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LDL HDL particle number

Nicholas T Funderburg, Dihua Xu, Martin P Playford, Aditya A Joshi, Adriana Andrade, Daniel R Kuritzkes, Michael M Lederman, Nehal N Mehta
BACKGROUND: Persons infected with HIV often have altered lipid profiles that may be affected by antiretroviral therapies (ART). Traditional lipid measurements may be insufficient to assess cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in this population. METHODS: We report results from 39 ART-naïve participants in a substudy of A5248, a single-arm study of raltegravir (RAL), emtricitabine/tenofovir administration. Samples were collected at baseline, 12, 24, and 48 weeks after ART initiation...
October 14, 2016: Antiviral Therapy
Jae-Yong Kim, Eun-Young Lee, Jin Kyun Park, Yeong Wook Song, Jae-Ryong Kim, Kyung-Hyun Cho
OBJECTIVE: In order to identify putative biomarkers in lipoprotein, we compared lipid and lipoprotein properties between rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients and control with similar age. METHODS: We analyzed four classes of lipoproteins (VLDL, LDL, HDL2, HDL3) from both male (n = 8, 69±4 year-old) and female (n = 25, 53±7 year-old) rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients as well as controls with similar age (n = 13). RESULTS: Although RA group showed normal levels of total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, and glucose, however, the RA group showed significantly reduced high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-C level and ratio of HDL-C/TC...
2016: PloS One
Allan D Sniderman, Peter P Toth, George Thanassoulis, Curt D Furberg
BACKGROUND: The National Lipid Association (NLA) selected non-HDL-C as its prime index of the cardiovascular risk associated with the apoB lipoproteins. ApoB was recommended only as an optional secondary target after low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) targets were achieved. OBJECTIVE: The aims of this analysis were to determine whether (1) all relevant uses of apoB were considered by the NLA; (2) all the relevant evidence was considered by the NLA panel; and (3) all the evidence that was considered was interpreted correctly...
September 2016: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
Margery A Connelly, Chisato Shimizu, Deborah A Winegar, Irina Shalaurova, Ray Pourfarzib, James D Otvos, John T Kanegaye, Adriana H Tremoulet, Jane C Burns
BACKGROUND: Glycosylation patterns of serum proteins, such as α1-acid glycoprotein, are modified during an acute phase reaction. The response of acute Kawasaki disease (KD) patients to IVIG treatment has been linked to sialic acid levels on native IgG, suggesting that protein glycosylation patterns vary during the immune response in acute KD. Additionally, the distribution and function of lipoprotein particles are altered during inflammation. Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore the potential for GlycA, a marker of protein glycosylation, and the lipoprotein particle profile to distinguish pediatric patients with acute KD from those with other febrile illnesses...
2016: BMC Pediatrics
Ana Gabriela Murillo, David Aguilar, Gregory H Norris, Diana M DiMarco, Amanda Missimer, Siqi Hu, Joan A Smyth, Sarah Gannon, Christopher N Blesso, Yangchao Luo, Maria Luz Fernandez
BACKGROUND: It is not clear how oil-in-water nanoemulsions of lutein may affect bioavailability and consequently alter lipoprotein metabolism, oxidative stress, and inflammation. OBJECTIVE: The bioavailability as well as effects of a powdered lutein (PL) and an oil-in-water lutein nanoemulsion (NANO; particle size: 254.2 nm; polydispersity index: 0.29; and ζ-potential: -65 mV) on metabolic variables in liver, plasma, and adipose tissue in a guinea pig model of hepatic steatosis were evaluated...
October 2016: Journal of Nutrition
Yasuharu Tabara, Hirotsugu Ueshima, Naoyuki Takashima, Takashi Hisamatsu, Akira Fujiyoshi, Maryam Zaid, Masaki Sumi, Katsuhiko Kohara, Tetsuro Miki, Katsuyuki Miura
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: While alcohol consumption is known to increase plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels, its relationship with low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels is unclear. Aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) is a rate-controlling enzyme in alcohol metabolism, but a large number of Japanese people have the inactive allele. Here, we conducted a Mendelian randomization analysis using the ALDH2 genotype to clarify a causal role of alcohol on circulating cholesterol levels and lipoprotein particle numbers...
August 24, 2016: Atherosclerosis
Chika Kinoshita, Tomohisa Nagano, Nobuyoshi Seki, Yoichi Tomita, Tomonori Sugita, Yuta Aida, Munenori Itagaki, Kenichi Satoh, Satoshi Sutoh, Hiroshi Abe, Akihito Tsubota, Yoshio Aizawa
AIM: To investigate how hepatitis C virus (HCV) G1b infection influences the particle number of lipoproteins. METHODS: The numbers of lipoprotein particles in fasting sera from 173 Japanese subjects, 82 with active HCV G1b infection (active HCV group) and 91 with cleared HCV infection (SVR group), were examined. Serum lipoprotein was fractionated by high-performance liquid chromatography into twenty fractions. The cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations in each fraction were measured using LipoSEARCH...
August 7, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Paul D Rosenblit
Dyslipidemia is the most fundamental risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). In clinical practice, many commonly prescribed medications can alter the patient's lipid profile and, potentially, the risk for ASCVD-either favorably or unfavorably. The dyslipidemia observed in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) can be characterized as both ominous and cryptic, in terms of unrecognized, disproportionately elevated atherogenic cholesterol particle concentrations, in spite of deceptively and relatively lower levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C)...
2016: Cardiovascular Diabetology
Jie Liu, Aadil Iqbal, Amy Raslawsky, Richard W Browne, Mulchand S Patel, Todd C Rideout
Although there is a normal physiological rise in maternal lipids during pregnancy, excessive maternal hyperlipidemia during pregnancy increases cardiovascular disease risk for both the mother and offspring. There are limited safe lipid-lowering treatment options for use during pregnancy, therefore, we evaluated the influence of maternal phytosterol (PS) supplementation on lipid and lipoprotein metabolism in mothers and progeny. Female Syrian golden hamsters were randomly assigned to three diets throughout pre-pregnancy, gestation, and lactation (n = 6/group): (i) Chow (Chow), (ii) chow with 0...
May 23, 2016: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Amy S Shah, W Sean Davidson, Zhiqian Gao, Lawrence M Dolan, Thomas R Kimball, Elaine M Urbina
BACKGROUND: The nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) lipoprotein profile provides additional cardiovascular risk information beyond traditional lipids in high-risk adults. Similar studies have not been conducted in youth. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the relationship between the NMR profile and preclinical vascular measures in youth. METHODS: We studied 96 obese youth with prediabetes (mean age = 18.1 ± 3.6 years, 63% female, 78% African American) and 118 obese normoglycemic controls (mean age = 18...
May 2016: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
Akhil Narang, Victor Mor-Avi, Nicole M Bhave, Giacomo Tarroni, Cristiana Corsi, Michael H Davidson, Roberto M Lang, Amit R Patel
BACKGROUND: Abnormalities in total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, and triglycerides are associated with microvascular dysfunction. Recent studies suggest that lipid subfractions better predict atherogenic burden than a routine lipid panel. We sought to determine, whether lipid subfractions are more strongly associated with microvascular function and subclinical atherosclerosis, than conventional lipid measurements using vasodilator stress cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR)...
March 2016: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
Thomas A Hughes, Rossana M Calderon, Sylvia Diaz, Armando J Mendez, Ronald B Goldberg
OBJECTIVE: High cardiovascular mortality in patients with type 1 diabetes (T1DM) is widely recognized. Paradoxically, these patients have been shown to have elevated HDL-C and reduced apoB-containing lipoproteins. The purpose of this investigation was to further characterize the lipoprotein composition in T1DM and to assess the role that lipases and adipokines may play in these differences. METHODS: T1DM patients (89) attending the Diabetes Clinic at the University of Miami and 42 healthy controls were recruited...
May 2016: Journal of Diabetes and its Complications
Neil F Goodman, Rhoda H Cobin, Walter Futterweit, Jennifer S Glueck, Richard S Legro, Enrico Carmina
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is recognized as the most common endocrine disorder of reproductive-aged women around the world. This document, produced by the collaboration of the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists and the Androgen Excess Society aims to highlight the most important clinical issues confronting physicians and their patients with PCOS. It is a summary of current best practices in 2014. Insulin resistance is believed to play an intrinsic role in the pathogenesis of PCOS. The mechanism by which insulin resistance or insulin give rise to oligomenorrhea and hyperandrogenemia, however, is unclear...
December 2015: Endocrine Practice
Ilya Pinchuk, Dov Lichtenberg
In a previous study, we proposed characterizing the typically observed kinetic profiles of transition metal ion-induced lipid peroxidation in terms of a limited number of characteristic time-points. These time-points can be derived from experimental time-dependencies and be presented in terms of rate constants and concentrations as calculated based on mechanistic considerations. The critical part of that analysis was that we had to assume that the experimental system behaves as if it is homogeneous, i.e., as if the reaction occurs in a solution...
February 2016: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
Anna E Garcia, Nader Kasim, Robyn A Tamboli, Raul S Gonzalez, Joseph Antoun, Emily A Eckert, Pamela A Marks-Shulman, Julia Dunn, Julia Wattacheril, Taylor Wallen, Naji N Abumrad, Charles Robb Flynn
Triglyceride content in the liver is regulated by the uptake, production and elimination of lipoproteins, and derangements in these processes contribute to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Previous studies show a direct relationship between intrahepatic fat and production of apolipoprotein B100 (apoB100) containing particles, VLDL and LDL, but little consensus exists regarding changes in lipoprotein production in the development of simple steatosis (SS) versus nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Further, ethnic variations in lipoproteins among SS and NASH are unknown as is how such variations might contribute to the differential prevalence of disease among Caucasians versus African Americans...
2015: PloS One
James J DiNicolantonio, Sean C Lucan, James H O'Keefe
Dietary guidelines continue to recommend restricting intake of saturated fats. This recommendation follows largely from the observation that saturated fats can raise levels of total serum cholesterol (TC), thereby putatively increasing the risk of atherosclerotic coronary heart disease (CHD). However, TC is only modestly associated with CHD, and more important than the total level of cholesterol in the blood may be the number and size of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles that contain it. As for saturated fats, these fats are a diverse class of compounds; different fats may have different effects on LDL and on broader CHD risk based on the specific saturated fatty acids (SFAs) they contain...
March 2016: Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases
Barbara K Burton, Manisha Balwani, François Feillet, Ivo Barić, T Andrew Burrow, Carmen Camarena Grande, Mahmut Coker, Alejandra Consuelo-Sánchez, Patrick Deegan, Maja Di Rocco, Gregory M Enns, Richard Erbe, Fatih Ezgu, Can Ficicioglu, Katryn N Furuya, John Kane, Christina Laukaitis, Eugen Mengel, Edward G Neilan, Scott Nightingale, Heidi Peters, Maurizio Scarpa, K Otfried Schwab, Vratislav Smolka, Vassili Valayannopoulos, Marnie Wood, Zachary Goodman, Yijun Yang, Stephen Eckert, Sandra Rojas-Caro, Anthony G Quinn
BACKGROUND: Lysosomal acid lipase is an essential lipid-metabolizing enzyme that breaks down endocytosed lipid particles and regulates lipid metabolism. We conducted a phase 3 trial of enzyme-replacement therapy in children and adults with lysosomal acid lipase deficiency, an underappreciated cause of cirrhosis and severe dyslipidemia. METHODS: In this multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study involving 66 patients, we evaluated the safety and effectiveness of enzyme-replacement therapy with sebelipase alfa (administered intravenously at a dose of 1 mg per kilogram of body weight every other week); the placebo-controlled phase of the study was 20 weeks long and was followed by open-label treatment for all patients...
September 10, 2015: New England Journal of Medicine
Rae-Ellen W Kavey
Combined dyslipidemia (CD) is now the predominant dyslipidemic pattern in childhood, characterized by moderate-to-severe elevation in triglycerides and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C), minimal elevation in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and reduced HDL-C. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy shows that the CD pattern is represented at the lipid subpopulation level as an increase in small, dense LDL and in overall LDL particle number plus a reduction in total HDL-C and large HDL particles, a highly atherogenic pattern...
September 2015: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
Catherine M Phillips, Ivan J Perry
OBJECTIVES: No data regards lipoprotein particle profiles in obese and non-obese metabolic health subtypes exist. We characterised lipoprotein size, particle and subclass concentrations among metabolically healthy and unhealthy obese and non-obese adults. METHODS: Cross-sectional sample of 1834 middle-aged Irish adults were classified as obese (BMI ≥30 kg/m(2)) and non-obese (BMI <30 kg/m(2)). Metabolic health was defined using three metabolic health definitions based on various cardiometabolic abnormalities including metabolic syndrome criteria, insulin resistance and inflammation...
October 2015: Atherosclerosis
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