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Glial Cell

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161639/specification-plasticity-and-evolutionary-origin-of-peripheral-glial-cells
#1
REVIEW
Maria Eleni Kastriti, Igor Adameyko
Peripheral glia includes predominantly myelinating and non-myelinating Schwann cells in addition to satellite, terminal and enteric glia as well as other unresolved subtypes with localized functions. Of these subtypes, all of them originate from neural crest-derived embryonic Schwann cell precursors (SCPs). Specific gene regulatory networks control neural crest specification and downstream events, including SCP differentiation and myelination. Embryonic SCPs are multipotent and generate neuroendocrine cells, parasympathetic and enteric neurons, melanocytes and other cell types...
November 18, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161339/astrocyte-specific-deletion-of-sox2-promotes-functional-recovery-after-traumatic-brain-injury
#2
Chunhai Chen, Xiaoling Zhong, Derek K Smith, Wenjiao Tai, Jianjing Yang, Yuhua Zou, Lei-Lei Wang, Jiahong Sun, Song Qin, Chun-Li Zhang
Injury to the adult brain induces activation of local astrocytes, which serves as a compensatory response that modulates tissue damage and recovery. However, the mechanism governing astrocyte activation during brain injury remains largely unknown. Here we provide in vivo evidence that SOX2, a transcription factor critical for stem cells and brain development, is also required for injury-induced activation of adult cortical astrocytes. Genome-wide chromatin immunoprecipitation-seq analysis of mouse cortical tissues reveals that SOX2 binds to regulatory regions of genes associated with signaling pathways that control glial cell activation, such as Nr2e1, Mmd2, Wnt7a, and Akt2...
November 17, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161152/proliferative-cells-isolated-from-the-adult-human-peripheral-retina-only-transiently-upregulate-key-retinal-markers-upon-induced-differentiation
#3
Erik O Johnsen, Rebecca C Frøen, Ole Kristoffer Olstad, Bjørn Nicolaissen, Goran Petrovski, Morten C Moe, Agate Noer
Purpose/Aim: The adult human retina has limited regenerative potential, and severe injury will result in permanent damage. Lower vertebrates handle retinal injury by activating neural stem cells (NSCs) in the ciliary marginal zone (CMZ). Müller glia-like cells expressing markers of NSCs are also present in the peripheral retina (PR) of the adult human eye, leading to the hypothesis that a CMZ-like zone might exists also in humans. In order to shed further light on this hypothesis we investigated the in vitro differentiation potential of proliferative cells isolated from the adult human PR towards a retinal phenotype...
November 21, 2017: Current Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159762/p2y12-receptor-upregulation-in-satellite-glial-cells-is-involved-in-neuropathic-pain-induced-by-hiv-glycoprotein-120-and-2-3-dideoxycytidine
#4
Zhihua Yi, Lihui Xie, Congfa Zhou, Huilong Yuan, Shuai Ouyang, Zhi Fang, Shanhong Zhao, Tianyu Jia, Lifang Zou, Shouyu Wang, Yun Xue, Bing Wu, Yun Gao, Guilin Li, Shuangmei Liu, Hong Xu, Changshui Xu, Chunping Zhang, Shangdong Liang
The direct neurotoxicity of HIV and neurotoxicity of combination antiretroviral therapy medications both contribute to the development of neuropathic pain. Activation of satellite glial cells (SGCs) in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) plays a crucial role in mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia. The P2Y12 receptor expressed in SGCs of the DRG is involved in pain transmission. In this study, we explored the role of the P2Y12 receptor in neuropathic pain induced by HIV envelope glycoprotein 120 (gp120) combined with ddC (2',3'-dideoxycytidine)...
November 20, 2017: Purinergic Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159704/neuroimmune-regulation-of-jc-virus-by-intracellular-and-extracellular-agnoprotein
#5
Michael Craigie, Stephanie Cicalese, Ilker Kudret Sariyer
JC virus (JCV) is a human polyomavirus and the etiologic agent of the demyelinating disease progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). PML is observed in patients with underlying immunocompromising conditions, suggesting that neuro-immune interactions between peripheral immune cells and neuro-glia play an important role in controlling viral reactivation in the brain. There is little known about the immunobiology of JCV reactivation in glial cells and the role of immune, glial, and viral players in this regulation...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology: the Official Journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159046/imaging-of-glia-activation-in-people-with-primary-lateral-sclerosis
#6
Sabrina Paganoni, Mohamad J Alshikho, Nicole R Zürcher, Paul Cernasov, Suma Babu, Marco L Loggia, James Chan, Daniel B Chonde, David Izquierdo Garcia, Ciprian Catana, Caterina Mainero, Bruce R Rosen, Merit E Cudkowicz, Jacob M Hooker, Nazem Atassi
Background: Glia activation is thought to contribute to neuronal damage in several neurodegenerative diseases based on preclinical and human post-mortem studies, but its role in primary lateral sclerosis (PLS) is unknown. Objectives: To localize and measure glia activation in people with PLS compared to healthy controls (HC). Methods: Ten participants with PLS and ten age-matched HCs underwent simultaneous magnetic resonance (MR) and proton emission tomography (PET)...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157004/vanadium-inhalation-induces-retinal-m%C3%A3-ller-glial-cell-mgc-alterations-in-a-murine-model
#7
Silvana Cervantes-Yépez, Lorena Sofía López-Zepeda, Teresa Fortoul
BACKGROUND: Vanadium (V) is a transition metal adhered to suspended particles. Previous studies demonstrated that V inhalation causes oxidative stress in the ependymal epithelium, the choroid plexus on brain lateral ventricles and in the retina. Inhaled-V reaches the eye´s retina through the systemic circulation; however, its effect on the retina has not been widely studied. The Müller glial cell provides support and structure to the retina, facilitates synapses and regulates the microenvironment and neuronal metabolism...
November 20, 2017: Cutaneous and Ocular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155887/effects-of-an-a%C3%AE-antibody-fragment-on-a%C3%AE-aggregation-and-astrocytic-uptake-are-modulated-by-apolipoprotein-e-and-j-mimetic-peptides
#8
Laia Montoliu-Gaya, Sandra D Mulder, Robert Veerhuis, Sandra Villegas
Aβ-Immunotherapy has long been studied in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD), but not how other molecules involved in the disease can affect antibody performance. We previously designed an antibody fragment, scFv-h3D6, and showed that it precludes Aβ-induced cytotoxicity by withdrawing Aβ oligomers from the amyloid pathway towards a non-toxic, worm-like pathway. ScFv-h3D6 was effective at the behavioral, cellular, and molecular levels in the 3xTg-AD mouse model. Because scFv-h3D6 treatment restored apolipoprotein E (apoE) and J (apoJ) concentrations to non-pathological values, and Aβ internalization by glial cells was found to be decreased in the presence of these apolipoproteins, we now aimed to test the influence of scFv-h3D6 on Aβ aggregation and cellular uptake by primary human astrocytes in the presence of therapeutic apoE and apoJ mimetic peptides (MPs)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155714/application-of-multicolor-flpout-technique-to-study-high-resolution-single-cell-morphologies-and-cell-interactions-of-glia-in-drosophila
#9
Sara Batelli, Malte Kremer, Christophe Jung, Ulrike Gaul
Cells display different morphologies and complex anatomical relationships. How do cells interact with their neighbors? Do the interactions differ between cell types or even within a given type? What kinds of spatial rules do they follow? The answers to such fundamental questions in vivo have been hampered so far by a lack of tools for high resolution single cell labeling. Here, a detailed protocol to target single cells with a MultiColor FlpOut (MCFO) technique is provided. This method relies on three differently tagged reporters (HA, FLAG and V5) under UAS control that are kept silent by a transcriptional terminator flanked by two FRT sites (FRT-stop-FRT)...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155711/monitoring-astrocyte-reactivity-and-proliferation-in-vitro-under-ischemic-like-conditions
#10
Yancy Ferrer-Acosta, Maxine N Gonzalez-Vega, David E Rivera-Aponte, Solianne M Martinez-Jimenez, Antonio H Martins
Ischemic stroke is a complex brain injury caused by a thrombus or embolus obstructing blood flow to parts of the brain. This leads to deprivation of oxygen and glucose, which causes energy failure and neuronal death. After an ischemic stroke insult, astrocytes become reactive and proliferate around the injury site as it develops. Under this scenario, it is difficult to study the specific contribution of astrocytes to the brain region exposed to ischemia. Therefore, this article introduces a methodology to study primary astrocyte reactivity and proliferation under an in vitro model of an ischemia-like environment, called oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD)...
October 21, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155323/the-role-of-p2x7r-erk-signaling-in-dorsal-root-ganglia-satellite-glial-cells-in-the-development-of-chronic-postsurgical-pain-induced-by-skin-muscle-incision-and-retraction-smir
#11
Jingnian Song, Yanlu Ying, Wei Wang, Xianguo Liu, Xuebing Xu, Xuhong Wei, Xiangcai Ruan
The mechanisms of chronic postsurgical pain remain to be elucidated.. We reported here that skin/muscle incision and retraction (SMIR), a rat model of postsurgical pain, phosphorylated the extracellular regulated protein kinases (ERK) signaling components c-Raf, MEK (ERK kinase) and ERK1/2 in lumbar 3 dorsal root ganglion (L3 DRG) in rats. Intrathecal injection of ERK specific inhibitor SCH772984 suppressed the mechanical allodynia induced by SMIR. Further more, SMIR upregulated tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) in L3 DRG, which could be inhibited by SCH772984...
November 16, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154783/involvement-of-monocarboxylate-transporter-1-slc16a1-in-the-uptake-of-l-lactate-in-human-astrocytes
#12
Masaya Ideno, Masaki Kobayashi, Shotaro Sasaki, Yuya Futagi, Katsuya Narumi, Ayako Furugen, Ken Iseki
PURPOSE: Astrocytes, the most abundant glial cells in the central nervous system (CNS), help neurons survive Monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs) are reported to transport l-lactate, which is important for CNS physiology and cognitive function. However, it remains unclear which MCT isoform is functionally expressed by human astrocytes. The aim of this study was to establish the contribution of each MCT isoform to l-lactate transport in human astrocytes. METHODS: The function of l-lactate transport was studied using NHA cells as a human astrocyte model and radiolabeled l-lactate...
November 14, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153031/human-co-culture-model-of-neurons-and-astrocytes-to-test-acute-cytotoxicity-of-neurotoxic-compounds
#13
Uliana De Simone, Francesca Caloni, Laura Gribaldo, Teresa Coccini
Alternative methods and their use in planning and conducting toxicology experiments have become essential for modern toxicologists, thus reducing or replacing living animals. Although in vitro human co-culture models allow the establishment of biologically relevant cell-cell interactions that recapitulate the tissue microenvironment and better mimic its physiology, the number of publications is limited specifically addressing this scientific area and utilizing this test method which could provide an additional valuable model in toxicological studies...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152836/modulation-of-fatty-acid-metabolism-and-immune-suppression-are-features-of-in-vitro-tumour-sphere-formation-in-ontogenetically-distinct-dog-cancers
#14
J-H Kim, A M Frantz, A L Sarver, B H Gorden Klukas, M Lewellen, T D O'Brien, E B Dickerson, J F Modiano
Non-adherent, 3-dimensional sphere formation is used as an in vitro surrogate to evaluate cellular potential for tumour initiation and self-renewal. To determine if a shared molecular program underlies the capacity for sphere formation by cells originating from diverse tumour types, we characterized molecular and functional properties of 10 independent cell lines derived from 3 ontogenetically distinct dog cancers: hemangiosarcoma, osteosarcoma and glial brain tumours. Genome-wide gene expression profiling identified tumour-of-origin-dependent patterns of adjustment to sphere formation in a uniform culture condition...
November 20, 2017: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152145/gfap%C3%AE-gfap%C3%AE-ratio-directs-astrocytoma-gene-expression-towards-a-more-malignant-profile
#15
Oscar M J A Stassen, Emma J van Bodegraven, Fabrizio Giuliani, Martina Moeton, Regina Kanski, Jacqueline A Sluijs, Miriam E van Strien, Willem Kamphuis, Pierre A J Robe, Elly M Hol
Astrocytomas are the most common malignant brain tumours and are to date incurable. It is unclear how astrocytomas progress into higher malignant grades. The intermediate filament cytoskeleton is emerging as an important regulator of malignancy in several tumours. The majority of the astrocytomas express the intermediate filament protein Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein (GFAP). Several GFAP splice variants have been identified and the main variants expressed in human astrocytoma are the GFAPα and GFAPδ isoforms...
October 20, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152094/xenotransplantation-of-pediatric-low-grade-gliomas-confirms-the-enrichment-of-braf-v600e-mutation-and-preservation-of-cdkn2a-deletion-in-a-novel-orthotopic-xenograft-mouse-model-of-progressive-pleomorphic-xanthoastrocytoma
#16
Mari Kogiso, Lin Qi, Holly Lindsay, Yulun Huang, Xiumei Zhao, Zhigang Liu, Frank K Braun, Yuchen Du, Huiyuan Zhang, Goeun Bae, Sibo Zhao, Sarah G Injac, Mary Sobieski, David Brunell, Vidya Mehta, Diep Tran, Jeffrey Murray, Patricia A Baxter, Xiao-Jun Yuan, Jack M Su, Adekunle Adesina, Laszlo Perlaky, Murali Chintagumpala, D Williams Parsons, Ching C Lau, Clifford C Stephan, Xinyan Lu, Xiao-Nan Li
To identify cellular and molecular changes that driver pediatric low grade glioma (PLGG) progression, we analyzed putative cancer stem cells (CSCs) and evaluated key biological changes in a novel and progressive patient-derived orthotopic xenograft (PDOX) mouse model. Flow cytometric analysis of 22 PLGGs detected CD133(+) (<1.5%) and CD15(+) (20.7 ± 28.9%) cells, and direct intra-cranial implantation of 25 PLGGs led to the development of 1 PDOX model from a grade II pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma (PXA). While CSC levels did not correlate with patient tumor progression, neurosphere formation and in vivo tumorigenicity, the PDOX model, IC-3635PXA, reproduced key histological features of the original tumor...
October 20, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150977/the-cellular-composition-and-glia-neuron-ratio-in-the-spinal-cord-of-a-human-and-a-non-human-primate-comparison-with-other-species-and-brain-regions
#17
Jami Bahney, Christopher S von Bartheld
The cellular composition of brains shows largely conserved, gradual evolutionary trends between species. In the primate spinal cord, however, the glia-neuron ratio was reported to be greatly increased over that in the rodent spinal cord. Here, we re-examined the cellular composition of the spinal cord of one human and one non-human primate species by employing two different counting methods, the isotropic fractionator and stereology. We also determined whether segmental differences in cellular composition, possibly reflecting increased fine motor control of the upper extremities, may explain a sharply increased glia-neuron ratio in primates...
November 18, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150945/development-of-an-in-vivo-mouse-model-of-discogenic-low-back-pain
#18
Changgui Shi, Vaskar Das, Xin Li, Ranjan Kc, Sujun Qiu, InSug O-Sullivan, Richard L Ripper, Jeffrey S Kroin, Fackson Mwale, Atiyayein A Wallace, Bingqian Zhu, Lan Zhao, Andre J van Wijnen, Mingliang Ji, Jun Lu, Gina Votta-Velis, Wen Yuan, Hee-Jeong Im
Discogenic Low back pain (DLBP) is extremely common and costly. Effective treatments are lacking due to DLBP's unknown pathogenesis. Currently, there are no in vivo mouse models of DLBP, which restricts research in this field. The aim of this study was to establish a reliable DLBP model in mouse that captures the pathological changes in the disc and allows longitudinal pain testing. The model was generated by puncturing the mouse lumbar discs (L4/5, L5/6, and L6/S1) and removing the nucleus pulposus using a microscalpel under the microscope...
November 18, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150788/ck4-ck6-cyclin-d1-p16-ink4a-and-egfr-expression-in-glioblastoma-with-a-primitive-neuronal-component
#19
Guiyan Xu, Jian Yi Li
Glioblastoma with primitive neuroectodermal tumor-like component (GBM-PNET) is a rare variant of glioblastoma, which was renamed as glioblastoma with a primitive neuronal component (GBM-PN) in new WHO classification of tumours of the central nervous system in 2016. There are few publications on the investigation of GBM-PN. In this study, PCR mRNA arrays on 6 cases of conventional GBM and 10 cases of GBM-PN showed high mRNA level of CDK4 in GBM-PN and low mRNA level of EGFR in GBM-PN. Immunohistochemical stains on tissue microarrays with 28 cases of conventional GBM and 13 cases of GBM-PN demonstrated that CDK4 was selectively expressed in the primitive neuronal component of all GBM-PN cases while EGFR was positive in conventional GBM and glial component of GBM-PN, but was negative in the primitive neuronal component of all GBM-PN cases...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150673/m%C3%A3-ller-glial-micrornas-are-required-for-the-maintenance-of-glial-homeostasis-and-retinal-architecture
#20
Stefanie G Wohl, Nikolas L Jorstad, Edward M Levine, Thomas A Reh
To better understand the roles of microRNAs in glial function, we used a conditional deletion of Dicer1 (Dicer-CKOMG) in retinal Müller glia (MG). Dicer1 deletion from the MG leads to an abnormal migration of the cells as early as 1 month after the deletion. By 6 months after Dicer1 deletion, the MG form large aggregations and severely disrupt normal retinal architecture and function. The most highly upregulated gene in the Dicer-CKOMG MG is the proteoglycan Brevican (Bcan) and overexpression of Bcan results in similar aggregations of the MG in wild-type retina...
November 17, 2017: Nature Communications
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