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Glial Cell

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239864/astrocytes-sniph-out-bicarbonate-to-regulate-acid-base-review-of-bicarbonate-sensing-in-mouse-cortical-astrocytes-during-extracellular-acid-base-disturbances-by-theparambil-et%C3%A2-al
#1
Robert Fern
In recent years the glial cell type called the astrocyte has been implicated in CNS functions previously considered to be the exclusive domain of neurons; examples include modulation of synaptic strength and memory consolidation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
February 27, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239341/adeno-associated-viral-vectors-serotype-8-for-cell-specific-delivery-of-therapeutic-genes-in-the-central-nervous-system
#2
Diego Pignataro, Diego Sucunza, Lucia Vanrell, Esperanza Lopez-Franco, Iria G Dopeso-Reyes, Africa Vales, Mirja Hommel, Alberto J Rico, Jose L Lanciego, Gloria Gonzalez-Aseguinolaza
Adeno-associated viruses (AAVs) have become highly promising tools for research and clinical applications in the central nervous system (CNS). However, specific delivery of genes to the cell type of interest is essential for the success of gene therapy and therefore a correct selection of the promoter plays a very important role. Here, AAV8 vectors carrying enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) as reporter gene under the transcriptional control of different CNS-specific promoters were used and compared with a strong ubiquitous promoter...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238775/assessing-the-brain-through-the-eye-new-ways-to-explore-hepatic-encephalopathy
#3
Natalia Arias, Marta Méndez, Ignacio Alcalde, Almudena Íñigo-Portugués, Jesús Merayo-Lloves, Jaime Arias, Jorge L Arias
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Minimal hepatic encephalopathy (mHE) has been shown to affect daily functioning, quality of life, driving and overall mortality. However, little is known about treating or diagnosing early impairments in mHE. We studied one of its precipitating factors, portal hypertension which is driving the inflammatory process behind mHE. The purpose was to describe an indirect diagnostic method able to detect the pathology at early stages based on the study of the vascularization and mast cells conjunctival hyperplasia as secondary inflammatory response associated to portal hypertension...
February 23, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237844/characterization-of-the-cystine-glutamate-antiporter-in-cultured-bergmann-glia-cells
#4
Edna Suárez-Pozos, Zila Martínez-Lozada, Orquidia G Mendez-Flores, Alain M Guillem, Luisa C Hernández-Kelly, Francisco Castelán, Tatiana N Olivares-Bañuelos, Donaji Chi-Castañeda, Mustapha Najimi, Arturo Ortega
Glutamate, the major excitatory transmitter in the vertebrate brain is a potent neurotoxin through the over-stimulation of its specific membrane receptors. In accordance, a tight regulation of its extracellular levels by plasma membrane transporters is present. A family of excitatory amino acid transporters is expressed in neurons and glia cells and is responsible of the removal of the neurotransmitter from the synaptic cleft. Glial transporters account for more than 80% of the brain uptake activity. The cystine/glutamate antiporter is another plasma membrane-bound protein critically involved in glutamatergic transmission...
February 22, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237704/the-accumulation-of-immunoglobulin-g-against-dermatophagoides-farinae-tropomyosin-in-dorsal-root-ganglia-of-nc-nga-mice-with-atopic-dermatitis-like-symptoms
#5
Ayaka Otsu, Hiroaki Kawasaki, Mitsutoshi Tominaga, Ayako Shigenaga, Hironori Matsuda, Nobuaki Takahashi, Tadaaki Nakajima, Hisashi Naito, Takeshi Baba, Hideoki Ogawa, Yasuhiro Tomooka, Fumiyuki Yamakura, Kenji Takamori
Atopic dermatitis (AD), a chronic inflammatory skin disease, manifests as intractable itch, but its underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. This study assessed the relationship between immunoglobulin G (IgG) and dorsal root ganglia (DRG) in NC/Nga mice, a model of AD that manifests AD-like symptoms including itch. Immunohistochemical analysis showed large amounts of IgG in DRG extracts of NC/Nga mice with AD-like dermatitis, with a large fraction of the IgG distributed in satellite glial cells of the DRG...
February 22, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237546/seasonal-variation-in-telencephalon-cell-proliferation-in-adult-female-tsinling-dwarf-skinks-scincella-tsinlingensis
#6
Chun Yang, Limin Wang, Xiangyang Xing, Yanyan Gao, Li Guo
In adult mammals, neurogenesis is limited to specific niches in the brain, but considerable adult neurogenesis occurs in many brain regions in non-mammalian vertebrates. Non-mammalian vertebrates provide invaluablecomparativematerial for understanding the core mechanisms ofadultneural stem cell maintenance and fate, but phylogenetic differences in adult neurogenesis remain poorly understood. Here we examine cell proliferation seasonality in the telencephalon of adult female tsinling dwarf skinks (Scincella tsinlingensis) by injecting wild animals caught in summer, autumn and spring, and animals caught in autumn and raised under winter conditions, with 5-Bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU)...
February 22, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237322/effect-of-chronic-administration-of-sildenafil-citrate-viagra-on-the-histology-of-the-retina-and-optic-nerve-of-adult-male-rat
#7
Sohair A Eltony, Sally Y Abdelhameed
BACKGROUND: Abnormal vision has been reported by 3% of patients treated with sildenafil citrate (Viagra). Although many men use Viagra for an extended period for treatment of erectile dysfunction, the implications of the long term-daily use of it on the retina and optic nerve are unclear. AIM OF THE WORK: To investigate the effect of chronic daily use of sildenafil citrate in a dose equivalent to men preferred therapeutic dose on the histology of the retina and optic nerve of adult male rat...
February 5, 2017: Tissue & Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237316/metabolite-transport-across-the-mammalian-and-insect-brain-diffusion-barriers
#8
Astrid Weiler, Anne Volkenhoff, Helen Hertenstein, Stefanie Schirmeier
The nervous system in higher vertebrates is separated from the circulation by a layer of specialized endothelial cells. It protects the sensitive neurons from harmful blood-derived substances, high and fluctuating ion concentrations, xenobiotics or even pathogens. To this end, the brain endothelial cells and their interlinking tight junctions build an efficient diffusion barrier. A structurally analogous diffusion barrier exists in insects, where glial cell layers separate the hemolymph from the neural cells...
February 22, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236848/the-fibrinolytic-system-a-new-target-for-treatment-of-depression-with-psychedelics
#9
R D Idell, G Florova, A A Komissarov, S Shetty, R B S Girard, S Idell
Current understanding of the neurobiology of depression has grown over the past few years beyond the traditional monoamine theory of depression to include chronic stress, inflammation and disrupted synaptic plasticity. Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is a key factor that not only promotes fibrinolysis via the activation of plasminogen, but also contributes to regulation of synaptic plasticity and neurogenesis through plasmin-mediated activation of a probrain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) to mature BDNF...
March 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236278/tat-mediated-induction-of-mirs-34a-138-promotes-astrocytic-activation-via-downregulation-of-sirt1-implications-for-aging-in-hand
#10
Guoku Hu, Ke Liao, Lu Yang, Gurudutt Pendyala, Yeonhee Kook, Howard S Fox, Shilpa Buch
Astrocyte activation is a hallmark of HIV infection and aging in the CNS. In chronically infected HIV patients, prolonged activation of astrocytes has been linked to accelerated aging including but not limited to neurocognitive impairment and frailty. The current study addresses the role of HIV protein Tat in inducing a set of small noncoding microRNAs (miRNA) that play critical role in astrogliosis. In our efforts to link astrocyte activation as an indicator of aging, we assessed the brains of both wild type and HIV transgenic rats for the expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)...
February 24, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology: the Official Journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236065/glioblastoma-spheroids-produce-infiltrative-gliomas-in-the-rat-brainstem
#11
Zhiping Zhou, Neal Luther, Ranjodh Singh, John A Boockvar, Mark M Souweidane, Jeffrey P Greenfield
PURPOSE: Diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) is universally fatal without proven therapy other than radiation therapy for palliation. Representative animal models will play an essential role in the preclinical stage of future therapy development. To address the shortage of representative models, we created a novel infiltrative brainstem glioma model in rats based on glioblastoma spheroids. METHODS: Cells dissociated from glioblastoma spheroids grown from surgical specimens were implanted into the brainstem of NIH nude rats...
February 24, 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235789/erbb-signaling-attenuates-pro-inflammatory-activation-of-non-classical-monocytes
#12
Sergey Ryzhov, Anton Matafonov, Cristi L Galindo, Qinkun Zhang, Truc-Linh Tran, Daniel P Lenihan, Carrie Geisberg Lenneman, Igor Feoktistov, Douglas B Sawyer
Immune activation in chronic systolic heart failure (HF) correlates with disease severity and prognosis. Recombinant neuregulin-1 (NRG-1) is being developed as a possible therapy for HF based on activation of ERBB receptors in cardiac cells. Work in animal models of HF led us to hypothesize that there may be direct effects of NRG-1 on immune system activation and inflammation. We investigated the expression of ERBB receptors and the effect of the recombinant NRG-1 isoform glial growth factor 2 (GGF2) in subpopulations of peripheral blood mononuclear cells in subjects with HF...
February 24, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231624/targets-and-mechanisms-in-prevention-of-parkinson-s-disease-through-immunomodulatory-treatments
#13
REVIEW
Marianne von Euler Chelpin, Thomas Vorup-Jensen
Parkinson's Disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease in the world, however, there is no cure for it. Current treatments only relieve some of the symptoms, without ceasing the disease, and lose efficacy with prolonged treatment. Considerable evidence shows that persistent inflammatory responses, involving T cell infiltration and glial cell activation, are common characteristics of human patients and play a crucial role in the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons. Therefore, it is important to develop therapeutic strategies that can impede or halt the disease through the modulation of the peripheral immune system by aiming at controlling the existing neuroinflammation...
February 23, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230857/protein-phosphatase-4-coordinates-glial-membrane-recruitment-and-phagocytic-clearance-of-degenerating-axons-in-drosophila
#14
Lilly M Winfree, Sean D Speese, Mary A Logan
Neuronal damage induced by injury, stroke, or neurodegenerative disease elicits swift immune responses from glial cells, including altered gene expression, directed migration to injury sites, and glial clearance of damaged neurons through phagocytic engulfment. Collectively, these responses hinder further cellular damage, but the mechanisms that underlie these important protective glial reactions are still unclear. Here, we show that the evolutionarily conserved trimeric protein phosphatase 4 (PP4) serine/threonine phosphatase complex is a novel set of factors required for proper glial responses to nerve injury in the adult Drosophila brain...
February 23, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230741/high-frequency-repetitive-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-rtms-improves-functional-recovery-by-enhancing-neurogenesis-and-activating-bdnf-trkb-signaling-in-ischemic-rats
#15
Jing Luo, Haiqing Zheng, Liying Zhang, Qingjie Zhang, Lili Li, Zhong Pei, Xiquan Hu
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has rapidly become an attractive therapeutic approach for stroke. However, the mechanisms underlying this remain elusive. This study aimed to investigate whether high-frequency rTMS improves functional recovery mediated by enhanced neurogenesis and activation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)/tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB) pathway and to compare the effect of conventional 20 Hz rTMS and intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS) on ischemic rats...
February 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230058/macrophage-migration-inhibitory-factor-is-subjected-to-glucose-modification-and-oxidation-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#16
Omar Kassaar, Marta Pereira Morais, Suying Xu, Emily L Adam, Rosemary C Chamberlain, Bryony Jenkins, Tony James, Paul T Francis, Stephen Ward, Robert J Williams, Jean van den Elsen
Glucose and glucose metabolites are able to adversely modify proteins through a non-enzymatic reaction called glycation, which is associated with the pathology of Alzheimer's Disease (AD) and is a characteristic of the hyperglycaemia induced by diabetes. However, the precise protein glycation profile that characterises AD is poorly defined and the molecular link between hyperglycaemia and AD is unknown. In this study, we define an early glycation profile of human brain using fluorescent phenylboronate gel electrophoresis and identify early glycation and oxidation of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) in AD brain...
February 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229088/glutathione-induces-gaba-release-through-p2x7r-activation-on-m%C3%A3-ller-glia
#17
Hércules Rezende Freitas, Ricardo A de Melo Reis
The retinal tissue of warm-blooded vertebrates performs surprisingly complex and accurate transduction of visual information. To achieve precision, a multilayered neuroglia structure is established throughout the embryonic development, and the presence of radial Müller (glial) cells ensure differentiation, growth and survival for the neuronal elements within retinal environment. It is assumed that Müller cells serve as a dynamic reservoir of progenitors, capable of expressing transcription factors, differentiating and proliferating as either neuronal or glial cells depending on extrinsic cues...
2017: Neurogenesis (Austin, Tex.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228044/withaferin-a-protects-against-spinal-cord-injury-by-inhibiting-apoptosis-and-inflammation-in-mice
#18
Xianlei Yan, Guangxiang Huang, Quan Liu, Jiemin Zheng, Hongmou Chen, Qidan Huang, Jiakang Chen, Heqing Huang
CONTEXT: Withaferin A (WFA) exhibits diverse pharmaceutical applications on human diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, cancers and microbial infection. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the neuroprotective role of WFA using a mouse model of spinal cord injury (SCI). MATERIALS AND METHODS: BALB/c mice were administrated 10 mg/kg of WFA. Gene expression was measured by real-time PCR, western blot and immunohistochemistry. Cell morphology and apoptosis were determined by H&E staining and TUNEL assay...
December 2017: Pharmaceutical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226691/structural-changes-of-cingulate-cortex-in-post-stroke-depression
#19
Chenfei Ye, Jun Wu, Xuhui Chen, Changle Zhang, Hengtong Li, Shuai Mao, Heather T Ma, Chenfei Ye, Jun Wu, Xuhui Chen, Changle Zhang, Hengtong Li, Shuai Mao, Heather T Ma, Shuai Mao, Heather T Ma, Jun Wu, Hengtong Li, Changle Zhang, Chenfei Ye, Xuhui Chen
Disruption of neural connections among regions regulating mood and cognition rather than cerebrovascular lesions may contribute to post-stroke depression (PSD). In this paper, we hypothesized that structural abnormalities in white matter structure like cingulate cortex induced by focal infarcts would play a role in mood regulation or depression after stroke onset. Various DTI coefficients including FA, RD and ADC with multiple signal distribution measurements were collected and statistically analyzed. The results identify significant differences in volume and multiple diffusion indices of DTI intensity distribution in cingulate cortex between PSD patients and the normal control...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224126/antioxidant-effects-of-the-quercetin-in-the-jejunal-myenteric-innervation-of-diabetic-rats
#20
Sara R Garcia de Souza, Marcílio Hubner de Miranda Neto, Juliana Vanessa Colombo Martins Perles, Flávia Cristina Vieira Frez, Isabela Zignani, Francielle Veiga Ramalho, Catchia Hermes-Uliana, Gleison Daion Piovezana Bossolani, Jacqueline Nelisis Zanoni
PURPOSE: Enteric glial cells (EGCs) exert a critical role in the structural integrity, defense, and metabolic function of enteric neurons. Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease characterized by metabolic disorders and chronic autonomic neuropathy. Quercetin supplementation, which is a potent antioxidant, has been used in order to reduce the effects of diabetes-induced oxidative stress. The purpose of this research was to investigate the effects of quercetin supplementation in the drinking water at a daily dose of 40 mg on the glial cells and neurons in the jejunum of diabetic rats...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
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