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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334505/the-association-of-chronic-air-pollutants-with-coronary-artery-spasm-vasospastic-angina-and-endothelial-dysfunction
#1
Byoung Geol Choi, Jiwon Lee, Suhng Wook Kim, Min Woo Lee, Man Jong Baek, Yang Gi Ryu, Se Yeon Choi, Jae Kyeong Byun, Ahmed Mashaly, Yoonjee Park, Won Young Jang, Woohyeun Kim, Jah Yeon Choi, Eun Jin Park, Jin Oh Na, Cheol Ung Choi, Hong Euy Lim, Eung Ju Kim, Chang Gyu Park, Hong Seog Seo, Dong Joo Oh, Seung-Woon Rha
BACKGROUND: We evaluated the effect of chronic exposure to air pollutants (APs) on coronary endothelial function and significant coronary artery spasm (CAS) as assessed by intracoronary acetylcholine (ACH) provocation test. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 6430 patients with typical or atypical chest pain who underwent intracoronary ACH provocation test were enrolled. We obtained data on APs from the Korean National Institute of Environmental Research (http://www...
January 12, 2018: Coronary Artery Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332164/skewing-of-the-genetic-architecture-at-the-zmym3-human-specific-5-utr-short-tandem-repeat-in-schizophrenia
#2
F Alizadeh, A Bozorgmehr, J Tavakkoly-Bazzaz, M Ohadi
Differential expansion of a number of human short tandem repeats (STRs) at the critical core promoter and 5' untranslated region (UTR) support the hypothesis that at least some of these STRs may provide a selective advantage in human evolution. Following a genome-wide screen of all human protein-coding gene 5' UTRs based on the Ensembl database ( http://www.ensembl.org ), we previously reported that the longest STR in this interval is a (GA)32, which belongs to the X-linked zinc finger MYM-type containing 3 (ZMYM3) gene...
January 13, 2018: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331959/probenecid-improves-cardiac-function-in-patients-with-heart-failure-with-reduced-ejection-fraction-in-vivo-and-cardiomyocyte-calcium-sensitivity-in-vitro
#3
Nathan Robbins, Mark Gilbert, Mohit Kumar, James W McNamara, Patrick Daly, Sheryl E Koch, Ginger Conway, Mohamed Effat, Jessica G Woo, Sakthivel Sadayappan, Jack Rubinstein
BACKGROUND: Transient receptor potential vanilloid 2 is a calcium channel activated by probenecid. Probenecid is a Food and Drug Administration-approved uricosuric drug that has recently been shown to induce positive lusitropic and inotropic effects in animal models through cardiomyocyte transient receptor potential vanilloid 2 activation. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that oral probenecid can improve cardiac function and symptomatology in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction and to further elucidate its calcium-dependent effects on myocyte contractility...
January 13, 2018: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331958/platelet-secretion-defects-and-acquired-von-willebrand-syndrome-in-patients-with-ventricular-assist-devices
#4
Ulrich Geisen, Kerstin Brehm, Georg Trummer, Michael Berchtold-Herz, Claudia Heilmann, Friedhelm Beyersdorf, Johannes Schelling, Axel Schlagenhauf, Barbara Zieger
BACKGROUND: The number of implanted ventricular assist devices (VADs) has increased significantly recently. Bleeding, the most frequent complication, cannot be solely attributed to anticoagulation therapy. Acquired von Willebrand syndrome (AVWS) caused by increased shear stress is frequent in VAD patients and can increase the bleeding risk. The HeartMate III (HM III) is a novel left VAD featuring potential improvements over the HeartMate II. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this study, we investigated the prevalence and onset of AVWS in 198 VAD patients...
January 13, 2018: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330256/osteoprotegerin-is-associated-with-major-bleeding-but-not-with-cardiovascular-outcomes-in-patients-with-acute-coronary-syndromes-insights-from-the-plato-platelet-inhibition-and-patient-outcomes-trial
#5
Thor Ueland, Axel Åkerblom, Tatevik Ghukasyan, Annika E Michelsen, Pål Aukrust, Richard C Becker, Maria Bertilsson, Anders Himmelmann, Stefan K James, Agneta Siegbahn, Robert F Storey, Frederic Kontny, Lars Wallentin
BACKGROUND: Elevated levels of osteoprotegerin, a secreted tumor necrosis factor-related molecule, might be associated with adverse outcomes in patients with coronary artery disease. We measured plasma osteoprotegerin concentrations on hospital admission, at discharge, and at 1 and 6 months after discharge in a predefined subset (n=5135) of patients with acute coronary syndromes in the PLATO (Platelet Inhibition and Patient Outcomes) trial. METHODS AND RESULTS: The associations between osteoprotegerin and the composite end point of cardiovascular death, nonprocedural spontaneous myocardial infarction or stroke, and non-coronary artery bypass grafting major bleeding during 1 year of follow-up were assessed by Cox proportional hazards models...
January 12, 2018: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328880/relative-roles-of-race-versus-socioeconomic-position-in-studies-of-health-inequalities-a-matter-of-interpretation
#6
Amani M Nuru-Jeter, Elizabeth K Michaels, Marilyn D Thomas, Alexis N Reeves, Roland J Thorpe, Thomas A LaVeist
An abundance of research has documented health inequalities by race and socioeconomic position (SEP) in the United States. However, conceptual and methodological challenges complicate the interpretation of study findings, thereby limiting progress in understanding health inequalities and in achieving health equity. Fundamental to these challenges is a lack of clarity about what race is and the implications of that ambiguity for scientific inquiry. Additionally, there is wide variability in how SEP is conceptualized and measured, resulting in a lack of comparability across studies and significant misclassification of risk...
January 12, 2018: Annual Review of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328879/modeling-health-care-expenditures-and-use
#7
Partha Deb, Edward C Norton
Health care expenditures and use are challenging to model because these dependent variables typically have distributions that are skewed with a large mass at zero. In this article, we describe estimation and interpretation of the effects of a natural experiment using two classes of nonlinear statistical models: one for health care expenditures and the other for counts of health care use. We extend prior analyses to test the effect of the ACA's young adult expansion on three different outcomes: total health care expenditures, office-based visits, and emergency department visits...
January 12, 2018: Annual Review of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328878/environmental-influences-on-the-epigenome-exposure-associated-dna-methylation-in-human-populations
#8
Elizabeth M Martin, Rebecca C Fry
DNA methylation is the most well studied of the epigenetic regulators in relation to environmental exposures. To date, numerous studies have detailed the manner by which DNA methylation is influenced by the environment, resulting in altered global and gene-specific DNA methylation. These studies have focused on prenatal, early-life, and adult exposure scenarios. The present review summarizes currently available literature that demonstrates a relationship between DNA methylation and environmental exposures. It includes studies on aflatoxin B1, air pollution, arsenic, bisphenol A, cadmium, chromium, lead, mercury, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, persistent organic pollutants, tobacco smoke, and nutritional factors...
January 12, 2018: Annual Review of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328877/designing-difference-in-difference-studies-best-practices-for-public-health-policy-research
#9
Coady Wing, Kosali Simon, Ricardo A Bello-Gomez
The difference in difference (DID) design is a quasi-experimental research design that researchers often use to study causal relationships in public health settings where randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are infeasible or unethical. However, causal inference poses many challenges in DID designs. In this article, we review key features of DID designs with an emphasis on public health policy research. Contemporary researchers should take an active approach to the design of DID studies, seeking to construct comparison groups, sensitivity analyses, and robustness checks that help validate the method's assumptions...
January 12, 2018: Annual Review of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328876/meta-analysis-of-complex-interventions
#10
Emily E Tanner-Smith, Sean Grant
Meta-analysis is a prominent method for estimating the effects of public health interventions, yet these interventions are often complex in ways that pose challenges to using conventional meta-analytic methods. This article discusses meta-analytic techniques that can be used in research syntheses on the effects of complex public health interventions. We first introduce the use of complexity frameworks to conceptualize public health interventions. We then present a menu of meta-analytic procedures for addressing various sources of complexity when answering questions about the effects of public health interventions in research syntheses...
January 12, 2018: Annual Review of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328875/environmental-determinants-of-breast-cancer
#11
Robert A Hiatt, Julia Green Brody
In the United States, breast cancer is the most common invasive malignancy and the second most common cause of death from cancer in women. Reproductive factors, estrogen, and progesterone have major causal roles, but concerns about other potential causes in the external environment continue to drive research inquiries and stimulate calls for action at the policy level. The environment is defined as anything that is not genetic and includes social, built, and chemical toxicant aspects. This review covers the scope of known and suspected environmental factors that have been associated with breast cancer and illustrates how epidemiology, toxicology, and mechanistic studies work together to create the full picture of environmental effects on this malignancy...
January 12, 2018: Annual Review of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328874/neighborhood-interventions-to-reduce-violence
#12
Michelle C Kondo, Elena Andreyeva, Eugenia C South, John M MacDonald, Charles C Branas
Violence is a widespread problem that affects the physical, mental, and social health of individuals and communities. Violence comes with an immense economic cost to its victims and society at large. Although violence interventions have traditionally targeted individuals, changes to the built environment in places where violence occurs show promise as practical, sustainable, and high-impact preventive measures. This review examines studies that use quasi-experimental or experimental designs to compare violence outcomes for treatment and control groups before and after a change is implemented in the built environment...
January 12, 2018: Annual Review of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328873/selecting-and-improving-quasi-experimental-designs-in-effectiveness-and-implementation-research
#13
Margaret A Handley, Courtney R Lyles, Charles McCulloch, Adithya Cattamanchi
Interventional researchers face many design challenges when assessing intervention implementation in real-world settings. Intervention implementation requires holding fast on internal validity needs while incorporating external validity considerations (such as uptake by diverse subpopulations, acceptability, cost, and sustainability). Quasi-experimental designs (QEDs) are increasingly employed to achieve a balance between internal and external validity. Although these designs are often referred to and summarized in terms of logistical benefits, there is still uncertainty about (a) selecting from among various QEDs and (b) developing strategies to strengthen the internal and external validity of QEDs...
January 12, 2018: Annual Review of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328872/the-sustainability-of-evidence-based-interventions-and-practices-in-public-health-and-health-care
#14
Rachel C Shelton, Brittany Rhoades Cooper, Shannon Wiltsey Stirman
There is strong interest in implementation science to address the gap between research and practice in public health. Research on the sustainability of evidence-based interventions has been growing rapidly. Sustainability has been defined as the continued use of program components at sufficient intensity for the sustained achievement of desirable program goals and population outcomes. This understudied area has been identified as one of the most significant translational research problems. Adding to this challenge is uncertainty regarding the extent to which intervention adaptation and evolution are necessary to address the needs of populations that differ from those in which interventions were originally tested or implemented...
January 12, 2018: Annual Review of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328871/achieving-mental-health-and-substance-use-disorder-treatment-parity-a-quarter-century-of-policy-making-and-research
#15
Emma Peterson, Susan Busch
The Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act (MHPAEA) of 2008 changed the landscape of mental health and substance use disorder coverage in the United States. The MHPAEA's comprehensiveness compared with past parity laws, including its extension of parity to plan management strategies, the so-called nonquantitative treatment limitations (NQTL), led to significant improvements in mental health care coverage. In this article, we review the history of this landmark legislation and its recent expansions to new populations, describe past research on the effects of this and other mental health/substance use disorder parity laws, and describe some directions for future research, including NQTL compliance issues, effects of parity on individuals with severe mental illness, and measurement of benefits other than mental health care use...
January 12, 2018: Annual Review of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328870/agent-based-modeling-in-public-health-current-applications-and-future-directions
#16
Melissa Tracy, Magdalena Cerdá, Katherine M Keyes
Agent-based modeling is a computational approach in which agents with a specified set of characteristics interact with each other and with their environment according to predefined rules. We review key areas in public health where agent-based modeling has been adopted, including both communicable and noncommunicable disease, health behaviors, and social epidemiology. Wealso describe the main strengths and limitations of this approach for questions with public health relevance. Finally, we describe both methodologic and substantive future directions that we believe will enhance the value of agent-based modeling for public health...
January 12, 2018: Annual Review of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328865/the-relationship-between-education-and-health-reducing-disparities-through-a-contextual-approach
#17
Anna Zajacova, Elizabeth M Lawrence
Adults with higher educational attainment live healthier and longer lives compared with their less educated peers. The disparities are large and widening. We posit that understanding the educational and macrolevel contexts in which this association occurs is key to reducing health disparities and improving population health. In this article, we briefly review and critically assess the current state of research on the relationship between education and health in the United States. We then outline three directions for further research: We extend the conceptualization of education beyond attainment and demonstrate the centrality of the schooling process to health; we highlight the dual role of education as a driver of opportunity but also as a reproducer of inequality; and we explain the central role of specific historical sociopolitical contexts in which the education-health association is embedded...
January 12, 2018: Annual Review of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328864/building-evidence-for-health-green-buildings-current-science-and-future-challenges
#18
J G Cedeño-Laurent, A Williams, P MacNaughton, X Cao, E Eitland, J Spengler, J Allen
Civilizational challenges have questioned the status quo of energy and material consumption by humans. From the built environment perspective, a response to these challenges was the creation of green buildings. Although the revolutionary capacity of the green building movement has elevated the expectations of new commercial construction, its rate of implementation has secluded the majority of the population from its benefits. Beyond reductions in energy usage and increases in market value, the main strength of green buildings may be the procurement of healthier building environments...
January 12, 2018: Annual Review of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328810/shelf-life-of-food-products-from-open-labeling-to-real-time-measurements
#19
Maria G Corradini
The labels currently used on food and beverage products only provide consumers with a rough guide to their expected shelf lives because they assume that a product only experiences a limited range of predefined handling and storage conditions. These static labels do not take into consideration conditions that might shorten a product's shelf life (such as temperature abuse), which can lead to problems associated with food safety and waste. Advances in shelf-life estimation have the potential to improve the safety, reliability, and sustainability of the food supply...
January 12, 2018: Annual Review of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328809/methods-for-the-control-of-foodborne-pathogens-in-low-moisture-foods
#20
Alma Fernanda Sánchez-Maldonado, Alvin Lee, Jeffrey M Farber
Low-moisture foods (LMFs) have been defined as those food products with a water activity (aw) less than 0.85 and are generally considered less susceptible to microbial spoilage and the growth of foodborne pathogens. However, in recent years, outbreaks linked to LMFs have increased, with Salmonella spp., Bacillus cereus, Cronobacter sakazakii, Clostridium spp., Escherichia coli O157:H7, non-O157 E. coli, and Staphylococcus aureus being the principal pathogens involved. Because of the new concerns raised as a result of recent outbreaks, new approaches need to be developed to control foodborne pathogens in LMFs...
January 12, 2018: Annual Review of Food Science and Technology
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