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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511485/spiritual-well-being-and-associated-factors-with-relapse-in-opioid-addicts
#1
Mohammad-Reza Noormohammadi, Masoud Nikfarjam, Fatemeh Deris, Neda Parvin
INTRODUCTION: Opioid dependence relapse is a complex and multidimensional problem, and lack of spiritual well-being is a major concern in opioid addicts. AIM: This study was conducted to determine spiritual well-being and factors associated with relapse among opioid addicts. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted from April 2015 to September 2015. According to purposive sampling, 312 eligible addicted patients were enrolled in the study...
March 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511099/the-social-exigencies-of-the-gateway-progression-to-the-use-of-illicit-drugs-from-adolescence-into-adulthood
#2
Roy Otten, Chung Jung Mun, Thomas J Dishion
BACKGROUND: There is limited empirical integration between peer clustering theory and the Gateway framework. The goal of the present study was to test the hypothesis that friendship associations partly predict gateway escalations in the use of drugs from adolescence to adulthood. METHOD: This longitudinal study analyzed 3 waves of data from a community sample of 711 male and female participants without a history of illicit drug use reporting drug use at age 17, 22, and 27...
May 11, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511097/the-relationship-between-social-desirability-bias-and-self-reports-of-health-substance-use-and-social-network-factors-among-urban-substance-users-in-baltimore-maryland
#3
Carl A Latkin, Catie Edwards, Melissa A Davey-Rothwell, Karin E Tobin
BACKGROUND: Social desirability response bias may lead to inaccurate self-reports and erroneous study conclusions. The present study examined the relationship between social desirability response bias and self-reports of mental health, substance use, and social network factors among a community sample of inner-city substance users. METHODS: The study was conducted in a sample of 591 opiate and cocaine users in Baltimore, Maryland from 2009 to 2013. Modified items from the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale were included in the survey, which was conducted face-to-face and using Audio Computer Self Administering Interview (ACASI) methods...
May 9, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501425/the-effects-of-kratom-on-restraint-stress-induced-analgesia-and-its-mechanisms-of-action
#4
José Luis Vázquez López, Lorenz Schild, Thomas Günther, Stefan Schulz, Hartmud Neurath, Axel Becker
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Mitragyna speciosa and its extracts are called kratom (dried leaves, extract). They contain several alkaloids with an affinity for different opioid receptors. They are used in traditional medicine for the treatment of different diseases, as a substitute by opiate addicts, and to mitigate opioid withdrawal symptoms. Apart from their medical properties, they are used to enhance physical endurance and as a means of overcoming stress. PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to determine the mechanisms underlying the effects of kratom on restraint-stress-induced analgesia which occurs during or following exposure to a stressful or fearful stimulus...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496952/hiv-programs-in-iran-persia-iraq-and-saudi-arabia-a-brief-review-of-current-evidence-in-west-and-southwest-asia
#5
Omid Massah, Afsaneh Moradi, Ali Farhoudian, Mahmood Amini-Lari, Hassan Joulaei, Reza Daneshmand
BACKGROUND: In Western and Southwest Asia, literature is not documented on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) programs in Iran, Iraq and Saudi Arabia. The present study is the first brief review that describes HIV programs in these three neighboring countries. METHODS: Data regarding the evidence of HIV programs were gathered through a systematic literature searching. English publications were retrieved through searching online scientific databases. Grey literature was also searched online...
July 2016: Addiction & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476278/reliability-and-validity-of-the-treatment-outcome-profile-among-patients-attending-methadone-maintenance-treatment-programs-in-kunming-china
#6
Mei Wang, Jiucheng Shen, Xianling Liu, Yuan Deng, Jiahua Li, Emily Finch, Kim Wolff
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVE: Substance misuse has been a major health and social issue worldwide and has become an important public health issue in China over the past two decades. Methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) has been proved worldwide by large bodies of research to be one of the most effective practices for illicit drug users. The Treatment Outcome Profile (TOP) was developed in 2007 by the UK National Treatment Agency (NTA). It has been proved to be a reliable instrument for outcome measure...
June 2017: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471096/the-emergence-of-new-psychoactive-substance-nps-benzodiazepines-a-review
#7
REVIEW
Kieran R Manchester, Emma C Lomas, Laura Waters, Fiona C Dempsey, Peter D Maskell
The market for new psychoactive substances has increased markedly in recent years and there is now a steady stream of compounds appearing every year. Benzodiazepines consist of only a fraction of the total number of these compounds but their use and misuse has rapidly increased. Some of these benzodiazepines have only been patented, some of them have not been previously synthesised and the majority have never undergone clinical trials or tests. Despite their structural and chemical similarity, large differences exist between the benzodiazepines in their pharmacokinetic parameters and metabolic pathways and so they are not easily comparable...
May 4, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441975/seek-test-treat-substance-using-women-in-the-hiv-treatment-cascade-in-south-africa
#8
Wendee M Wechsberg, Charles van der Horst, Jacqueline Ndirangu, Irene A Doherty, Tracy Kline, Felicia A Browne, Jennifer M Belus, Robin Nance, William A Zule
BACKGROUND: Women in South Africa who use alcohol and other drugs face multiple barriers to HIV care. These barriers make it difficult for women to progress through each step in the HIV treatment cascade from diagnosis to treatment initiation and adherence. This paper examines correlates of HIV status, newly diagnosed HIV status, and use of antiretroviral therapy (ART). METHODS: Outreach workers recruited sexually active Black African women who used substances in Pretoria as part of a U...
April 26, 2017: Addiction Science & Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429200/achalasia-it-is-not-all-black-and-white
#9
REVIEW
Santosh Sanagapalli, Rami Sweis
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review aims to shed light on subtleties of achalasia diagnosis, including potential pitfalls that may lead to errors. Optimal methods for assessment of disease severity and the relationship between achalasia and other motility disorders will also be reviewed with an emphasis on recent findings from the literature. RECENT FINDINGS: Adjunctive testing with viscous substances or larger water volumes should be used routinely as it improves the accuracy of achalasia diagnosis...
June 2017: Current Gastroenterology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414664/gonococcal-endocarditis-the-gift-that-stops-giving-an-uncommon-presentation-of-a-common-disease
#10
G Olayemi, M Oferczak, A Elagizi, I El-Abbassi, M Eschete, J Crowe
INTRODUCTION: Gonorrhea is the 2nd most common sexually transmitted disease in the US with 800,000 cases of gonorrhea each year. Disseminated gonorrhea infection occurs in 0.5 percent - 3 percent of these patients and is more frequent in woman younger than 40 years of age. CASE: A 36 year old woman with a history of polysubstance abuse presented with 10 day history of feeling generally unwell. At presentation, vitals were remarkable for tachycardia and hypotension...
March 2017: Journal of the Louisiana State Medical Society: Official Organ of the Louisiana State Medical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365913/a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-psychosocial-interventions-to-reduce-drug-and-sexual-blood-borne-virus-risk-behaviours-among-people-who-inject-drugs
#11
REVIEW
Gail Gilchrist, Davina Swan, Kideshini Widyaratna, Julia Elena Marquez-Arrico, Elizabeth Hughes, Noreen Dadirai Mdege, Marrissa Martyn-St James, Judit Tirado-Munoz
Opiate substitution treatment and needle exchanges have reduced blood borne virus (BBV) transmission among people who inject drugs (PWID). Psychosocial interventions could further prevent BBV. A systematic review and meta-analysis examined whether psychosocial interventions (e.g. CBT, skills training) compared to control interventions reduced BBV risk behaviours among PWID. 32 and 24 randomized control trials (2000-May 2015 in MEDLINE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Cochrane Collaboration and Clinical trials, with an update in MEDLINE to December 2016) were included in the review and meta-analysis respectively...
April 1, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361803/illicit-drugs-in-emergency-department-patients-injured-in-road-traffic-accidents
#12
Pietro Papa, Loretta Rocchi, Laura Maria Rolandi, Marcello Di Tuccio, Marco Biffi, Antonella Valli
Urine and blood samples from 1730 drivers involved in road accidents (July 2012 - December 2015) were analyzed for the evaluation of driving under influence of drug of abuse according to the Lombardia Region guideline. The 22.5% (95% CI 20.5 to 24.5) of urine screenings tested positive for at least one class of drugs. 10.6% (95% CI 9.2 to 12.1) of the 1730 drivers were under the influence of drug, being blood concentration above the cut-off limit for at least one active substance; the proportion of illicit drugs in blood was cocaine 5...
January 2017: Annali Dell'Istituto Superiore di Sanità
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346039/comparison-between-urinalysis-results-and-self-reported-heroin-use-among-patients-undergoing-methadone-maintenance-treatment-in-china
#13
Li Li, Li-Jung Liang, Chunqing Lin, Nan Feng, Zunyou Wu
BACKGROUND: The validity and concordance of two main measures of drug use behavior, self-report and urinalysis, has long been discussed. More understanding is needed about the underlying factors associated with discordance between these two methods. OBJECTIVES: Describe the pattern and associated factors of discordance between self-reported heroin use and the urinalysis results of opiate use among methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) patients in China. METHODS: A total of 2,448 MMT patients from 68 clinics in five provinces of China participated in a survey, which collected information on demographics, drug use and MMT-related factors, depressive symptoms, and drug avoidance self-efficacy...
March 27, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324199/high-hiv-prevalence-and-risk-among-male-clients-of-female-sex-workers-in-hanoi-and-ho-chi-minh-city-vietnam
#14
Patrick Nadol, Tran Vu Hoang, Linh-Vi Le, Tuan Anh Nguyen, John Kaldor, Matthew Law
In Vietnam's concentrated HIV epidemic, female sex workers (FSWs) are at increased risk for acquiring and transmitting HIV, largely through their male clients. A high proportion of males in Vietnam report being clients of FSWs. Studying HIV-related risk factors and prevalence among male clients is important, particularly given the potential for male clients to be a 'bridge' of HIV transmission to the more general population or to sex workers. Time-location sampling was used to identify FSW in Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam's largest cities, in 2013-2014...
March 21, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287019/effect-of-prenatal-restraint-stress-and-morphine-co-administration-on-plasma-vasopressin-concentration-and-anxiety-behaviors-in-adult-rat-offspring
#15
Elnaz Nakhjiri, Ehsan Saboory, Shiva Roshan-Milani, Yousef Rasmi, Davod Khalafkhani
Stressful events and exposure to opiates during gestation have important effects on the later mental health of the offspring. Anxiety is among the most common mental disorders. The present study aimed to identify effects of prenatal restraint stress and morphine co-administration on plasma vasopressin concentration (PVC) and anxiety behaviors in rats. Pregnant rats were divided into four groups (n = 6, each): saline, morphine, stress + saline and stress + morphine treatment. The stress procedure consisted of restraint twice per day, two hours per session, for three consecutive days starting on day 15 of pregnancy...
March 28, 2017: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268215/randomised-comparison-of-a-novel-buprenorphine-oral-lyophilisate-versus-existing-buprenorphine-sublingual-tablets-in-opioid-dependent-patients-a-first-in-patient-phase-ii-randomised-open-label-safety-study
#16
John Strang, Kylie Reed, Karolina Bogdanowicz, James Bell, Rob van der Waal, Jenny Keen, Pete Beavan, Shelagh Baillie, Alastair Knight
AIMS: To test the safety of new buprenorphine oral lyophilisate wafer ("bup-lyo") versus standard sub-lingual buprenorphine ("bup-SL"). DESIGN: Randomised (2:1) open-label study; opioid-dependent subjects; subsequent partial cross-over. SETTINGS: Specialised clinical trials facility and addictions treatment facility. PARTICIPANTS: Opioid-dependent subjects (n = 36) commencing buprenorphine maintenance (personalised dose-titration) including patients co-using alcohol, cocaine and benzodiazepines (below thresholds)...
2017: European Addiction Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258478/in-vitro-diagnosis-of-immediate-drug-hypersensitivity-anno-2017-potentials-and-limitations
#17
REVIEW
I I Decuyper, E A Mangodt, A L Van Gasse, K Claesen, A Uyttebroek, M Faber, V Sabato, C H Bridts, C Mertens, M M Hagendorens, L S De Clerck, Didier G Ebo
BACKGROUND: For most physicians, quantification of drug-specific immunoglobulin E (drug-sIgE) antibodies constitutes the primary in vitro measure to document immediate drug hypersensitivity reactions (IDHR). Unfortunately, this is often insufficient to correctly identify patients with IgE-mediated IDHR and impossible for non-IgE-mediated IDHR that result from alternative routes of basophil and mast cell activation. In these difficult cases, diagnosis might benefit from cellular tests such as basophil activation tests (BAT)...
June 2017: Drugs in R&D
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253826/effect-of-codeine-on-cyp450-isoform-activity-of-rats
#18
Shuanghu Wang, Yanwen Dong, Ke Su, Jing Zhang, Linyi Wang, Anyue Han, Congcong Wen, Xianqin Wang, Yan He
CONTEXT: Codeine, also known as 3-methylmorphine, is an opiate used to treat pain, as a cough medicine and for diarrhoea. No study on the effects of codeine on the metabolic capacity of CYP enzyme is reported. OBJECTIVE: In order to investigate the effects of codeine on the metabolic capacity of cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes, a cocktail method was employed to evaluate the activities of CYP2B1, CYP2D1, CYP1A2, CYP3A2 and CYP2C11. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into codeine group (low, medium, high) and control group...
December 2017: Pharmaceutical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240418/analysis-of-drugs-of-abuse-in-cerumen-correlation-of-postmortem-analysis-results-with-those-for-blood-urine-and-hair
#19
Sylvia I Meier, Sarah C Koelzer, Manfred Schubert-Zsilavecz, Stefan W Toennes
The evaluation of drug and alcohol abuse is a major subject of forensic toxicology. Assessment of drug abstinence currently requires the analysis of urine or hair. In the present study cerumen, a mixture of sebum and sweat, was tested as an alternative. Postmortem samples (blood, urine, hair and cerumen from 38 corpses) were analyzed using liquid chromatography and gas chromatography, each coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS, GC-MS). The results were compared. In all cases of recent drug use (i.e. detection of opiates, amphetamine and derivatives, cocaine, methadone and diazepam or their metabolites in blood) the corresponding cerumen was positive...
February 27, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239974/simultaneous-monitoring-of-monoamines-amino-acids-nucleotides-and-neuropeptides-by-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry-and-its-application-to-neurosecretion-in-bovine-chromaffin-cells
#20
Aneta Wojnicz, José Avendaño-Ortiz, Ricardo de Pascual, Lucía Ruiz-Pascual, Antonio G García, Ana Ruiz-Nuño
The primary functions of adrenal medullary chromaffin cells are the synthesis and storage in their chromaffin vesicles of the catecholamines noradrenaline (NA) and adrenaline (AD), and their subsequent release into the bloodstream by Ca(2+) -dependent exocytosis under conditions of fear or stress (fight or flight response). Several monoamines, nucleotides and opiates, such as leucine-enkephalin (LENK) and methionine-enkephalin (MENK), are also co-stored and co-released with the catecholamines. However, other neurotransmitters have not been studied in depth...
August 2016: Journal of Mass Spectrometry: JMS
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