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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29920542/prevalence-of-drug-use-among-drivers-based-on-mandatory-random-tests-in-a-roadside-survey
#1
Manuela Alcañiz, Montserrat Guillen, Miguel Santolino
BACKGROUND: In the context of road safety, this study aims to examine the prevalence of drug use in a random sample of drivers. METHODS: A stratified probabilistic sample was designed to represent vehicles circulating on non-urban roads. Random drug tests were performed during autumn 2014 on 521 drivers in Catalonia (Spain). Participation was mandatory. The prevalence of drug driving for cannabis, methamphetamines, amphetamines, cocaine, opiates and benzodiazepines was assessed...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29892317/opioid-use-disorder-induces-oxidative-stress-and-inflammation-the-attenuating-effect-of-methadone-maintenance-treatment
#2
Ali Salarian, Mehri Kadkhodaee, Maryam Zahmatkesh, Behjat Seifi, Enayatollah Bakhshi, Shahin Akhondzadeh, Soheila Adeli, Hassan Askari, Mohammad Arbabi
Objective: Frequent use of opioids produces reactive oxygen species, upregulates inflammatory factors, and contributes to opiate dependence. In this study, we examined perturbations of plasma oxidative and inflammatory markers in patients with opioid use disorder in two phases. In the first phase, we compared the oxidative status in patients with opioid use disorders and in healthy controls; and in the second phase, we examined oxidative changes before and after methadone maintenance treatment. Method: To explore whether oxidative changes were associated with opioid use disorder, we compared plasma oxidative and inflammatory markers in patients with opioid use disorder and in smoking and non-smoking healthy participants...
January 2018: Iranian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29866641/integrated-hepatitis-c-care-for-people-who-inject-drugs-heplink-protocol-for-a-feasibility-study-in-primary-care
#3
Geoff McCombe, Davina Swan, Eileen O'Connor, Gordana Avramovic, Peter Vickerman, Zoe Ward, Julian Surey, Juan Macías, John S Lambert, Walter Cullen
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major cause of chronic liver disease and death. Drug use remains the significant cause of new infections in the European Union, with estimates of HCV antibody prevalence among people who inject drugs ranging from 5% to 90% in 29 European countries. In Ireland and the European Union, primary care is a key area to focus efforts to enhance HCV diagnosis and treatment among people who inject drugs. OBJECTIVE: The Heplink study aims to improve HCV care outcomes among opiate substitution therapy (OST) patients in general practice by developing an integrated model of HCV care and evaluating its feasibility, acceptability, and likely efficacy...
June 4, 2018: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29800375/a-non-comparative-prospective-pilot-study-of-ketamine-for-sedation-in-adult-septic-shock
#4
Jason M Reese, Victoria Fernandes Sullivan, Nathan L Boyer, Cristin A Mount
Introduction: Sedation and analgesia in the intensive care unit (ICU) for patients with sepsis can be challenging. Opioids and benzodiazepines can lower blood pressure and decrease respiratory drive. Ketamine is an N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist that provides both amnesia and analgesia without depressing respiratory drive or blood pressure. The purpose of this pilot study was to assess the effect of ketamine on the vasopressor requirement in adult patients with septic shock requiring mechanical ventilation...
May 24, 2018: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793195/alcohol-and-drugs-use-among-drivers-injured-in-road-accidents-in-campania-italy-a-8-years-retrospective-analysis
#5
Anna Carfora, Carlo Pietro Campobasso, Paola Cassandro, Raffaella Petrella, Renata Borriello
A recent update of the Italian Road Traffic Law (RTL 41/2016), established severe penal sanctions when drivers, driving under the influence of alcohol (DUI) or drugs (DUID), are involved in road accident that results in death or injuries. A study was carried out to assess the trends of consumption of alcohol, illicit drugs or pharmaceutical among injured drivers suspected for DUI or DUID from 2009 to 2016 in the region of Campania (Italy). Confirmation toxicological analyses were performed on 780 blood samples and 1017 urine samples collected from 1797 injured drivers...
May 9, 2018: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775728/opioid-free-anaesthesia-why-and-how-a-contextual-analysis
#6
REVIEW
Patrice Forget
If the use of natural opiates, such as opium, is more than millennial, the history of synthetic opioids begins after 1950, with the development of the so-called 'modern' anaesthetic techniques. In 1962, in Belgium, the use of fentanyl, the first synthetic opioid for use in anaesthesia, is described. Subsequently, the use of opioids at high doses during surgery became common. However, over the last twenty years, many studies have questioned this practice, highlighting the many unknowns as the side effects of these molecules...
May 15, 2018: Anaesthesia, Critical Care & Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727363/benzodiazepines-and-development-of-delirium-in-critically-ill-children-estimating-the-causal-effect
#7
Kalgi Mody, Savneet Kaur, Elizabeth A Mauer, Linda M Gerber, Bruce M Greenwald, Gabrielle Silver, Chani Traube
OBJECTIVES: Benzodiazepine use may be associated with delirium in critically ill children. However, benzodiazepines remain the first-line sedative choice in PICUs. Objectives were to determine the temporal relationship between administration of benzodiazepines and delirium development, control for time-varying covariates such as mechanical ventilation and opiates, and evaluate the association between dosage of benzodiazepines and subsequent delirium. DESIGN: Retrospective observational study...
May 4, 2018: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723917/opiate-free-pain-therapy-using-carbamazepine-loaded-microparticles-provides-up-to-two-weeks-of-pain-relief-in-a-neuropathic-pain-model
#8
Haining Dai, Dana M Tilley, Greici Mercedes, Chris Doherty, Amitabh Gulati, Neel Mehta, Amer Khalil, Katrin Holzhaus, Francis M Reynolds
INTRODUCTION: Opioids remain a mainstay in the treatment of acute and chronic pain, despite numerous and potentially dangerous side effects. There is a great unmet medical need for alternative treatments for patients suffering from pain that do not result in addiction or adverse side effects. Anticonvulsants have been shown to be effective in managing pain, though high systemic levels and subsequent side effects limit its widespread usage. Our goal was to determine if the incorporation of an anticonvulsant, carbamazepine, into a biodegradable microparticle for local sustained perineural release would be an efficacious analgesic following a peripheral injury...
May 3, 2018: Pain Practice: the Official Journal of World Institute of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722922/predictive-value-of-snot-22-on-additional-opiate-prescriptions-after-endoscopic-sinus-surgery
#9
Sarek A Shen, Aria Jafari, David Bracken, John Pang, Adam S DeConde
BACKGROUND: Endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) is generally well tolerated, yet a subset of patients require an additional opiate prescription in the postoperative period. The purpose of this study was to quantify differences in both preoperative and immediate postoperative 22-item Sino-Nasal Outcome Test (SNOT-22) scores between patients with a single prescription and those requiring additional opiate prescriptions (AOPs). METHODS: Patients undergoing ESS between November 2016 and August 2017 were reviewed retrospectively...
May 3, 2018: International Forum of Allergy & Rhinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720535/hepatitis-c-virus-screening-among-children-exposed-during-pregnancy
#10
Catherine A Chappell, Sharon L Hillier, David Crowe, Leslie A Meyn, Debra L Bogen, Elizabeth E Krans
OBJECTIVES: Because of the opioid epidemic, hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is increasing among pregnant women, resulting in an increased risk of perinatal transmission and HCV infection among children. Our primary objectives in this study were to determine the prevalence of HCV among pregnant women and the frequency of pediatric HCV screening. METHODS: A population-based, retrospective cohort of pregnant women who delivered between 2006 and 2014 was identified and classified as HCV infected or HCV uninfected by billing codes...
June 2018: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706118/examining-individual-characteristics-and-program-performance-to-understand-two-year-recidivism-rates-among-drug-court-participants-comparing-graduates-and-terminators
#11
Lisa M Shannon, Afton Jackson Jones, Jennifer Newell, Connie Payne
Drug courts strive to break the cycle of substance use and crime by providing community-based treatment and rehabilitation. The purpose of the present study was to (a) identify significantly different factors between program participants (i.e., graduates/terminators) that may affect recidivism and (b) examine these significant individual and program performance factors associated with two-year recidivism. Secondary data were examined for a stratified random sample of drug court participants ( N = 534). Examining any two-year post-program recidivism (defined as an arrest, conviction, or incarceration), over one third (37...
April 1, 2018: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704853/postmortem-blood-alcohol-content-among-late-middle-aged-and-older-suicide-decedents-associations-with-suicide-precipitating-risk-factors-means-and-other-drug-toxicology
#12
Namkee G Choi, Diana M DiNitto, Atami O Sagna, C Nathan Marti
BACKGROUND: This study examined blood alcohol content (BAC) among suicide decedents aged 50+ and its associations with suicide precipitating/risk factors, means, and other drug toxicology. METHODS: The National Violent Death Reporting System, 2005-2015, provided data (N = 56,118 for all suicide decedents and N = 29,115 with alcohol test results). We used logistic regression models, with BAC > 0.0 (BAC positive) and BAC > = 0.08 (intoxication) as the dependent variables...
June 1, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658501/-anhedonia-depression-anxiety-and-craving-in-opioid-dependent-patients-stabilized-on-oral-naltrexone-or-naltrexone-implant
#13
E M Krupitsky, E E Zvartau, E A Blokhina, E V Verbitskaya, V Yu Wahlgren, M V Tsoy-Podosenin, N M Bushara, A M Burakov, D V Masalov, T N Romanova, A A Tiurina, V Ya Palatkin, T S Yaroslavtseva, G Yu Sulimov, A Pecoraro, G Woody
AIM: To assess the relationship between long-term naltrexone treatment and anxiety, depression and craving in opioid dependent individuals. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Opioid dependent patients (n=306) were enrolled in a three cell (102ss/cell) randomized, double blind, double dummy, placebo-controlled 6-month trial comparing extended release implantable naltrexone with oral naltrexone and placebo (oral and implant). Monthly assessments of affective responses used a Visual Analog Scale for opioid craving, the Beck Depression Inventory, Spielberger Anxiety Inventory, and the Ferguson and Chapman Anhedonia Scales...
2018: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626673/assessment-of-gonadotropins-and-testosterone-hormone-levels-in-regular-mitragyna-speciosa-korth-users
#14
Darshan Singh, Vikneswaran Murugaiyah, Shahrul Bariyah Sahul Hamid, Vicknasingam Kasinather, Michelle Su Ann Chan, Eric Tatt Wei Ho, Oliver Grundmann, Nelson Jeng Yeou Chear, Sharif Mahsufi Mansor
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Mitragyna speciosa (Korth.) also known as kratom, is a native medicinal plant of Southeast Asia with opioid-like effects. Kratom tea/juice have been traditionally used as a folk remedy and for controlling opiate withdrawal in Malaysia. Long-term opioid use is associated with depletion in testosterone levels. AIM OF THE STUDY: Since kratom is reported to deform sperm morphology and reduce sperm motility, we aimed to clinically investigate the testosterone levels following long-term kratom tea/juice use in regular kratom users...
July 15, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618930/symptoms-associated-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-and-autism-spectrum-disorders-in-school-aged-children-prenatally-exposed-to-substances
#15
Lisbeth Beate Sandtorv, Silje Katrine Elgen Fevang, Sondre Aasen Nilsen, Tormod Bøe, Rolf Gjestad, Siren Haugland, Irene Bircow Elgen
Prenatal exposure to substances may influence a child's neurodevelopment and impact on subsequent mental health. In a hospital-based population of school-aged children prenatally exposed to opiates and a number of illicit substances (n = 57), we evaluated mental health symptoms associated with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) using the Swanson, Nolan, and Pelham Questionnaire, revision IV (SNAP-IV) and the Autism Spectrum Screening Questionnaire (ASSQ) and compared the scores to a reference group which comprised children from the population-based Bergen Child Study (n = 171)...
2018: Substance Abuse: Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29601219/an-examination-of-the-perceived-impact-of-a-continuing-interprofessional-education-experience-on-opiate-prescribing-practices
#16
Roberto Cardarelli, William Elder, Sarah Weatherford, Karen L Roper, Dana King, Charlotte Workman, Kathryn Stewart, Chong Kim, William Betz
Chronic pain is increasingly recognized as a public health problem. We assessed the effectiveness of a multi-modal, interprofessional educational approach aimed at empowering healthcare professionals to make deliberative changes, especially in opiate prescribing practices. Education activities included enduring webcasts, regional interprofessional roundtable events, and state-level conference presentations within targeted Kentucky and West Virginia regions of the United States. Over 1,000 participants accessed the various activities...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Interprofessional Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29594216/a-predictive-model-for-residual-disease-after-chemo-radiotherapy-in-oropharyngeal-carcinoma-combined-radiological-and-clinical-evaluation-of-tumor-response
#17
Zeno A R Gouw, Bas Jasperse, Jan-Jakob Sonke, Wilma D Heemsbergen, Arash Navran, Olga Hamming-Vrieze, Jan Paul de Boer, Michiel W M van den Brekel, Abrahim Al-Mamgani
Background and purpose: Early detection of Residual disease (RD) is vital for salvage possibilities after (chemo) radiatiotherapy for oropharyngeal carcinoma (OPC). We standardized clinical investigation to test its added value to MRI response evaluation and investigated the benefit of FDG-PET/CT. Materials and methods: Radiological response evaluation using Ojiri-score was done for 234 patients with OPC, using MRI 12 weeks after (chemo) radiotherapy between 2010 and 2014...
October 2017: Clinical and Translational Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29578352/prospective-study-of-the-factors-associated-with-poor-tolerance-to-ambulatory-colonoscopy-under-conscious-sedation
#18
Israel Grilo-Bensusan, Pablo Herrera Martín, Remedios Jiménez-Mesa, Valle Aguado Álvarez
BACKGROUND: conscious sedation with benzodiazepines and opiates for colonoscopy is a widespread clinical practice. OBJECTIVE: to determine the patient's tolerance to colonoscopy and identify the factors associated with lower tolerance. METHODS: a prospective, single-center, descriptive study of patients undergoing ambulatory colonoscopy under conscious sedation. The pain was assessed using a visual analogue scale with a score of 0 to 100 and also qualitatively...
April 2018: Revista Española de Enfermedades Digestivas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29574346/evaluation-of-three-rapid-oral-fluid-test-devices-on-the-screening-of-multiple-drugs-of-abuse-including-ketamine
#19
Magdalene H Y Tang, C K Ching, Simon Poon, Suzanne S S Chan, W Y Ng, M Lam, C K Wong, Ronnie Pao, Angus Lau, Tony W L Mak
Rapid oral fluid testing (ROFT) devices have been extensively evaluated for their ability to detect common drugs of abuse; however, the performance of such devices on simultaneous screening for ketamine has been scarcely investigated. The present study evaluated three ROFT devices (DrugWipe® 6S, Ora-Check® and SalivaScreen® ) on the detection of ketamine, opiates, methamphetamine, cannabis, cocaine and MDMA. A liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LCMS) assay was firstly established and validated for confirmation analysis of the six types of drugs and/or their metabolites...
May 2018: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29569175/cervical-dystonia-and-substance-abuse
#20
Abhimanyu Mahajan, Joseph Jankovic, Laura Marsh, Achint Patel, H A Jinnah, Cynthia Comella, Richard Barbano, Joel Perlmutter, Neepa Patel
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence of substance abuse (SA) in patients with cervical dystonia (CD) and to correlate it with prevalence of psychiatric disorders. METHODS: Data on anxiety, depression, dystonia severity, and substance abuse were collected from ten sites participating in the Dystonia Coalition. Patients were divided into two groups according to the presence of SA, utilizing Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-4 criteria. Wilcoxon Rank-Sum test was used to analyze the difference in median scores on the questionnaires between the groups...
April 2018: Journal of Neurology
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