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Glial Cell

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341299/autonomous-purkinje-cell-axonal-dystrophy-causes-ataxia-in-peroxisomal-multifunctional-protein-2-deficiency
#1
Stephanie De Munter, Dorien Bamps, Ana Rita Malheiro, Ritesh Kumar Baboota, Pedro Brites, Myriam Baes
BACKGROUND: Peroxisomes play a crucial role in normal neurodevelopment and in the maintenance of the adult brain. This depends largely on intact peroxisomal β-oxidation given the similarities in pathologies between peroxisome biogenesis disorders and deficiency of multifunctional protein-2 (MFP2), the central enzyme of this pathway. Recently, adult patients diagnosed with cerebellar ataxia were shown to have mild mutations in the MFP2 gene, hydroxy-steroid dehydrogenase (17 beta) type 4 (HSD17B4)...
January 17, 2018: Brain Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341007/functional-diffusion-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#2
Rita Maria Rocha Oliveira, Irene Guadilla, Pilar López-Larrubia
Functional diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (fDMRI) is a noninvasive technique that allows elucidating physiological and anatomical changes at a microscopic scale by detection of water molecular displacements in tissue structures. These displacements likely reflect microstructural changes associated with neuronal or glial cells activation. In this chapter, we will describe the physical and biological concepts of fDMRI and how images of brain activation can be acquired in a preclinical setup.
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340649/optic-nerve-regeneration-after-crush-remodels-the-injury-site-molecular-insights-from-imaging-mass-spectrometry
#3
David T Stark, David M G Anderson, Jacky M K Kwong, Nathan Heath Patterson, Kevin L Schey, Richard M Caprioli, Joseph Caprioli
Purpose: Mammalian central nervous system axons fail to regenerate after injury. Contributing factors include limited intrinsic growth capacity and an inhibitory glial environment. Inflammation-induced optic nerve regeneration (IIR) is thought to boost retinal ganglion cell (RGC) intrinsic growth capacity through progrowth gene expression, but effects on the inhibitory glial environment of the optic nerve are unexplored. To investigate progrowth molecular changes associated with reactive gliosis during IIR, we developed an imaging mass spectrometry (IMS)-based approach that identifies discriminant molecular signals in and around optic nerve crush (ONC) sites...
January 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339718/injury-activated-glial-cells-promote-wound-healing-of-the-adult-skin-in-mice
#4
Vadims Parfejevs, Julien Debbache, Olga Shakhova, Simon M Schaefer, Mareen Glausch, Michael Wegner, Ueli Suter, Una Riekstina, Sabine Werner, Lukas Sommer
Cutaneous wound healing is a complex process that aims to re-establish the original structure of the skin and its functions. Among other disorders, peripheral neuropathies are known to severely impair wound healing capabilities of the skin, revealing the importance of skin innervation for proper repair. Here, we report that peripheral glia are crucially involved in this process. Using a mouse model of wound healing, combined with in vivo fate mapping, we show that injury activates peripheral glia by promoting de-differentiation, cell-cycle re-entry and dissemination of the cells into the wound bed...
January 16, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339085/wnt5a-mediates-chronic-post-thoracotomy-pain-by-regulating-non-canonical-pathways-nerve-regeneration-and-inflammation-in-rats
#5
Afang Zhu, Le Shen, Li Xu, Weiyun Chen, Yuguang Huang
As well-characterized ligands involved in neurogenesis, Wnts are emerging as promising targets in pain pathogenesis. Our previous pilot study showed that intrathecal inhibition of Wnt5a, but not Wnts, relieves chronic post-thoracotomy pain (CPTP) in rats. In the present study, we aimed to further explore the regulatory mechanism of Wnt5a in CPTP development. Increased protein levels of Wnt5a, transmembrane receptor Ror2, and activated non-canonical Wnt pathway members were found in the thoracic dorsal root ganglions from postoperative day (POD) 7 to POD 21...
January 12, 2018: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337115/purification-of-gfr%C3%AE-1-and-gfr%C3%AE-1-spermatogonial-stem-cells-reveals-a%C3%A2-niche-dependent-mechanism-for-fate-determination
#6
Alina Garbuzov, Matthew F Pech, Kazuteru Hasegawa, Meena Sukhwani, Ruixuan J Zhang, Kyle E Orwig, Steven E Artandi
Undifferentiated spermatogonia comprise a pool of stem cells and progenitor cells that show heterogeneous expression of markers, including the cell surface receptor GFRα1. Technical challenges in isolation of GFRα1+ versus GFRα1- undifferentiated spermatogonia have precluded the comparative molecular characterization of these subpopulations and their functional evaluation as stem cells. Here, we develop a method to purify these subpopulations by fluorescence-activated cell sorting and show that GFRα1+ and GFRα1- undifferentiated spermatogonia both demonstrate elevated transplantation activity, while differing principally in receptor tyrosine kinase signaling and cell cycle...
January 9, 2018: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337114/pathological-endogenous-%C3%AE-synuclein-accumulation-in-oligodendrocyte-precursor-cells-potentially-induces-inclusions-in-multiple-system-atrophy
#7
Seiji Kaji, Takakuni Maki, Hisanori Kinoshita, Norihito Uemura, Takashi Ayaki, Yasuhiro Kawamoto, Takahiro Furuta, Makoto Urushitani, Masato Hasegawa, Yusuke Kinoshita, Yuichi Ono, Xiaobo Mao, Tran H Quach, Kazuhiro Iwai, Valina L Dawson, Ted M Dawson, Ryosuke Takahashi
Glial cytoplasmic inclusions (GCIs), commonly observed as α-synuclein (α-syn)-positive aggregates within oligodendrocytes, are the pathological hallmark of multiple system atrophy. The origin of α-syn in GCIs is uncertain; there is little evidence of endogenous α-syn expression in oligodendrocyte lineage cells, oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs), and mature oligodendrocytes (OLGs). Here, based on in vitro analysis using primary rat cell cultures, we elucidated that preformed fibrils (PFFs) generated from recombinant human α-syn trigger multimerization and an upsurge of endogenous α-syn in OPCs, which is attributable to insufficient autophagic proteolysis...
December 27, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336177/in-vivo-assessment-of-a-nanofibrous-silk-tube-as-nerve-guide-for-sciatic-nerve-regeneration
#8
Maryam Ebrahimi, Jafar Ai, Esmaeil Biazar, Somayeh Ebrahimi-Barough, Arash Khojasteh, Meysam Yazdankhah, Siavash Sharifi, Arman Ai, Saeed Heidari-Keshel
A nanofibrous silk nerve conduit has been evaluated for its efficiency based on the promotion of peripheral nerve regeneration in rats. The designed tubes with or without Schwann cells were implanted into a 10 mm gap in the sciatic nerves of the rats. Four months after the surgery, the regenerated nerves were monitored and evaluated by macroscopic assessments and histology. The results demonstrated that the nanofibrous grafts, especially in the presence of Schwann cells, enabled reconstruction of the rat sciatic nerve trunk with a restoration of nerve continuity and formation of nerve fibres with myelination...
January 16, 2018: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334833/silver-nanoparticles-induce-neurotoxicity-in-a-human-embryonic-stem-cell-derived-neuron-and-astrocyte-network
#9
Neza Repar, Hao Li, Jose S Aguilar, Qingshun Quinn Li, Damjana Drobne, Yiling Hong
Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are among the most extensively used nanoparticles and are found in a variety of products. This ubiquity leads to inevitable exposure to these particles in everyday life. However, the effects of AgNPs on neuron and astrocyte networks are still largely unknown. In this study, we used neurons and astrocytes derived from human embryonic stem cells as a cellular model to study the neurotoxicity that is induced by citrate-coated AgNPs (AgSCs). Immunostaining with the astrocyte and neuron markers, glial fibrillary acidic protein and microtubule-associated protein-2 (MAP2), respectively, showed that exposure to AgSCs at the concentration of 0...
January 15, 2018: Nanotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334787/analysis-of-endocannabinoid-receptors-and-enzymes-in-the-post-mortem-motor-cortex-and-spinal-cord-of-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-patients
#10
Francisco Espejo-Porras, Javier Fernández-Ruiz, Eva de Lago
OBJECTIVE: We have investigated the endocannabinoid system in the motor cortex of motor neuron disease (MND) patients. METHODS: Post-mortem samples from MND patients and controls were used for immunostaining and/or Western blotting analysis of endocannabinoid elements. RESULTS: We did not find any evidence of neuronal losses in the motor cortex of MND patients, but elevations in glial markers Iba-1 and GFAP were evident. We found no changes in FAAH and MAGL enzymes and in the CB1 receptor, which correlated with the lack of cortical neuron death...
January 15, 2018: Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Frontotemporal Degeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332092/early-life-stress-activates-glial-cells-in-the-hippocampus-but-attenuates-cytokine-secretion-in-response-to-an-immune-challenge-in-rat-pups
#11
Luis Miguel Saavedra, Bertha Fenton Navarro, Luz Torner
OBJECTIVE: Early life stress (ELS) increases the vulnerability to developing psychopathological disorders in adulthood that are accompanied by brain inflammatory processes. However, it is not known how a combined double hit (stress and immune) at an early age affects the response of the neuroimmune system. Here we investigated the effect of periodic maternal separation (MS) followed by administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on glial cells in the CA3 region and hilus of the hippocampus and on cytokine release on postnatal day (PN) 15...
January 13, 2018: Neuroimmunomodulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332088/drug-delivery-for-movement-disorders
#12
Neil Barua, Steven Gill
There has been substantial research interest in delivering therapeutic neurotrophic factors directly to the brain for the treatment of Parkinson's Disease (PD) and other movement disorders. Direct infusion of glial cell-line derived neurotrophic factor has been investigated in both pre-clinical models and clinical trials. In this chapter we discuss past and present research investigating the potential of direct drug delivery to the brain for the treatment of PD and other movement disorders.
2018: Progress in Neurological Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331305/tigar-inhibits-ischemia-reperfusion-induced-inflammatory-response-of-astrocytes
#13
Jieyu Chen, Ding-Mei Zhang, Xing Feng, Jian Wang, Yuan-Yuan Qin, Tian Zhang, Qiao Huang, Rui Sheng, Zhong Chen, Mei Li, Zheng-Hong Qin
The inflammatory response of glial cells contributes to neuronal damage or repair after brain ischemia/reperfusion insult. We previously demonstrated a protective role of TP53-induced glycolysis and apoptosis regulator (TIGAR) in ischemic neuronal injury through increasing the flow of pentose phosphate pathway (PPP). The present study investigated the possible role of TIGAR in ischemia/reperfusion-induced inflammatory response of astrocytes. Male ICR mice were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion for 2 h followed by 24 h reperfusion and cultured primary astrocytes were subjected to oxygen glucose deprivation for 9 h followed by 24 h reoxygenation (OGD/R)...
January 10, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330870/cell-therapy-for-spinal-cord-injury-with-olfactory-ensheathing-glia-cells-oecs
#14
REVIEW
Rosa M Gómez, Magdy Y Sánchez, Maria Portela-Lomba, Kemel Ghotme, George E Barreto, Javier Sierra, M Teresa Moreno-Flores
The prospects of achieving regeneration in the central nervous system (CNS) have changed, as most recent findings indicate that several species, including humans, can produce neurons in adulthood. Studies targeting this property may be considered as potential therapeutic strategies to respond to injury or the effects of demyelinating diseases in the CNS. While CNS trauma may interrupt the axonal tracts that connect neurons with their targets, some neurons remain alive, as seen in optic nerve and spinal cord (SC) injuries (SCIs)...
January 13, 2018: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330091/cdc42ep4-a-perisynaptic-scaffold-protein-in-bergmann-glia-is-required-for-glutamatergic-tripartite-synapse-configuration
#15
Natsumi Ageta-Ishihara, Kohtarou Konno, Maya Yamazaki, Manabu Abe, Kenji Sakimura, Masahiko Watanabe, Makoto Kinoshita
Configuration of tripartite synapses, comprising the pre-, post-, and peri-synaptic components (axon terminal or bouton, dendritic spine, and astroglial terminal process), is a critical determinant of neurotransmitter kinetics and hence synaptic transmission. However, little is known about molecular basis for the regulation of tripartite synapse morphology. Previous studies showed that CDC42EP4, an effector protein of a cell morphogenesis regulator CDC42, is expressed exclusively in Bergmann glia in the cerebellar cortex, that it forms tight complex with the septin heterooligomer, and that it interacts indirectly with the glutamate transporter GLAST and MYH10/nonmuscle myosin ΙΙB...
January 9, 2018: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330037/sustained-delivery-of-glial-cell-derived-neurotrophic-factors-in-collagen-conduits-for-facial-nerve-regeneration
#16
Fukai Ma, Feng Xu, Ronggang Li, Yongtao Zheng, Fan Wang, Naili Wei, Junjie Zhong, Qisheng Tang, Tongming Zhu, Zhifu Wang, Jianhong Zhu
Facial nerve injury caused by traffic accidents or operations may reduce the quality of life in patients, and recovery following the injury presents unique clinical challenges. Glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) is important in nerve regeneration; however, soluble GDNF rapidly diffuses into body fluids, making it difficult to achieve therapeutic efficacy. In this work, we developed a rat tail derived collagen conduit to connect nerve defects in a simple and safe manner. GDNF was immobilized in the collagen conduits via chemical conjugation to enable controlled release of GDNF...
January 9, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329909/the-signaling-role-for-chloride-in-the-bidirectional-communication-between-neurons-and-astrocytes
#17
REVIEW
Corinne S Wilson, Alexander A Mongin
It is well known that the electrical signaling in neuronal networks is modulated by chloride (Cl-) fluxes via the inhibitory GABAA and glycine receptors. Here, we discuss the putative contribution of Cl- fluxes and intracellular Cl- to other forms of information transfer in the CNS, namely the bidirectional communication between neurons and astrocytes. The manuscript (i) summarizes the generic functions of Cl- in cellular physiology, (ii) recaps molecular identities and properties of Cl- transporters and channels in neurons and astrocytes, and (iii) analyzes emerging studies implicating Cl- in the modulation of neuroglial communication...
January 9, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327816/brain-cortex-microglia-derived-exosomes-novel-nanoparticles-for-glioma-therapy
#18
Adriana-Natalia Murgoci, Dasa Cizkova, Petra Majerova, Eva Petrovova, Lubomir Medvecky, Isabelle Fournier, Michel Salzet
The function and integrity of nervous system require interactive exchanges among neurons and glial cells. Exosomes and other extracellular vesicles (EVs) are emerging as a key mediator of intercellular communication, capable to transfer nucleic acids, proteins and lipids, influencing numerous functional and pathological aspects of both donor and recipient cells. The immune response mediated by microglia derived exosomes are most prominently involved in the spread of neuroinflammation, neurodegenerative disorders and brain cancer...
January 12, 2018: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327205/nociceptive-roles-of-trpm2-ion-channel-in-pathologic-pain
#19
REVIEW
Yongwoo Jang, Pyung Sun Cho, Young Duk Yang, Sun Wook Hwang
Pain is a protective mechanism that enables us to avoid potentially harmful environments. However, when pathologically persisted and aggravated under severely injured or inflamed conditions, pain often reduces the quality of life and thus is considered as a disease to eliminate. Inflammatory and/or neuropathic mechanisms may exaggerate interactions between damaged tissues and neural pathways for pain mediation. Similar mechanisms also promote the communication among cellular participants in synapses at spinal or higher levels, which may amplify nociceptive firing and subsequent signal transmission, deteriorating the pain sensation...
January 11, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327203/loss-of-cx43-mediated-functional-gap-junction-communication-in-meningeal-fibroblasts-following-mouse-hepatitis-virus-infection
#20
Abhishek Bose, Rahul Basu, Mahua Maulik, Jayasri Das Sarma
Mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) infection causes meningoencephalitis by disrupting the neuro-glial and glial-pial homeostasis. Recent studies suggest that MHV infection alters gap junction protein connexin 43 (Cx43)-mediated intercellular communication in brain and primary cultured astrocytes. In addition to astrocytes, meningeal fibroblasts also express high levels of Cx43. Fibroblasts in the meninges together with the basal lamina and the astrocyte endfeet forms the glial limitans superficialis as part of the blood-brain barrier (BBB)...
January 11, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
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