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918947/hormonal-signaling-cascade-during-an-early-adult-critical-period-required-for-courtship-memory-retention-in-drosophila
#20
Sang Soo Lee, Yike Ding, Natalie Karapetians, Crisalejandra Rivera-Perez, Fernando Gabriel Noriega, Michael E Adams
Formation and expression of memories are critical for context-dependent decision making. In Drosophila, a courting male rejected by a mated female subsequently courts less avidly when paired with a virgin female, a behavioral modification attributed to "courtship memory." Here we show the critical role of hormonal state for maintenance of courtship memory. Ecdysis-triggering hormone (ETH) is essential for courtship memory through regulation of juvenile hormone (JH) levels in adult males. Reduction of JH levels via silencing of ETH signaling genes impairs short-term courtship memory, a phenotype rescuable by the JH analog methoprene...
September 25, 2017: Current Biology: CB
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