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Opiate testing

Anatoly Margolis, Paola Rosca, Rena Kurs, Sharon R Sznitman, Alexander Grinshpoon
OBJECTIVE: This study investigates the proportion of drug users among patients with mental disorders that attended the emergency department of one major psychiatric hospital in Northern Israel, the most frequent psychiatric diagnoses associated with drug use and the impact of confirmed drug use on hospital admission. We hypothesized that the proportion of individuals with positive urine drug test results presenting at the psychiatric emergency department during the study period would be 20-30%...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Dual Diagnosis
Karen P Hayhurst, Matthias Pierce, Matthew Hickman, Toby Seddon, Graham Dunn, John Keane, Tim Millar
BACKGROUND: Although evidence points to a strong link between illicit drug use and crime, robust evidence for temporal order in the relationship is scant. We carried out a systematic review to assess the evidence for pathways through opiate/crack cocaine use and offending to determine temporal order. METHODS: A systematic review sourced five databases, three online sources, bibliographies and citation mapping. Inclusion criteria were: focus on opiate/crack use, and offending; pre-drug use information; longitudinal design; corroborative official crime records...
October 19, 2016: International Journal on Drug Policy
Patricia Ribeiro de Carvalho, Denise Ricoy Ropero, Mariana Martins Pinheiro, Patricia Dias Fernandes, Fabio Boylan
Choisya 'Aztec-Pearl', a hybrid of Choisya ternata and Choisya dumosa var. arizonica, had the antinociceptive activity in the ethanol extract (EECA) of its leaves evaluated. Two quinoline alkaloids, anhydroevoxine (A) and choisyine (C), isolated from these leaves were also tested. The results obtained pointed out to a very high antinociceptive activity measured by the hot plate model for EECA (at doses of 10, 30 and 100 mg/kg) as well as for A and C (at doses of 1, 3 and 10 mg/kg). The magnitude of the activity was two-fold higher than the one observed for the morphine treated animals for the higher doses of extracts/compounds (30, 100 mg/kg and 3, 10 mg/kg respectively)...
2016: PloS One
Curtis Bone, Lilian Gelberg, Mani Vahidi, Barbara Leake, Julia Yacenda-Murphy, Ronald M Andersen
OBJECTIVE: The Affordable Care Act encourages integration of behavioral health into primary care. We aim to estimate the level of under-reporting of drug use in federally qualified health centers (FQHCs) among self-reported risky drug users. METHODS: Adult patients in the waiting rooms of 4 FQHCs who self-reported risky drug use on the screening instrument World Health Organization's Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (score 4-26), who participated in the "Quit Using Drugs Intervention Trial," submitted urine samples for drug testing...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Addiction Medicine
Maryam Farahmandfar, Mehdi Kadivar, Sareh Rastipisheh
Behavioral abnormalities associated with opiate addiction include memory and learning deficits, which are the result of some alterations in the neuromodulatory systems. Recently, orexin has shown to influence drug addiction neural circuitry, specifically in mediating reward-related perception and memory. To explore the possible interaction of orexinergic and opioidergic system on modulation of learning and memory, we have investigated the effects of intra-dorsal hippocampal (intra-CA1) administration of orexin-1 receptor agonist and the competitive orexin-1 antagonist, SB-334867, on morphine-induced memory impairment by using step-down passive avoidance task in mice...
October 11, 2016: Neuropeptides
Caroline Anne Mitchell, Alice Pitt, Joe Hulin, Rod Lawson, Fleur Ashby, Ivan Appelqvist, Brigitte Delaney
OBJECTIVES: Increased rates of illicit drug inhalation are thought to expose opiate misusers (OMUs) to an enhanced risk of respiratory health problems. This pilot study aimed to determine the feasibility of undertaking respiratory screening of OMUs in a community clinic. SETTING: Single-centre UK community substance misuse clinic. PARTICIPANTS: All clinic attendees receiving treatment for opiate misuse were eligible to participate. 36 participants (mean age=37) were recruited over a 5-week period...
October 14, 2016: BMJ Open
Bryan Hartzler, Julia C Dombrowski, Heidi M Crane, Joseph J Eron, Elvin H Geng, W Christopher Mathews, Kenneth H Mayer, Richard D Moore, Michael J Mugavero, Sonia Napravnik, Benigno Rodriguez, Dennis M Donovan
Prior efforts to estimate U.S. prevalence of substance use disorders (SUDs) in HIV care have been undermined by caveats common to single-site trials. The current work reports on a cohort of 10,652 HIV-positive adults linked to care at seven sites, with available patient data including geography, demography, and risk factor indices, and with substance-specific SUDs identified via self-report instruments with validated diagnostic thresholds. Generalized estimating equations also tested patient indices as SUD predictors...
October 13, 2016: AIDS and Behavior
Daniel García-Pérez, Szilamer Ferenczi, Krisztina J Kovács, M Luisa Laorden, M Victoria Milanés, Cristina Núñez
Drug-withdrawal-associated aversive memories might trigger relapse to drug-seeking behavior. However, changes in structural and synaptic plasticity, as well as epigenetic mechanisms, which may be critical for long-term aversive memory, have yet to be elucidated. We used male Wistar rats and performed conditioned-place aversion (CPA) paradigm to uncover the role of glucocorticoids (GCs) on plasticity-related processes that occur within the dentate gyrus (DG) during opiate-withdrawal conditioning (memory formation-consolidation) and after reactivation by re-exposure to the conditioned environment (memory retrieval)...
October 11, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
Fair M Vassoler, David J Oliver, Cristina Wyse, Ashley Blau, Michael Shtutman, Jill R Turner, Elizabeth M Byrnes
The United States is in the midst of an opiate epidemic, with abuse of prescription and illegal opioids increasing steadily over the past decade. While it is clear that there is a genetic component to opioid addiction, there is a significant portion of heritability that cannot be explained by genetics alone. The current study was designed to test the hypothesis that maternal exposure to opioids prior to pregnancy alters abuse liability in subsequent generations. Female adolescent Sprague Dawley rats were administered morphine at increasing doses (5-25 mg/kg, s...
October 8, 2016: Neuropharmacology
Kamal Ali, Thomas Rosser, Ravindra Bhat, Kim Wolff, Simon Hannam, Gerrard F Rafferty, Anne Greenough
OBJECTIVES: To determine at the peak age for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) the ventilatory response to hypoxia of infants whose mothers substance misused in pregnancy (SM infants), or smoked during pregnancy (S mothers) and controls whose mothers neither substance misused or smoked. In addition, we compared the ventilatory response to hypoxia during the neonatal period and peak age of SIDS. WORKING HYPOTHESIS: Infants of S or SM mothers compared to control infants would have a poorer ventilatory response to hypoxia at the peak age of SIDS...
October 10, 2016: Pediatric Pulmonology
Ilias Goranitis, Joanna Coast, Ed Day, Alex Copello, Nick Freemantle, Jennifer Seddon, Carmel Bennett, Emma Frew
BACKGROUND: Measuring outcomes in economic evaluations of social care interventions is challenging because both health and well-being benefits are evident. The ICEpop CAPability instrument for adults (ICECAP-A) and the five-level EuroQol five-dimensional questionnaire (EQ-5D-5L) are measures potentially suitable for the economic evaluation of treatments for substance use disorders. Evidence for their validity in this context is, however, lacking. OBJECTIVES: To assess the construct validity of the ICECAP-A and the EQ-5D-5L in terms of convergent and discriminative validity and sensitivity to change on the basis of standard clinical measures (Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation-Outcome Measure, Treatment Outcomes Profile, Interpersonal Support Evaluation List, Leeds Dependence Questionnaire, and Social Satisfaction Questionnaire)...
September 2016: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
Donna E Murray, Timothy C Durazzo, Thomas P Schmidt, Christoph Abé, Joseph Guydish, Dieter J Meyerhoff
OBJECTIVE: Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) in opiate dependence showed abnormalities in neuronal viability and glutamate concentration in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Metabolite levels in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) or orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and their neuropsychological correlates have not been investigated in opiate dependence. METHODS: Single-volume proton MRS at 4 Tesla and neuropsychological testing were conducted in 21 opiate-dependent individuals (OD) on buprenorphine maintenance therapy...
August 2016: Journal of Addiction Research & Therapy
Sinisa Skocibusic, Marko Martinac, Jurica Arapovic, Svjetlana Grgic, Jadranka Nikolic, Dino Hasanagic, Milenko Bevanda, Jelena Ravlija
INTRODUCTION: Use of intravenous heroin carries a risk of serious medical conditions, including acquiring blood-borne infections. Therefore, hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection represent a threat for people who inject drugs (PWID). The objectives of this study were to determine the extent and characteristics of risk factors for acquiring HBV and HCV infection in PWID included in opiate substitution treatment in the southern part of Bosnia and Herzegovina (B&H)...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries
Tze E Cheng, Jason A Wallis, Nicholas F Taylor, Chris T Holden, Paul Marks, Catherine L Smith, Michael S Armstrong, Parminder J Singh
BACKGROUND: We report a prospective randomized study comparing early clinical results between the direct anterior approach (DAA) and posterior approach (PA) in primary hip arthroplasty. METHODS: Surgeries were performed by 2 senior hip arthroplasty surgeons. Seventy-two patients with complete data were assessed preoperatively 2, 6, and 12 weeks postoperatively. The primary outcomes were the Western Ontario McMasters Arthritis Index and Oxford Hip Scores. Secondary outcome measures included the EuroQoL, 10-meter walk test, and clinical and radiographic parameters...
August 31, 2016: Journal of Arthroplasty
Stefano Gentili, Renata Solimini, Roberta Tittarelli, Giulio Mannocchi, Francesco Paolo Busardò
The reliability of DrugWipe 5A on site test for principal drugs of abuse (cannabis, amphetamines, cocaine, and opiates) detection in oral fluid was assessed by comparing the on-site results with headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis on samples extracted by the device collection pad. Oral fluid samples were collected at recreational settings (e.g., discos, pubs, and music bars) of Rome metropolitan area. Eighty-three club goers underwent the on-site drug screening test with one device...
2016: Journal of Analytical Methods in Chemistry
Marta Concheiro, Elena Lendoiro, Ana de Castro, Eva Gónzalez-Colmenero, Ana Concheiro-Guisan, Patricia Peñas-Silva, Manuel Macias-Cortiña, Angelines Cruz-Landeira, Manuel López-Rivadulla
Drug exposure during pregnancy constitutes a major legal issue and a public health concern. Drug and metabolite determination in biological matrices from mother and newborn is an objective indication of prenatal drug exposure. However, limited data are available regarding the interpretation of these analytical results in terms of window of detection and degree of exposure. We collected paired maternal hair, meconium, placenta, and umbilical cord from 727 mother-newborn dyads. We analyzed these specimens by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for the determination of cocaine, opioids, methadone, and amphetamines, and compared the analytical results from the four different matrices...
September 5, 2016: Drug Testing and Analysis
S Yahya, H Benghiat, P Nightingale, M Tiffany, P Sanghera, A Hartley
Various methods have been described to delineate the oral mucosa organ at risk (OAR). This study examined whether dosimetric parameters derived from four different OARs correlated to the duration of acute grade 3 mucositis (G3M) in patients with oropharyngeal carcinoma. In total, 66 patients were included in this study. The duration of CTCAE version 3 G3M and the duration of strong opiate use were prospectively recorded, together with six patient factors. In addition, for each OAR the following dose parameters were derived: mean dose, V55, V50, V45, V40 and V30...
September 1, 2016: Clinical Oncology: a Journal of the Royal College of Radiologists
Renata Nascimento, Alphonse Poklis, Carl E Wolf
A new Hydrocodone Enzyme Immunoassay (HEIA; Lin-Zhi International, Inc.) was evaluated for the detection of hydrocodone and its main metabolite, hydromorphone. All specimens were tested with two different cutoff calibrators, 100 and 300 ng/mL, on an ARCHITECT Plus c4000 Clinical Chemistry Analyzer. Controls containing -25% (negative control) and +25% (positive control) of the cutoff calibrators and a drug-free control were analyzed with each batch. All 1,025 urine specimens were previously analyzed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS-MS) for opiates...
October 2016: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Roger L Bertholf, Rohit Sharma, Gary M Reisfield
Urine drug testing (UDT) has become an essential component in the management of patients prescribed opioid analgesics for the treatment of chronic non-malignant pain. Several laboratory methods are available to monitor adherence with the pharmacological regimen and abstinence from illicit or unauthorized medications. Immunochemical screening methods are rapid and economical, but they have limitations, including lack of specificity, and confirmatory methods are often necessary to verify presumptive positive results...
August 22, 2016: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
U Barahmand, E Tavakolian, A Khazaee, K Mohammadi
CONTEXT: Methadone maintenance is a standard treatment for opiate-dependent individuals. However, deficits in cognitive functioning have been associated with this treatment. AIM: This study aimed to determine the dose and treatment duration-related effects of methadone on executive functions. SETTING AND DESIGN: Pure male opioid users with no considerable history of other drug abuse, undergoing methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) were recruited from a major government-run de-addiction center...
September 2016: Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice
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