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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220529/oxytocin-and-naltrexone-successfully-treat-hypothalamic-obesity-in-a-boy-post-craniopharyngioma-resection
#1
Eugenie A Hsu, Jennifer L Miller, Francisco A Perez, Christian L Roth
Context: Hypothalamic obesity, a treatment-resistant condition common to survivors of craniopharyngioma (CP), is strongly associated with a poor quality of life in this population. Oxytocin (OT), a hypothalamic neuropeptide, has been shown to play a role in the regulation of energy balance and to have anorexigenic effects in animal studies. Naltrexone (NAL), an opiate antagonist, has been shown to deter hedonic eating and to potentiate OT's effects. Case description: In this parent-observed study, we tested the administration of intranasal OT for 10 weeks (phase 1), followed by a combination of intranasal OT and NAL for 38 weeks (phase 2) in a 13-year-old male with confirmed hypothalamic obesity and hyperphagia post-CP resection...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216892/opiate-agonist-treatment-to-improve-health-of-individuals-with-opioid-use-disorder-in-lebanon
#2
Ali Ghaddar, Zeinab Abbas, Ramzi Haddad
BACKGROUND: Opioid agonist therapy has been widely used to reduce harms among individuals with opioid use disorder but its effectiveness has not been evaluated in the Middle East North African (MENA) region. This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of a program using opioid agonist therapy in combination with psychosocial support on improving psychological and social well-being, reducing arrest, and reducing risky behavior in individuals with opioid use disorder in Lebanon. METHODS: A one-group pre-test post-test design study was performed at SKOUN Lebanese Addiction Centre between January 2013 and December 2014...
December 8, 2017: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207922/effect-of-steady-state-methadone-on-high-fructose-corn-syrup-consumption-in-rats
#3
Stephen Daniels, Mick Pratt, Yan Zhou, Francesco Leri
Patients undergoing methadone maintenance treatment self-report enhanced preferences for, and excessive consumption of, foods rich in sugar. However, it is unclear whether these are direct pharmacological effects of methadone or the consequences of metabolic dysfunctions induced by addiction to illicit opiates. Hence, the current study in drug-naïve male Sprague-Dawley rats explored the effects of steady-state methadone delivered by osmotic mini-pumps (13 days; 0, 10, 30 mg/kg/day) on consumption of rat chow and a palatable, sweet, liquid high fructose corn syrup solution...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197244/systematic-assessment-of-different-solvents-for-the-extraction-of-drugs-of-abuse-and-pharmaceuticals-from-an-authentic-hair-pool
#4
Milena M Madry, Thomas Kraemer, Markus R Baumgartner
Hair analysis has been established as a prevalent tool for retrospective drug monitoring. In this study, different extraction solvents for the determination of drugs of abuse and pharmaceuticals in hair were evaluated for their efficiency. A pool of authentic hair from drug users was used for extraction experiments. Hair was pulverized and extracted in triplicate with seven different solvents in a one- or two-step extraction. Three one- (methanol, acetonitrile, and acetonitrile/water) and four two-step extractions (methanol two-fold, methanol and methanol/acetonitrile/formate buffer, methanol and methanol/formate buffer, and methanol and methanol/hydrochloric acid) were tested under accurately equal experimental conditions...
November 23, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178927/why-is-there-still-hepatitis-c-transmission-in-australian-prisons-a-case-report
#5
Ben Harkness, Michael Levy, Ruth Evans, Jillian Wenke
BACKGROUND: The ability to cure hepatitis C viral infection, with specific reference to the prisoner population and the prison environment, will be challenged, even if opiate replacement therapy is concurrently offered, and even if bleach is available. The missing elements, widely available in the community, are a regulated injecting equipment exchange and tattooing parlours. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a case of re-infection of hepatitis C in a prisoner treated with a direct-acting antiviral...
November 25, 2017: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173162/oral-fluid-vs-urine-analysis-to-monitor-synthetic-cannabinoids-and-classic-drugs-recent-exposure
#6
Marta Concheiro, Vincent Blandino, Jillian Wetzel, Jiyoung Kim, Petrit Haxhi
BACKGROUND: Urine is a common biological sample to monitor recent drug exposure, and oral fluid is an alternative matrix of increasing interest in clinical and forensic toxicology. Limited data are available about oral fluid vs. urine drug disposition, especially for synthetic cannabinoids. OBJECTIVE: To compare urine and oral fluid as biological matrices to monitor recent drug exposure among HIV-infected homeless individuals. METHODS: Seventy matched urine and oral fluid samples were collected from 13 participants...
November 21, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170073/effect-of-intravenous-fentanyl-on-ticagrelor-absorption-and-platelet-inhibition-among-patients-undergoing-percutaneous-coronary-intervention-design-rationale-and-sample-characteristics-of-the-pacify-randomized-trial
#7
Khalil Ibrahim, Rakesh R Goli, Rohan Shah, Jon R Resar, Steven P Schulman, John W McEvoy
INTRODUCTION: Morphine reduces and delays the absorption of oral P2Y12 platelet inhibitors. Fentanyl is another opiate often administered during percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI). The PACIFY study will test whether intravenous fentanyl also impairs the absorption and action of oral P2Y12 inhibitors. METHODS: PACIFY is a single-center trial randomizing adults undergoing clinically-indicated coronary angiography to have the procedure with or without fentanyl...
November 21, 2017: Contemporary Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169713/-detection-and-codification-of-adverse-drug-reactions-in-a-mother-child-university-hospital
#8
M Harry, D Lebel, A Comtois, J-F Bussières
INTRODUCTION: In view of the underdeclaration of adverse drug reactions (ADRs), there is a need for optimizing their reporting. To improve our declaration, a pharmacovigilance program was started in 2006 at our center and measures were progressively started (weekly patient rounds, monthly report, etc.). The objectives of the study were to describe and compare the annual average incidence of the ADRs coded by the medical archivists from 1 April 1989 to 31 March 2010 (period 1) and from 1 April 2010 to 31 March 2015 (period 2), to determine the therapeutic classes of drugs associated with ADRs according to age and determine the percentage of ADRs that are declared to Health Canada...
November 20, 2017: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161998/cognitive-rehabilitation-for-individuals-with-opioid-use-disorder-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#9
Tara Rezapour, Javad Hatami, Ali Farhoudian, Mehmet Sofuoglu, Alireza Noroozi, Reza Daneshmand, Ahmadreza Samiei, Hamed Ekhtiari
AIM: To examine the efficacy of cognitive rehabilitation treatment (CRT) for people with opioid use disorder who were recruited into a methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) programme. METHOD: 120 male subjects were randomly assigned to (1) MMT plus CRT in two months or (2) MMT plus a control intervention. Subjects were assessed at the beginning, mid-point and post-intervention as well as at 1-, 3- and 6-month follow-up time points. RESULTS: Analysis with repeated measure ANOVA showed that the CRT group performed significantly better in tests of learning, switching, processing speed, working memory and memory span...
November 21, 2017: Neuropsychological Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158174/impact-of-cystectomy-with-urinary-diversion-upon-tracked-receipt-of-opioid-prescriptions-among-patients-with-interstitial-cystitis-bladder-pain-syndrome
#10
David S Koslov, Fernandino Vilson, Marc Colaco, Ryan P Terlecki, Robert J Evans
OBJECTIVES: To compare opioid requirements before and after cystectomy for end stage Interstitial Cystitis/Bladder Pain Syndrome (IC/BPS) using a statewide tracking system. METHODS: Narcotic prescriptions were captured using the North Carolina Controlled Substance Reporting System for patients at a single institute undergoing cystectomy with urinary diversion (CWUD) for refractory, end stage IC/BPS between 2010-2017. Values were documented for the year before and the year after surgery (excluding 30 days postoperatively to account for surgical pain) and converted to Morphine Equivalents (ME)...
November 17, 2017: Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148050/the-pharmacokinetics-of-morphine-and-codeine-in-human-plasma-and-urine-after-oral-administration-of-qiangli-pipa-syrup
#11
Bin-Bin Guo, Yu-Qiao Zhang, Sheng-Feng Wang, Jin-Song Ding, Wen-Hu Zhou
Papaveris pericarpium, a natural source of morphine and codeine, is the principal active component in many antitussive traditional Chinese medicines. We herein report the first PK study of papaveris pericarpium in human plasma and urine following oral administration of single (15, 30, 60 mL) and multiple dose (15 mL) of Qiangli Pipa Syrup (MOR 0.1 mg/mL, COD 0.028 mg/mL) by monitoring morphine and codeine using a HPLC-MS/MS method. Their Tmax and t1/2 values are independent of dosages, while the AUC0-t linearly increased with higher dosages, indicating linear PK characteristics...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141653/test-of-a-workforce-development-intervention-to-expand-opioid-use-disorder-treatment-pharmacotherapy-prescribers-protocol-for-a-cluster-randomized-trial
#12
Todd Molfenter, Hannah K Knudsen, Randy Brown, Nora Jacobson, Julie Horst, Mark Van Etten, Jee-Seon Kim, Eric Haram, Elizabeth Collier, Sanford Starr, Alexander Toy, Lynn Madden
BACKGROUND: Overdoses due to non-medical use of prescription opioids and other opiates have become the leading cause of accidental deaths in the USA. Buprenorphine and extended-release naltrexone are key evidence-based pharmacotherapies available to addiction treatment providers to address opioid use disorder (OUD) and prevent overdose deaths. Treatment organizations' efforts to provide these pharmacotherapies have, however, been stymied by limited success in recruiting providers (physicians, nurse practitioners, and physician assistants) to prescribe these medications...
November 15, 2017: Implementation Science: IS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141650/neuropsychological-function-is-improved-among-opioid-dependent-adults-who-adhere-to-opiate-agonist-treatment-with-buprenorphine-naloxone-a-preliminary-study
#13
Travis M Scott, Monica Rivera Mindt, Chinazo O Cunningham, Franchesca Arias, Kelly Coulehan, Aprille Mangalonzo, Pat Olsen, Julia H Arnsten
BACKGROUND: Among persons with opioid use disorder (OUD), neuropsychological dysfunction is associated with depression, and better neuropsychological function is associated with opioid abstinence. However, it is unknown whether depressive symptomatology or adherence to opiate agonist treatment are associated with neuropsychological change over time. METHODS: We recruited 20 buprenorphine/naloxone-treated adults with OUD (M Age = 45.2 years [SD = 8.1]; 25% female) to complete baseline and 6 month visits containing a neuropsychological test battery and self-reported measures of depressive symptomatology and medication adherence...
November 15, 2017: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117206/cannabis-alcohol-and-fatal-road-accidents
#14
Jean-Louis Martin, Blandine Gadegbeku, Dan Wu, Vivian Viallon, Bernard Laumon
INTRODUCTION: This research aims to estimate the relative risks of responsibility for a fatal accident linked to driving under the influence of cannabis or alcohol, the prevalence of these influences among drivers and the corresponding attributable risk ratios. A secondary goal is to estimate the same items for three other groups of illicit drugs (amphetamines, cocaine and opiates), and to compare the results to a similar study carried out in France between 2001 and 2003. METHODOLOGY: Police procedures for fatal accidents in Metropolitan France during 2011 were analyzed and 300 characteristics encoded to provide a database of 4,059 drivers...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112770/interactive-effects-of-morphine-and-dopamine-receptor-agonists-on-spatial-recognition-memory-in-mice
#15
Yanmei Chen, Yu Fu, Yingjie Ann, Jianhong Wang, Jichuan Zhang
Both opiates and dopamine play important roles in learning and memory. Although synergistic action between these two neurotransmitters has been found, their functional roles remain unclear. Here, low dose morphine (2.5 mg/kg) and low dose dopamine receptor agonists (apomorphine: 0.05 mg/kg; SKF38393: 0.01 mg/kg; bromocriptine: 0.05 mg/kg), which have no effects on spatial recognition memory, were injected intraperitoneally into mice 30 min before a memory test in a two-trial recognition Y-maze. The Y-maze is based on the innate tendency of rodents to explore novel environments and is therefore suitable for exploring the effects of morphine on learning and memory...
November 7, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111148/effects-of-opioid-and-nonopioid-analgesics-on-canine-wheal-formation-and-cultured-human-mast-cell-degranulation
#16
Eric Schmidt-Rondon, Zhenping Wang, Shelle A Malkmus, Anna Di Nardo, Keith Hildebrand, Linda Page, Tony L Yaksh
Mast cell (MC) degranulation has been implicated in the side effect profile of a variety of clinically useful agents. Thus, after intrathecal delivery, formation of space-occupying, meningeally-derived masses may be related to local MC degranulation. We systematically characterized degranulating effects of opioid and nonopioid analgesics on cutaneous flares in the dog and in primary human MC (hMC) cultures. METHODS: Dogs were anesthetized with IV propofol and received intradermal (ID) injections (50μL)...
October 27, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104320/earning-spending-and-drug-use-in-a-therapeutic-workplace
#17
Shrinidhi Subramaniam, Anthony DeFulio, Brantley P Jarvis, August F Holtyn, Kenneth Silverman
Drug addiction is a chronic, relapsing health problem that is associated with the degree to which individuals choose small, immediate monetary outcomes over larger, delayed outcomes. This study was a secondary analysis exploring the relation between financial choices and drug use in opioid-dependent adults in a therapeutic workplace intervention. Sixty-seven participants were randomly assigned to a condition in which access to paid job training was contingent upon naltrexone adherence (N = 35) or independent of naltrexone adherence (N = 32)...
June 2017: Psychological Record
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092867/subsyndromal-delirium-and-institutionalization-among-patients-with-critical-illness
#18
Nathan E Brummel, Leanne M Boehm, Timothy D Girard, Pratik P Pandharipande, James C Jackson, Christopher G Hughes, Mayur B Patel, Jin H Han, Eduard E Vasilevskis, Jennifer L Thompson, Rameela Chandrasekhar, Gordon R Bernard, Robert S Dittus, E Wesley Ely
BACKGROUND: The prognostic importance of subsyndromal delirium is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To test whether duration of subsyndromal delirium is independently associated with institutionalization. METHODS: The Confusion Assessment Method for the Intensive Care Unit (CAM-ICU) was used twice daily to assess for subsyndromal delirium in patients with respiratory failure or shock. Delirium was considered present if the assessment was positive. Subsyndromal delirium was considered present if the assessment was negative but the patient exhibited any CAM-ICU features...
November 2017: American Journal of Critical Care: An Official Publication, American Association of Critical-Care Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076424/physicochemical-characterization-of-mitragyna-speciosa-alkaloid-extract-and-mitragynine-using-in-vitro-high-throughput-assays
#19
Wai Mun Kong, Zamri Chik, Zahurin Mohamed, Mohammed A Alshawsh
Mitragynine, a major active alkaloid of Mitragyna speciosa, acts as an agonist on μ-opioid receptors, producing effects similar to morphine and other opioids. It has been traditionally utilized to alleviate opiate withdrawal symptoms. Besides consideration about potency and selectivity, a good drug must possess a suitable pharmacokinetic profile, with suitable absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicity (ADME-Tox) profile, in order to have a high chance of success in clinical trials. The purity of mitragynine in a Mitragyna speciosa alkaloid extract (MSAE) was determined using Ultra-Fast Liquid Chromatography (UFLC)...
October 26, 2017: Combinatorial Chemistry & High Throughput Screening
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064909/pexacerfont-as-a-crf1-antagonist-for-the-treatment-of-withdrawal-symptoms-in-men-with-heroin-methamphetamine-dependence-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-clinical-trial
#20
Mohammad-Javad Morabbi, Emran Razaghi, Ehsan Moazen-Zadeh, Hamideh Safiaghdam, Mohamad R Zarrindast, Nasim Vousoghi, Shahin Akhondzadeh
We assessed the efficacy of pexacerfont, a CRF1 antagonist, for the treatment of withdrawal symptoms. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial, male patients with amphetamine or opioid dependence, on the basis of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed., Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR), in the age range 18-55 years, received either pexacerfont or placebo (300, 200, and 100 mg/day in the first, second, and third week, respectively). No antidepressants, behavioral interventions, or substitution therapy were administered...
October 23, 2017: International Clinical Psychopharmacology
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