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Shan Xing, Gregory S Calip, Alex D Leow, Shiyun Kim, Glen T Schumock, Daniel R Touchette, Todd A Lee
AIMS: To compare adherence and persistence to oral antidiabetic drugs (OAD) between patients who are new users of second generation antipsychotics (SGA) versus new users of other depression therapies in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and major depressive disorder (MDD). METHODS: Adults 18-64 years with previously-treated T2DM and MDD (past OAD and SSRI/SNRI use) who are new users of SGA or non-SGA therapies (bupropion, lithium, mirtazapine, thyroid hormone, tricyclic antidepressant) were identified in the 2009-2015 MarketScan® Commercial Claims and Encounters database...
December 27, 2017: Journal of Diabetes and its Complications
Alexander V Kulikov, Raul R Gainetdinov, Evgeni Ponimaskin, Allan V Kalueff, Vladimir S Naumenko, Nina K Popova
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are the most effective and most used antidepressant drugs. Acting by inhibiting serotonin (5-HT) transporter, SSRIs display a typical 3-4-week delay in their therapeutic effects, with nearly 40% of depressed patients remaining treatment-resistant. Recent evidence suggests complex interplay between 5-HT receptors and key proteins of 5-HT metabolism in molecular mechanisms of such delay and resistance to SSRIs. Area covered: This paper concentrates on the interplay between 5-HT receptors in the delay of therapeutic effect of SSRIs, and the interaction between tryptophan hydroxylase 2 and 5-HT transporter in the SSRI resistance...
March 15, 2018: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets
Katie L Burkhouse, Autumn Kujawa, Bobby Hosseini, Heide Klumpp, Kate D Fitzgerald, Scott A Langenecker, Christopher S Monk, K Luan Phan
BACKGROUND: Research suggests that individuals with anxiety have difficulty ignoring threat distractors when completing tasks with competing stimuli. Studies examining the neural correlates of these emotional processing difficulties in youth anxiety highlight reduced recruitment of regions associated with goal-directed attention, such as the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). In the current study, we examined neural activation during an emotional conflict task in youth with anxiety disorders before and after treatment...
March 10, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Sherry L Grace, Jose R Medina-Inojosa, Randal J Thomas, Heather Krause, Kristin S Vickers-Douglas, Brian A Palmer, Francisco Lopez-Jimenez
BACKGROUND: To assess use of antidepressants by class in relation to cardiology practice recommendations, and the association of antidepressant use with the occurrence of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) including death. METHODS: This is a historical cohort study of all patients who completed cardiac rehabilitation (CR) between 2002 and 2012 in a major CR center. Participants completed the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) at the start and end of the program...
March 13, 2018: Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics
F Artigas, P Celada, A Bortolozzi
In the second part we focus on two treatment strategies that may overcome the main limitations of current antidepressant drugs. First, we review the experimental and clinical evidence supporting the use of glutamatergic drugs as fast-acting antidepressants. Secondly, we review the involvement of microRNAs (miRNAs) in the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD) and the use of small RNAs (e.g.., small interfering RNAs or siRNAs) to knockdown genes in monoaminergic and non-monoaminergic neurons and induce antidepressant-like responses in experimental animals...
March 7, 2018: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Nina M Molenaar, Marlies E Brouwer, Johannes J Duvekot, Huibert Burger, Esther M Knijff, Witte J Hoogendijk, Claudi L H Bockting, G S de Wolf, Mijke P Lambregtse-van den Berg
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: prescription rates of antidepressants during pregnancy range from 2-3% in The Netherlands to 6.2% in the USA. Inconclusive evidence about harms and benefits of antidepressants during pregnancy leads to variation in advice given by gynaecologists and midwives. The objective was to investigate familiarity with, and adherence to the Dutch multidisciplinary guideline on Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor (SSRI) use during pregnancy by gynaecologists and midwives in the Netherlands...
February 21, 2018: Midwifery
Manish K Jha, Shereen Wakhlu, Neha Dronamraju, Abu Minhajuddin, Tracy L Greer, Madhukar H Trivedi
BACKGROUND: Currently, there are no valid clinical or biological markers to personalize the treatment of depression. Recent evidence suggests that body mass index (BMI) may guide the selection of antidepressant medications with different mechanisms of action. METHODS: Combining Medications to Enhance Depression Outcomes (CO-MED) trial participants with BMI measurement (n = 662) were categorized as normal- or underweight (<25), overweight (25-<30), obese I (30-<35), and obese II+ (≥35)...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Mehmet Ali Altay, Alper Sindel, Öznur Özalp, Nelli Yıldırımyan, Dinçer Kader, Uğur Bilge, Dale A Baur
The success of osseointegration is influenced by several factors that affect bone metabolism and by certain systemic medications. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors have been previously suggested to be among these medications. This study aims to investigate the association between systemic intake of SSRIs and failure of osseointegration in patients rehabilitated with dental implants. A retrospective cohort study was conducted including a total of 2055 osseointegrated dental implants in 631 patients (109 implants in 36 SSRI-users and 1946 in 595 non-users)...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Oral Implantology
Masayuki Uchida, Orie Kobayashi
5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and noradrenaline have been thought to play important roles in the mechanism of hot flush. Then, to clarify the relation between serotonergic and adrenergic nervous systems on the mechanism of hot flush, the effect of paroxetine, 5-HT reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) was evaluated on the yohimbine-induced hot flush increase of tail skin temperature in ovariectomized female rats. Yohimbine (adrenaline α2 antagonist) significantly increased the tail skin temperature in course of time. Clonidine (adrenaline α2 agonist) significantly attenuated this effect...
March 5, 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Karin Melin, Gudmundur Skarphedinsson, Ingela Skärsäter, Bente Storm Mowatt Haugland, Tord Ivarsson
This study reports follow-up 2 and 3 years after the initial assessment of a sample of youth with a primary diagnosis of OCD. Participants were 109 children and adolescents, aged 5-17 years, recruited from a specialized, outpatient OCD clinic in Sweden. Patients were treated with cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), augmented when indicated by selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI). In cases where SSRIs were insufficient, augmentation with a second-generation antipsychotic (SGA) was applied. Participants were assessed with the Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (CY-BOCS), Children's OCD Impact Scale (COIS), and Children's Depressive Inventory (CDI) at follow-ups 2 and 3 years after baseline assessment...
March 3, 2018: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
Andy Barnes, Richard Ziegler, Neena McConnico, Martin T Stein
Carter is a 12-year-old boy who has been seeing a developmental-behavioral pediatrician since the age of 7 years for problems with behavioral regulation. Around that time, he began to receive special education services after an educational assessment of autism. He has average intellectual abilities, with below-average semantic-pragmatic speech (e.g., conversations are one-sided). His medical diagnoses included attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), combined presentation, and generalized anxiety disorder...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
Angela Lupattelli, Mollie Wood, Eivind Ystrom, Svetlana Skurtveit, Marte Handal, Hedvig Nordeng
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of prenatal exposure to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) on children's behavioral, emotional, and social development by age 5 years, and over time since age 1.5 years. METHOD: The prospective Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study was linked to the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. We included women who reported depressive/anxiety disorders before and/or during pregnancy. Children born to women who used SSRIs in early (weeks 0-16), mid- (weeks 17-28), or late (> week 29) pregnancy were compared to those who were unexposed...
March 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
Hong-Bo Guan, Yang Wei, Lei-Lei Wang, Chong Qiao, Cai-Xia Liu
BACKGROUND: To analyze existing cohort studies and provide evidence for the use of prenatal selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) monotherapy and the associated risk of gestational hypertension and preeclampsia. METHODS: A comprehensive search of English language articles published before 30th April 2017 was conducted on PubMed, EMBASE, and the Web of Science databases. Using data acquired, we summarized the relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of gestational hypertension and preeclampsia using the random-effects model...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Women's Health
I Antoniadou, M Kouskou, T Arsiwala, N Singh, S R Vasudevan, T Fowler, E Cadirci, G C Churchill, T Sharp
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Lithium's antidepressant action may be mediated by inhibition of inositol monophosphatase (IMPase), a key enzyme in Gq protein coupled receptor signalling. Recently, the antioxidant agent ebselen was identified as an IMPase inhibitor. Here we investigated both ebselen and lithium in models of the 5-HT2A receptor, a Gq protein coupled receptor implicated in lithium's actions. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: 5-HT2A receptor function was modelled in mice by measuring the behavioural (head-twitches) and cortical immediate early gene (IEG; Arc, c-fos and Erg2 mRNA) responses to 5-HT2A receptor agonist administration...
February 27, 2018: British Journal of Pharmacology
Molly H B Amador, M Danielle McDonald
The serotonin transporter (SERT) functions in the uptake of the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-HT) from the extracellular milieu and is the molecular target of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), a common group of antidepressants. The current study comprehensively assesses the sequence, tissue distribution, transport kinetics, and physiological function of a teleost SERT. The 2,022-bp toadfish SERT sequence encodes a protein of 673 amino acids, which shows 83% similarity to zebrafish SERT and groups with SERT of other teleosts in phylogenetic analysis...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Yulia Orlova, Paul Rizzoli, Elizabeth Loder
Importance: In 2006, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued an advisory warning on the risk of serotonin syndrome with concomitant use of triptans and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) or selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) antidepressants, but the true risk of serotonin syndrome in these patients remains unknown. Objective: To assess the risk of serotonin syndrome with concomitant use of triptans and SSRI or SNRI antidepressants...
February 26, 2018: JAMA Neurology
Everton C do Carmo, Eduardo O De Souza, Hamilton Roschel, Ronaldo Kobal, Henrique Ramos, Saulo Gil, Valmor Tricoli
This study compared the effects of self-selected rest interval and fixed rest interval strategies on post-activation potentiation (PAP) in countermovement jump (CMJ) performance. Twelve strength-trained male's (age: 25.4 ± 3.6 years; body mass: 78.8 ± 10.5 kg; height: 175 ± 7.0 cm; half-squat 1RM: 188.7 ± 33.4 kg) performed three experimental conditions: 1) fixed rest interval (FRI: CMJ test; 4-min rest interval; 5RM back squat; 4-min rest interval; CMJ test), 2) self-selected rest interval (SSRI: CMJ test; 4-min rest interval; 5RM back squat; SSRI; CMJ test), and 3) control (C: CMJ test; 8-min rest interval; CMJ test)...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
K Kragholm, M P Andersen, R N Mortensen, L F Bech, C Polcwiartek, C Rohde, C Torp-Pedersen, P Videbech, J Nielsen
OBJECTIVE: Data on special education in offspring exposed to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) in utero are lacking. We examined associations of in utero SSRI exposure with special education needs and delayed elementary school start. METHODS: A population-based case-cohort study using Danish nationwide birth and prescription registry data from 2005 to 2008. Follow-up ends during 2011-2015 to capture special education needs during and delayed entry to the first elementary school year...
February 25, 2018: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
Blanca Perez-Palomar, Irene Mollinedo-Gajate, Esther Berrocoso, J Javier Meana, Jorge E Ortega
Activation of serotonin 5-HT3 receptor (5HT3R) in the locus coeruleus (LC), the principal somatodendritic noradrenergic area, decreases LC firing activity and noradrenaline (NA) release in prefrontal cortex (PFC). Blockade of 5HT3R in coadministration with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) has been proposed as a potential strategy to accelerate the onset of action of SSRIs. Dual-probe microdialysis in rats was used to evaluate the involvement of 5HT3R in the in vivo effect exerted by the SSRI citalopram on NA release...
February 22, 2018: Neuropharmacology
Dorte Glintborg, Magda Lambaa Altinok, Pernille Ravn, Kurt B Stage, Kurt Højlund, Marianne Andersen
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with insulin resistance, adrenal hyperactivity and decreased mental health. We aimed to investigate changes in adrenal activity, metabolic status, and mental health in PCOS during treatment with escitalopram or placebo. METHODS: Forty-two overweight premenopausal women with PCOS and no clinical depression were randomized to 12-weeks SSRI (20 mg escitalopram/day, n=21) or placebo (n=21). Patients underwent clinical examination, fasting blood samples, adrenocorticotroph hormone (ACTH) test, 3 hours oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and filled in questionnaires regarding mental health and health related quality of life (HRQoL): WHO Well Being Index (WHO-5), Major Depression Inventory (MDI), Short Form 36 (SF-36), and PCOS questionnaire...
February 22, 2018: Endocrine Connections
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