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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934762/dose-response-effects-of-aerobic-exercise-on-body-composition-among-colon-cancer-survivors-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#1
Justin C Brown, Babette S Zemel, Andrea B Troxel, Michael R Rickels, Nevena Damjanov, Bonnie Ky, Andrew D Rhim, Anil K Rustgi, Kerry S Courneya, Kathryn H Schmitz
BACKGROUND: Physical activity is associated with a lower risk of disease recurrence among colon cancer survivors. Excess visceral adipose tissue is associated with a higher risk of disease recurrence among colon cancer survivors. The pathways through which physical activity may alter disease outcomes are unknown, but may be mediated by changes in visceral adipose tissue. METHODS: Thirty-nine stage I-III colon cancer survivors were randomised to one of three groups: usual-care control, 150 min wk(-1) of aerobic exercise (low dose) and 300 min wk(-1) of aerobic exercise (high dose) for 6 months...
September 21, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934761/comparison-between-mri-and-pathology-in-the-assessment-of-tumour-regression-grade-in-rectal-cancer
#2
Francesco Sclafani, Gina Brown, David Cunningham, Andrew Wotherspoon, Larissa Sena Teixeira Mendes, Svetlana Balyasnikova, Jessica Evans, Clare Peckitt, Ruwaida Begum, Diana Tait, Josep Tabernero, Bengt Glimelius, Susana Roselló, Janet Thomas, Jacqui Oates, Ian Chau
BACKGROUND: Limited data exist regarding the correlation between MRI tumour regression grade (mrTRG) and pathological TRG (pTRG) in rectal cancer. METHODS: mrTRG and pTRG were compared in rectal cancer patients from two phase II trials (EXPERT and EXPERT-C). The agreement between radiologist and pathologist was assessed with the weighted κ test while the Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate survival outcomes. RESULTS: One hundred ninety-one patients were included...
September 21, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934759/clinically-significant-mutations-in-hiv-infected-patients-with-lung-adenocarcinoma
#3
Jonathan Thaler, Carlie Sigel, Mary Beth Beasley, Juan Wisnivesky, Kristina Crothers, Joshua Bauml, Kristen Hysell, Brinda Emu, Laetitia Borsu, Keith Sigel
BACKGROUND: Lung cancer is a major cause of death in HIV-infected (HIV+) persons. In this study, we compared the prevalence of tumour EGFR and KRAS mutations in a cohort of lung adenocarcinoma patients by HIV status. METHODS: We collected data from 55 HIV+ patients with lung adenocarcinoma matched to 136 uninfected comparators. We compared the prevalence of EGFR and KRAS mutations by HIV status. We then compared survival by HIV status and by cancer mutation status among HIV+ subjects...
September 21, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934598/mixing-efficiency-in-the-ocean
#4
M C Gregg, E A D'Asaro, J J Riley, E Kunze
Mixing efficiency is the ratio of the net change in potential energy to the energy expended in producing the mixing. Parameterizations of efficiency and of related mixing coefficients are needed to estimate diapycnal diffusivity from measurements of the turbulent dissipation rate. Comparing diffusivities from microstructure profilingwith those inferred from the thickening rate of four simultaneous tracer releases has verified, within observational accuracy, 0.2 as the mixing coefficient over a 30-fold range of diapycnal diffusivities...
September 13, 2017: Annual Review of Marine Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934597/the-recent-atlantic-cold-anomaly-causes-consequences-and-related-phenomena
#5
Simon A Josey, Joel J-M Hirschi, Bablu Sinha, Aurélie Duchez, Jeremy P Grist, Robert Marsh
Cold ocean temperature anomalies have been observed in the mid- to high-latitude North Atlantic on interannual to centennial timescales. Most notably, a large region of persistently low surface temperatures accompanied by a sharp reduction in ocean heat content was evident in the subpolar gyre from the winter of 2013-2014 to 2016, and the presence of this feature at a time of pervasive warming elsewhere has stimulated considerable debate. Here, we review the role of air-sea interaction and ocean processes in generating this cold anomaly and place it in a longer-term context...
September 15, 2017: Annual Review of Marine Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934594/noncoding-rnas-in-polycomb-and-trithorax-regulation-a-quantitative-perspective
#6
Leonie Ringrose
The question of how noncoding RNAs are involved in Polycomb group (PcG) and Trithorax group (TrxG) regulation has been on an extraordinary journey over the last three decades. Favored models have risen and fallen, and healthy debates have swept back and forth. The field has recently reached a critical mass of compelling data that throws light on several previously unresolved issues. The time is ripe for a fruitful combination of these findings with two other long-running avenues of research, namely the biochemical properties of the PcG/TrxG system and the application of theoretical mathematical models toward an understanding of the system's regulatory properties...
September 15, 2017: Annual Review of Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934593/big-lessons-from-little-yeast-budding-and-fission-yeast-centrosome-structure-duplication-and-function
#7
Ann M Cavanaugh, Sue L Jaspersen
Centrosomes are a functionally conserved feature of eukaryotic cells that play an important role in cell division. The conserved γ-tubulin complex organizes spindle and astral microtubules, which, in turn, separate replicated chromosomes accurately into daughter cells. Like DNA, centrosomes are duplicated once each cell cycle. Although in some cell types it is possible for cell division to occur in the absence of centrosomes, these divisions typically result in defects in chromosome number and stability. In singlecelled organisms such as fungi, centrosomes [known as spindle pole bodies (SPBs)] are essential for cell division...
September 15, 2017: Annual Review of Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934592/getting-nervous-an-evolutionary-overhaul-for-communication
#8
Frederique Varoqueaux, Dirk Fasshauer
The evolution of a nervous system as a control system of the body's functions is a key innovation of animals. Its fundamental units are neurons, highly specialized cells dedicated to fast cell-cell communication. Neurons pass signals to other neurons, muscle cells, or gland cells at specialized junctions, the synapses, where transmitters are released from vesicles in a Ca(2+)-dependent fashion to activate receptors in the membrane of the target cell. Reconstructing the origins of neuronal communication out of a more simple process remains a central challenge in biology...
September 20, 2017: Annual Review of Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934591/combining-traditional-mutagenesis-with-new-high-throughput-sequencing-and-genome-editing-to-reveal-hidden-variation-in-polyploid-wheat
#9
Cristobal Uauy, Brande B H Wulff, Jorge Dubcovsky
Induced mutations have been used to generate novel variation for breeding purposes since the early 1900s. However, the combination of this old technology with the new capabilities of high-throughput sequencing has resulted in powerful reverse genetic approaches in polyploid crops. Sequencing genomes or exomes of large mutant populations can generate extensive databases of mutations for most genes. These mutant collections, together with genome editing, are being used in polyploid species to combine mutations in all copies of a gene (homoeologs), and to expose phenotypic variation that was previously hidden by functional redundancy among homoeologs...
September 20, 2017: Annual Review of Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934590/the-relationship-between-the-human-genome-and-microbiome-comes-into-view
#10
Julia K Goodrich, Emily R Davenport, Andrew G Clark, Ruth E Ley
The body's microbiome, composed of microbial cells that number in the trillions, is involved in human health and disease in ways that are just starting to emerge. The microbiome is assembled at birth, develops with its host, and is greatly influenced by environmental factors such as diet and other exposures. Recently, a role for human genetic variation has emerged as also influential in accounting for interpersonal differences in microbiomes. Thus, human genes may influence health directly or by promoting a beneficial microbiome...
September 20, 2017: Annual Review of Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934587/aging-in-the-cardiovascular-system-lessons-from-hutchinson-gilford-progeria-syndrome
#11
Magda R Hamczyk, Lara Del Campo, Vicente Andrés
Aging, the main risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD), is becoming progressively more prevalent in our societies. A better understanding of how aging promotes CVD is therefore urgently needed to develop new strategies to reduce disease burden. Atherosclerosis and heart failure contribute significantly to age-associated CVD-related morbimortality. CVD and aging are both accelerated in patients suffering from Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS), a rare genetic disorder caused by the prelamin A mutant progerin...
September 20, 2017: Annual Review of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934586/improving-student-outcomes-in-higher-education-the-science-of-targeted-intervention
#12
Judith M Harackiewicz, Stacy J Priniski
Many theoretically based interventions have been developed over the past two decades to improve educational outcomes in higher education. Based in social-psychological and motivation theories, well-crafted interventions have proven remarkably effective because they target specific educational problems and the processes that underlie them. In this review, we evaluate the current state of the literature on targeted interventions in higher education with an eye to emerging theoretical and conceptual questions about intervention science...
September 20, 2017: Annual Review of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934563/hemophagocytic-lymphohistiocytosis
#13
Hanny Al-Samkari, Nancy Berliner
Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis is a life-threatening disorder characterized by unbridled activation of cytotoxic T lymphocytes, natural killer (NK) cells, and macrophages resulting in hypercytokinemia and immunemediated injury of multiple organ systems. It is seen in both children and adults and is recognized as primary (driven by underlying genetic mutations that abolish critical proteins required for normal function of cytotoxic T cells and NK cells) or secondary (resulting from a malignant, infectious, or autoimmune stimulus without an identifiable underlying genetic trigger)...
September 13, 2017: Annual Review of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934562/the-enduring-legacy-of-250-years-of-pharmacology-in-edinburgh
#14
John S Kelly, Angus V P Mackay
Two hundred fifty years ago, the University of Edinburgh appointed Francis Home to the first chair of materia medica, the accumulated knowledge of materials used in healing. Francis Home and his colleagues were determined to improve the quality of medical training in Edinburgh by introducing a final examination and compiling a catalog of medicines validated by the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh. The catalog, known as the Edinburgh Pharmacopoeia, was a great success, partly due to the orderly nature of its contents, its routine editing to eliminate worthless entries, and the introduction of new treatments whose preparation was precisely documented...
September 13, 2017: Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934561/epigenetic-mechanisms-regulating-adaptive-responses-to-targeted-kinase-inhibitors-in-cancer
#15
Steven P Angus, Jon S Zawistowski, Gary L Johnson
Although targeted inhibition of oncogenic kinase drivers has achieved remarkable patient responses in many cancers, the development of resistance has remained a significant challenge. Numerous mechanisms have been identified, including the acquisition of gatekeeper mutations, activating pathway mutations, and copy number loss or gain of the driver or alternate nodes. These changes have prompted the development of kinase inhibitors with increased selectivity, use of second-line therapeutics to overcome primary resistance, and combination treatment to forestall resistance...
September 15, 2017: Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934523/sleep-stage-transition-dynamics-reveal-specific-stage-2-vulnerability-in-insomnia
#16
Yishul Wei, Michele A Colombo, Jennifer R Ramautar, Tessa F Blanken, Ysbrand D van der Werf, Kai Spiegelhalder, Bernd Feige, Dieter Riemann, Eus J W Van Someren
Study Objectives: Objective sleep impairments in insomnia disorder (ID) are insufficiently understood. The present study evaluated whether whole-night sleep stage dynamics derived from polysomnography (PSG) differ between people with ID and matched controls and whether sleep stage dynamic features discriminate them better than conventional sleep parameters. Methods: Eighty-eight participants aged 21-70 years, including 46 with ID and 42 age- and sex-matched controls without sleep complaints, were recruited through www...
September 1, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934265/comparative-effectiveness-of-different-transarterial-embolization-therapies-alone-or-in-combination-with-local-ablative-or-adjuvant-systemic-treatments-for-unresectable-hepatocellular-carcinoma-a-network-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#17
Konstantinos Katsanos, Panagiotis Kitrou, Stavros Spiliopoulos, Ioannis Maroulis, Theodore Petsas, Dimitris Karnabatidis
BACKGROUND: The optimal transcatheter embolization strategy for patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains elusive. We conducted a systematic review and network meta-analysis (NMA) of different embolization options for unresectable HCC. METHODS: Medical databases were searched for randomized controlled trials evaluating bland transarterial embolization (TAE), conventional TACE, drug-eluting bead chemoembolization (DEB-TACE), or transarterial radioembolization (TARE), either alone or combined with adjuvant chemotherapy, or local liver ablation, or external radiotherapy for unresectable HCC up to June 2017...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933938/development-of-a-statewide-publicly-accessible-drug-overdose-surveillance-and-information-system
#18
Brandon D L Marshall, Jesse L Yedinak, Jonathan Goyer, Traci C Green, Jennifer A Koziol, Nicole Alexander-Scott
In response to Rhode Island's overdose epidemic, we developed a collaborative, statewide online "dashboard" to provide the public with timely overdose surveillance data. The Web site- www.PreventOverdoseRI.org (PORI)-offers user-friendly data visualizations, plain language education, and interactive resource maps. Development of the site has improved overdose data sharing and transparency in Rhode Island. Preliminary results suggest a successful site launch. Future research will evaluate the effectiveness of PORI in terms of informing strategic initiatives to reduce overdoses in affected communities...
September 21, 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933690/ictv-virus-taxonomy-profile-cystoviridae
#19
Minna M Poranen, Sari Mäntynen, Ictv Report Consortium
The family Cystoviridae includes enveloped viruses with a tri-segmented dsRNA genome and a double-layered protein capsid. The innermost protein shell is a polymerase complex responsible for genome packaging, replication and transcription. Cystoviruses infect Gram-negative bacteria, primarily plant-pathogenic Pseudomonas syringae strains. This is a summary of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) Report on the taxonomy of the Cystoviridae, which is available at http://www.ictv.global/report/cystoviridae...
September 20, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933237/cross-validation-and-development-of-empirically-derived-adhd-assessment-strategies-insights-from-the-national-longitudinal-study-of-adolescent-health-add-health
#20
Shirag K Shemmassian, Steve S Lee
OBJECTIVE: There is replicated evidence that individual ADHD symptoms differentially predict ADHD diagnostic status, and that non- Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)-based symptom algorithms are superior to DSM criteria for ruling in or ruling out ADHD. However, these findings have been limited to case-control samples, despite the need to replicate them in independent and more representative samples and to increase their generalizability. METHOD: We analyzed the base rates and psychometric properties of ADHD symptoms in the population-based National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health; http://www...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Attention Disorders
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