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Microcirculation stroke

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906746/recent-developments-on-the-vascular-effects-of-20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic-acid
#1
Victor Garcia, Michal L Schwartzman
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: 20-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) is a potent vasoactive eicosanoid and a key constituent of the microcirculation. Its effects on vascular function are multifaceted and include stimulation of smooth muscle, contractility, migration, and proliferation, as well as endothelial cell dysfunction and inflammation. Such effects have significant implications with regard to the control of vascular homeostasis and pathophysiology. The clinical relevance of 20-HETE is highlighted by recent studies linking 20-HETE and its biosynthetic enzymes to the development of hypertension, stroke, and myocardial infarction...
November 30, 2016: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894149/2-3-5-4-tetrahydroxystilbene-2-o-%C3%AE-d-glucoside-attenuates-ischemia-reperfusion-induced-brain-injury-in-rats-by-promoting-angiogenesis
#2
Ying Mu, Zhaohui Xu, Xuanxuan Zhou, Huinan Zhang, Qian Yang, Yunlong Zhang, Yanhua Xie, Juan Kang, Feng Li, Siwang Wang
Cerebral ischemia can cause brain infarcts, which are difficult to recover due to poor angiogenesis. 2,3,5,4'-Tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-β-D-glucoside is a natural polyphenol, has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity, and can protect from ischemic neuronal injury. However, little is known about the effect of 2,3,5,4'-tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-β-D-glucoside on brain microcirculation after stroke. This study aimed at investigating the influence of 2,3,5,4'-tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-β-D-glucoside on brain lesions and angiogenesis after stroke...
November 28, 2016: Planta Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869849/optical-coherence-tomography-imaging-of-capillary-reperfusion-after-ischemic-stroke
#3
Jonghwan Lee, Yasemin Gursoy-Ozdemir, Buyin Fu, David A Boas, Turgay Dalkara
Although progress has been made for recanalization therapies after ischemic stroke, post-treatment imaging studies show that tissue reperfusion cannot be attained despite satisfactory recanalization in a significant percentage of patients. Hence, investigation of microcirculatory changes in both surface and deep cortical levels after ischemia reperfusion is important for understanding the post-stroke blood flow dynamics. In this study, we applied optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging of cerebral blood flow for the quantification of the microcirculatory changes...
November 20, 2016: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864774/comparison-of-an-automatic-analysis-and-a-manual-analysis-of-conjunctival-microcirculation-in-a-sheep-model-of-haemorrhagic-shock
#4
Philip-Helge Arnemann, Michael Hessler, Tim Kampmeier, Andrea Morelli, Hugo Karel Van Aken, Martin Westphal, Sebastian Rehberg, Christian Ertmer
BACKGROUND: Life-threatening diseases of critically ill patients are known to derange microcirculation. Automatic analysis of microcirculation would provide a bedside diagnostic tool for microcirculatory disorders and allow immediate therapeutic decisions based upon microcirculation analysis. METHODS: After induction of general anaesthesia and instrumentation for haemodynamic monitoring, haemorrhagic shock was induced in ten female sheep by stepwise blood withdrawal of 3 × 10 mL per kilogram body weight...
December 2016: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859886/collateral-blood-flow-in-different-cerebrovascular-hierarchy-provides-endogenous-protection-in-cerebral-ischemia
#5
Chuanming Luo, Fengyin Liang, Huixia Ren, Xiaoli Yao, Qiang Liu, Mingyue Li, Dajiang Qin, Ti-Fei Yuan, Zhong Pei, Huanxing Su
Collateral blood flow as vascular adaptions to focal cerebral ischemia is well recognized. However, few studies directly investigate the dynamics of collateral vessel recruitment in vivo and little is known about the effect of collateral blood flow in different cerebrovascular hierarchy on the neuropathology after focal ischemic stroke. Here, we report that collateral blood flow is critically involved in blood vessel compensations following regional ischemia. We occluded a pial arteriole using femtosecond laser ablating under the intact thinned skull and documented the changes of collateral flow around the surface communication network and between the surface communication network and subsurface microcirculation network using in vivo two photon microscopy imaging...
November 15, 2016: Brain Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753880/ish-ada-01-critical-role-of-telomerase-in-regulating-cerebral-vascular-function-and-redox-environment
#6
Karima Ait-Aissa, Joseph Hockenberry, David Gutterman, Aron Geurts, Andreas Beyer
OBJECTIVE: Flow mediated dilation (FMD) is the most physiological relevant form of endothelial-mediated vasodilation. Our laboratory has previously shown that telomerase, a ribo-nucleoprotein that counteracts telomere shortening, has a protective effect on endothelial function under conditions of oxidative stress in the human microcirculation. In the presence of coronary artery disease, decreased telomerase activity contributes to a shift in the mediator of FMD from atheroprotective nitric oxide (NO) to pro-inflammatory and atherogenic hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27744389/invited-commentary-hypertension-during-pregnancy-and-offspring-microvascular-structure-insights-from-the-retinal-microcirculation
#7
Odaro Huckstep, Adam J Lewandowski, Paul Leeson
Human clinical studies as well as laboratory animal studies demonstrate that offspring of pregnancies affected by common complications, such as preeclampsia and preterm birth, display developmental phenotypes that relate distinctly to the pregnancy disorder. Several studies have now found microvascular differences in offspring of hypertensive pregnancies, and there is interest in whether these may underlie epidemiologic associations between gestational hypertension and a higher risk of hypertension and stroke in the offspring...
October 15, 2016: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27643173/ish-ada-01-critical-role-of-telomerase-in-regulating-cerebral-vascular-function-and-redox-environment
#8
Karima Ait-Aissa, Joseph Hockenberry, David Gutterman, Aron Geurts, Andreas Beyer
OBJECTIVE: Flow mediated dilation (FMD) is the most physiological relevant form of endothelial-mediated vasodilation. Our laboratory has previously shown that telomerase, a ribo-nucleoprotein that counteracts telomere shortening, has a protective effect on endothelial function under conditions of oxidative stress in the human microcirculation. In the presence of coronary artery disease, decreased telomerase activity contributes to a shift in the mediator of FMD from atheroprotective nitric oxide (NO) to pro-inflammatory and atherogenic hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27598581/clinical-characteristics-of-cerebrovascular-pathology-with-patients-suffering-from-ph-negative-myeloproliferative-disease
#9
Marine M Tanashyan, Polina I Kuznetsova, Alla A Shabalina, Anton A Raskurazhev, Olga V Lagoda, Irina N Subortseva, Anait L Melikyan
BACKGROUND: Disturbances of microcirculation play a significant role in the development and progression of both acute and chronic cerebrovascular diseases (CVD) and may be associated with different hemogram abnormalities. One of the reasons of the prothrombogenic state of the endothelium is the increase in the number of blood corpuscles leading to (non-Ph) myeloproliferative disorders (MPD) including essential thrombocythemia (ET), polycythemia vera (PV), and primary myelofibrosis (PM)...
September 7, 2016: Cerebrovascular Diseases Extra
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27396808/goal-directed-therapy-to-maintain-haemostasis
#10
REVIEW
C Oscier, M Cecconi
Perioperative goal-directed therapy typically involves the use of haemodynamic targets to optimise oxygen delivery. Common goals include stroke volume, cardiac output and arterial blood pressure, although future protocols may also incorporate an assessment of vascular tone and the microcirculation. This article reviews the current evidence for goal-directed therapy and discusses future directions.
June 2016: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27359234/-hyperoxia-in-anesthesia-and-intensive-care-medicine-too-much-of-a-good-thing
#11
Marc Moritz Berger, Franziska Macholz, Peter Schmidt, Ragnar Huhn
For decades the administration of oxygen has been a corner stone in the treatment of various medical emergencies, e.g. acute myocardial infarction. Several arguments support the perioperative use of high oxygen concentrations (>80%) for the prevention of surgical site infections. However, effects of oxygen include an increase in systemic vascular resistance, a reduction in heart rate and stroke volume and thus an impairment of the microcirculation, e.g. in the coronary and cerebral vasculature. Adequately powered, prospective, randomized, blinded outcome studies on the effects of hyperoxia in anesthesia and intensive care medicine are scarce...
June 2016: Anästhesiologie, Intensivmedizin, Notfallmedizin, Schmerztherapie: AINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27298576/factors-regulating-the-renal-circulation-in-spontaneously-hypertensive-rats
#12
REVIEW
Ahmad F Ahmeda, Mohammed Alzoghaibi
Hypertension is one of the leading causes of health morbidity and mortality which are linked to many life threatening diseases such as stroke heart problems and renal dysfunction. The integrity of renal microcirculation is crucial to maintaining the clearance and the excretory function in the normotensive and hypertensive conditions. Furthermore, any alteration in the renal function is involved in the pathophysiology of hypertension. The aim of this review is to provide a brief discussion of some factors that regulate renal haemodynamics in spontaneously hypertensive rats, an animal model of hypertension, and how these factors are linked to the disease...
July 2016: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27296313/the-role-of-pericytes-in-neurovascular-unit-emphasis-on-stroke
#13
Ozgur Oztop-Cakmak, Ihsan Solaroglu, Yasemin Gursoy-Ozdemir
Among the central nervous system (CNS) disorders, diseases primarily effecting neurovascular structure like ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke are important health care problems and leading causes for emergency admissions. Despite their high rate of mortality and morbidity, very few efficient treatment targets has been established until now. Blood-brain barrier (BBB) is the mostly effected structure in stroke as detected in both clinical studies and experimental settings. BBB is composed of endothelia, astrocyte end-foot, pericytes and basal lamina...
June 12, 2016: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27167058/predicting-stroke-volume-and-arterial-pressure-fluid-responsiveness-in-liver-cirrhosis-patients-using-dynamic-preload-variables-a-prospective-study-of-diagnostic-accuracy
#14
Chun-Yu Wu, Ya-Jung Cheng, Ying-Ju Liu, Tsung-Ta Wu, Chiang-Ting Chien, Kuang-Cheng Chan
BACKGROUND: Predicting whether a fluid challenge will elicit 'fluid responsiveness' in stroke volume (SV) and arterial pressure is crucial for managing hypovolaemia and hypotension. Pulse pressure variation (PPV), SV variation (SVV) and the plethysmographic variability index (PVI) have been shown to predict SV fluid responsiveness, and the PPV/SVV ratio has been shown to predict arterial pressure fluid responsiveness under various conditions. However, these variables have not been investigated in liver cirrhosis patients...
September 2016: European Journal of Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27132521/the-pathophysiological-role-of-astrocytic-endothelin-1
#15
REVIEW
Stéphanie Hostenbach, Miguel D'haeseleer, Ron Kooijman, Jacques De Keyser
In the normal central nervous system, endothelin-1 (ET-1) is found in some types of neurons, epithelial cells of the choroid plexus, and endothelial cells of microvessels, but it is usually not detectable in glial cells. However, in different pathological conditions, astrocytes adapting a reactive phenotype express high levels of ET-1 and its receptors, mainly the ETB receptor. ET-1 released by reactive astrocytes appears mainly to have neurodeleterious effects by mechanisms that include constriction of cerebral arterioles leading to impairment of the cerebral microcirculation, increase of blood brain barrier permeability, inflammation, excitotoxicity, impairment of fast axonal transport, and astrogliosis...
September 2016: Progress in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27058049/microcirculatory-disorders-and-protective-role-of-anti-oxidant-in-severe-heat-stroke-a-rat-study
#16
Hui Jin, Zhipeng Li, Xiaohua Guo, Huasheng Tong, Zhifeng Liu, Yi Chen, Lei Su, Qiaobing Huang
This study aims to examine microcirculation and systemic hemodynamic disturbances in severe heat stroke (HS).147 rats were divided into heat stroke group (HS), pre-treated with SOD (SOD+HS) group and pre-treated with normal saline (NS+HS) group. Heat-stress was induced by incubating the animals in certain temperatures. Blood flow and vascular reactivity were monitored dynamically with intravital microscopy. Pulmonary permeability was reflected by wet-to-dry weight ratio, the concentration of Evans Blue and histopathology of lung...
March 31, 2016: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27056406/associations-of-blood-pressure-variability-and-retinal-arteriolar-diameter-in-participants-with-type-2-diabetes
#17
Panagiota Veloudi, Leigh Blizzard, Velandai K Srikanth, Paul McCartney, Elena V Lukoshkova, Alun D Hughes, Geoffrey A Head, James E Sharman
Blood pressure variability is associated with macrovascular complications and stroke, but its association with the microcirculation in type II diabetes has not been assessed. This study aimed to determine the relationship between blood pressure variability indices and retinal arteriolar diameter in non-diabetic and type II diabetes participants. Digitized retinal images were analysed to quantify arteriolar diameters in 35 non-diabetic (aged 52 ± 11 years; 49% male) and 28 type II diabetes (aged 61 ± 9 years; 50% male) participants...
July 2016: Diabetes & Vascular Disease Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27014073/cerebral-small-vessel-disease-targeting-oxidative-stress-as-a-novel-therapeutic-strategy
#18
REVIEW
T Michael De Silva, Alyson A Miller
Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) is a major contributor to stroke, and a leading cause of cognitive impairment and dementia. Despite the devastating effects of cerebral SVD, the pathogenesis of cerebral SVD is still not completely understood. Moreover, there are no specific pharmacological strategies for its prevention or treatment. Cerebral SVD is characterized by marked functional and structural abnormalities of the cerebral microcirculation. The clinical manifestations of these pathological changes include lacunar infarcts, white matter hyperintensities, and cerebral microbleeds...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26999797/experimental-cannabinoid-2-receptor-inhibition-in-cns-injury-induced-immunodeficiency-syndrome
#19
Ian Burkovskiy, Juan Zhou, Christian Lehmann
OBJECTIVE: Severe CNS injury, such as stroke, traumatic brain injury, or spinal cord injury, is known to increase susceptibility to infections. The increased susceptibility to infection is due to an impaired immune response and is referred to as CIDS. The CB2 receptor on immune cells presents a potential therapeutic target in CIDS as activation of this receptor has been shown to be involved in immunosuppression. The main purpose of this study was to determine the impact of CB2 receptor inhibition on leukocyte activation within the microcirculation following endotoxin challenge in an experimental stroke model...
May 2016: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26893927/impaired-deformability-of-circulating-erythrocytes-obtained-from-nondiabetic-hypertensive-patients-investigation-by-a-nickel-mesh-filtration-technique
#20
Keita Odashiro, Kazuyuki Saito, Takeshi Arita, Toru Maruyama, Takehiko Fujino, Koichi Akashi
INTRODUCTION: Hypertension is associated with microcirculatory disturbance, and erythrocyte deformability is a major determinant of the microcirculation. However, impairment of erythrocyte deformability in hypertensive patients in relation to antihypertensive treatment is unclear. The present study aimed to investigate this impairment in hypertensive patients under treatment using a highly sensitive and quantitative nickel mesh filtration technique. METHODS: Deformability was evaluated by filterability, defined as the flow rate of a hematocrit-adjusted erythrocyte suspension relative to that of saline under a specific filtration pressure in a pressure-flow curve obtained by continuous filtration...
2015: Clinical Hypertension
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