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Microcirculation stroke

Xin Zhao, Jinyu Liu, Shijun Yang, Dandan Song, Chen Wang, Chen Chen, Xiaoya Li, Qiuting Wang, Shasha Ge, Runmei Yang, Xiuhua Liu, Yulin Lin, Dayong Cai
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Vascular dementia (VaD) is the common cognitive disorder derived mainly from lacunar stroke (LS). The oxidative stress induced neurovascular coupling (NVC) dysfunction involves in the pathogenesis of VaD. Currently, there is no specific drug for VaD. Ling-Yang-Gou-Teng -Decoction (LG), a well-known traditional Chinese formula, has been used for preventing VaD in clinic. AIM OF THE STUDY: In this study, we aimed to investigate the underlying mechanism of LG on VaD in rats...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Hui Jin, Yi Chen, Chengjia Ding, Youping Lin, Yulan Chen, Dongxin Jiang, Lei Su
This study was conducted to explore underlying mechanism of microcirculation dysfunction and protectiverole of Xuebijing in heat stroke. Forty rats were divided into: control, vehicle + heat stress (HS), superoxide dismutase (SOD) + HS, and Xuebijing + HS groups. Rats in heat stress groups were subjected to continuous heat stress in infant incubator 1 h after tail vein injection of the tested compound and spinotrapezius preparation. Velocity of blood flow through micro-vessels and vascular diameter were detected in real time...
March 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Xin Zhao, Jinyu Liu, Shijun Yang, Dandan Song, Chen Wang, Chen Chen, Chengcheng Wang, Feifei Pu, Runmei Yang, Xiaoya Li, Qiuting Wang, Shasha Ge, Yulin Lin, Xiuhua Liu, Dayong Cai
Vascular dementia (VaD) is the common cognitive disorder derived mainly from lacunar stroke. The neurovascular coupling (NVC) dysfunction involves in its pathogenesis. VaD lacks suitable animal models for developing preventive therapies. This study aimed to confirm a model for preventing VaD via maintaing NVC sensitivity in rats. The model was replicated with autologous microthrombi against the background of hypercholesterolemia. A phosphodiesterase inhibitor (pentoxyfylline) was preventively administrated to confirm the role of NVC sensitivity...
March 8, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
Jean-Philippe Desilles, Varouna Syvannarath, Lucas Di Meglio, Célina Ducroux, William Boisseau, Liliane Louedec, Martine Jandrot-Perrus, Jean-Baptiste Michel, Mikael Mazighi, Benoît Ho-Tin-Noé
BACKGROUND: Previous experimental studies have shown that downstream microvascular thromboinflammation is involved in brain damage from acute ischemic stroke. Using intravital microscopy, we investigated and characterized the sequence of downstream microvascular thromboinflammation in an ischemia/reperfusion acute ischemic stroke model. METHODS AND RESULTS: Rats underwent transient monofilament middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion. Cerebral microcirculation in the MCA territory was exposed through a craniotomy and analyzed using real-time intravital imaging coupled with laser Doppler interferometry...
March 1, 2018: Journal of the American Heart Association
H Lier, M Bernhard, B Hossfeld
The term "shock" refers to a life-threatening circulatory failure caused by an imbalance between the supply and demand of cellular oxygen. Hypovolemic shock is characterized by a reduction of intravascular volume and a subsequent reduction in preload. The body compensates the loss of volume by increasing the stroke volume, heart frequency, oxygen extraction rate, and later by an increased concentration of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate with a rightward shift of the oxygen dissociation curve. Hypovolemic hemorrhagic shock impairs the macrocirculation and microcirculation and therefore affects many organ systems (e...
February 5, 2018: Der Anaesthesist
Hui-Chun Huang, Shao-Jung Hsu, Ching-Chih Chang, Ming-Hung Tsai, Fa-Yauh Lee, Ming-Chih Hou, Shou-Dong Lee
Critical illness is accompanied by hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activation, but adrenal insufficiency characterized by inadequate glucocorticoid synthesis is common in critically ill cirrhotic patients, the 'hepato-adrenal syndrome'. Adrenal cortex also synthesizes androgen (dehydroepiandrosterone, DHEA). DHEA maintains microcirculation by enhancing vascular endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity. In critical patients of other disease entities, a shift of adrenal steroidogenesis away from androgens towards glucocorticoid has been noted, arousing interests in androgen replacement in critical settings...
February 1, 2018: Shock
Shang-Jen Yu, James P Buerck, Edgar A O'Rear, Thomas L Whitsett
BACKGROUND: Reperfusion injury often occurs with therapeutic intervention addressing the arterial occlusions causing acute myocardial infarction and stroke. The no-reflow phenomenon has been ascribed to leukocyte plugging and blood vessel constriction in the microcirculation. OBJECTIVE: To assess possible red cell contributions to post thrombolytic no-reflow phenomenon. METHODS: Blood clots were formed by recalcifying 1 ml of citrated fresh human venous blood and then lysed by adding 1,000 units of streptokinase (SK) at several intervals within 1 hour...
January 11, 2018: Biorheology
Daniel Grandmougin, Jean-Mathieu Casse, Antoine Chalon, Yun Luo, Aude Falanga, Vanessa Marie, Fréderique Groubatch-Joineau, Brice Mourer, Marie Grandmougin, David Grandmougin, Guillaume Gauchotte, Juan-Pablo Maureira, Nguyen Tran
BACKGROUND: Retrograde perfusion into the coronary sinus is used to deliver cardioplegia. We developed an in-vivo porcine beating-heart model of self-myocardial retroperfusion (SMR) using the venous route to supply myocardial oxygenation and sought to assess hemodynamic and cardiac responses triggered by SMR before and after a prolonged occlusion of the LAD. METHODS: A bypass-line between the ascending aorta and the coronary sinus was made to perform a selective retrograde perfusion of the great cardiac vein with oxygenated blood (SMR)...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery
Shen Liu, Cong Wei, Ning Kang, Qilong He, Junqing Liang, Hongtao Wang, Liping Chang, Daohong Chen, Qiuyan Zhang, Chengcheng Chang, Junfang Zhang, Hong Ren, Yiling Wu
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the effect of Tongxinluo capsule (TXL), a Chinese medicine prescription, on cerebral microcirculatory disturbances after permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO) in mice using two-photon laser scanning microscopy (TPLSM) and further explore the underlying mechanisms. METHODS: C57BL/6J mice were subjected to pMCAO and orally administered with TXL (3.0, 1.5 and 0.75 g/kg/day) at 1h, 3h and 21h after pMCAO. The following parameters were examined at 6h and 24h after pMCAO: neurological deficit, infarct volume, blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability, cerebral microvessel structure, brain microcirculation (TPLSM imaging), vasoactive factors and adhesion molecules...
December 15, 2017: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
Bob Smit, Yvo M Smulders, Etto C Eringa, Harry P M M Gelissen, Armand R J Girbes, Harm-Jan S de Grooth, Hans H M Schotman, Peter G Scheffer, Heleen M Oudemans-van Straaten, Angelique M E Spoelstra-de Man
OBJECTIVE: To determine the human dose-response relationship between a stepwise increase in arterial oxygen tension and its associated changes in DO2 and sublingual microcirculatory perfusion. METHODS: Fifteen healthy volunteers breathed increasing oxygen fractions for 10 minutes to reach arterial oxygen tensions of baseline (breathing air), 20, 40, 60 kPa, and max kPa (breathing oxygen). Systemic hemodynamics were measured continuously by the volume-clamp method...
February 2018: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
X T Wang, D W Liu, H M Zhang, Y Long, X D Guan, H B Qiu, K J Yu, J Yan, H Zhao, Y Q Tang, X Ding, X C Ma, W Du, Y Kang, B Tang, Y H Ai, H W He, D C Chen, H Chen, W Z Chai, X Zhou, N Cui, H Wang, X Rui, Z J Hu, J G Li, Y Xu, Y Yang, B Ouyan, H Y Lin, Y M Li, X Y Wan, R L Yang, Y Z Qin, Y G Chao, Z Y Xie, R H Sun, Z Y He, D F Wang, Q Q Huang, D P Jiang, X Y Cao, R G Yu, X Wang, X K Chen, J F Wu, L N Zhang, M G Yin, L X Liu, S W Li, Z J Chen, Z Luo
To establish the experts consensus on the right heart function management in critically ill patients. The panel of consensus was composed of 30 experts in critical care medicine who are all members of Critical Hemodynamic Therapy Collaboration Group (CHTC Group). Each statement was assessed based on the GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation) principle. Then the Delphi method was adopted by 52 experts to reassess all the statements. (1) Right heart function is prone to be affected in critically illness, which will result in a auto-exaggerated vicious cycle...
December 1, 2017: Zhonghua Nei Ke za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Internal Medicine]
Gilmar S Osmundo, Jozélio Freire Carvalho, Luiz A Bortolotto, Vilma S T Viana, Eloisa Bonfá
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the arterial distensibility of large vessels and changes in microvasculature in primary antiphospholipid syndrome. METHODS: Twenty-two antiphospholipid syndrome (APL) patients and 66 age-, sex-, height-, and blood pressure-matched controls were evaluated. Second derivative of the finger photoplethysmogram (SDPTG) was used as a noninvasive method to evaluate the pulse wave. The b/a and d/a indices, which reflect, respectively, large-vessel and small-vessel properties, were calculated from the SDPTG waveform components...
January 2018: Journal of Clinical Rheumatology: Practical Reports on Rheumatic & Musculoskeletal Diseases
C E Kvistad, A Nacu, V Novotny, N Logallo, U Waje-Andreassen, H Naess, L Thomassen
BACKGROUND: Contrast-enhanced sonothrombolysis (CEST) leads to a more rapid recanalization in acute ischemic stroke caused by intracranial large-vessel occlusion (LVO). Animal studies have shown that CEST also may be safe and efficient in treating the ischemic microcirculation in the absence of LVO. The exact mechanism behind this treatment effect is not known. We aimed to assess safety and efficacy of CEST in acute ischemic stroke patients included in the Norwegian Sonothrombolysis in Acute Stroke Study (NOR-SASS) without LVO on admission CT angiography (CTA)...
February 2018: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica
Béla Hegedűs
INTRODUCTION: Maintaining good physiological circulation in the extremities requires an optimally functioning muscle pump. Stroke symptoms indicate a change in venous circulation. In this study, changes were measured in joint function and microcirculation, and the correlation between them was examined. SETTING: Physiotherapy Center, Ss. Cosmas and Damian Rehabilitation Institute, Visegrád, Hungary. METHODOLOGY: Sixteen randomly selected poststroke patients with hemiparesis affecting mainly the upper extremities began undergoing rehabilitation 13 ± 4 days following stroke...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
Janice M Diaz-Otero, Courtney Fisher, Kelsey Downs, M Elizabeth Moss, Iris Z Jaffe, William F Jackson, Anne M Dorrance
The brain is highly susceptible to injury caused by hypertension because the increased blood pressure causes artery remodeling that can limit cerebral perfusion. Mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonism prevents hypertensive cerebral artery remodeling, but the vascular cell types involved have not been defined. In the periphery, the endothelial MR mediates hypertension-induced vascular injury, but cerebral and peripheral arteries are anatomically distinct; thus, these findings cannot be extrapolated to the brain...
December 2017: Hypertension
N Di Lascio, C Kusmic, F Stea, F Lenzarini, C Barsanti, A Leloup, F Faita
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Obesity is reaching epidemic proportions and is associated with increased risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Leptin-deficient mice (ob/ob) are widely employed to investigate obesity. Aim of this study was to provide a micro-ultrasound (μUS) longitudinal evaluation of the ob/ob mouse model in terms of cardiovascular effects, consequences for renal microcirculation and liver fat accumulation. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Sixteen wild-type (wt) and eleven ob/ob male mice were studied at 8 (T0) and 25 (T1) weeks of age with a μUS system (Vevo2100) and B-mode and Doppler images were acquired...
September 8, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Fabio Fierini, Anna Poggesi, Leonardo Pantoni
Leukoaraiosis (LA) is one of the neuroimaging features of cerebral small vessel disease and is associated with poor long-term prognosis. Areas covered: This narrative review focuses on the predictive role of LA on the evolution of the ischemic brain damage and on the clinical outcome in the subacute phase of stroke and in the short-term period afterwards. Expert commentary: LA predicts poorer tissue outcome and clinical prognosis also in acute and subacute stroke. In acute stroke, LA is associated with a less favorable fate of brain infarct and is a marker of increased risk of thrombolysis-related hemorrhagic transformation...
September 4, 2017: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
Markus Belau, Wolfgang Scheffer, Georg Maret
Hypertension is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease and thus at the origin of many deaths by e.g. heart attack or stroke. Hypertension is caused by many factors including an increase in arterial stiffness which leads to changes in pulse wave velocity and wave reflections. Those often result in an increased left ventricular load which may result in heart failure as well as an increased pulsatile pressure in the microcirculation l to damage to blood vessels. In order to specifically treat the different causes of hypertension it is desirable to perform a pulse wave analysis as a complement to measurements of systolic and diastolic pressure by brachial cuff sphygmomanometry...
July 1, 2017: Biomedical Optics Express
Xinrong He, Fuhong Su, Keliang Xie, Fabio Silvio Taccone, Katia Donadello, Jean-Louis Vincent
OBJECTIVES: Optimizing oxygen delivery is an important part of the hemodynamic resuscitation of septic shock, but concerns have been raised over the potentially deleterious effects of hyperoxia. We evaluated the impact of hyperoxia on hemodynamics, the microcirculation, and cerebral and renal metabolism in an ovine model of septic shock. DESIGN: Randomized animal study. SETTING: University hospital animal research laboratory. SUBJECTS: Fourteen adult female sheep...
October 2017: Critical Care Medicine
Rosaria Greco, Chiara Demartini, Anna Maria Zanaboni, Fabio Blandini, Diana Amantea, Cristina Tassorelli
Nitric oxide (NO) derived from endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) plays a role in preserving and maintaining the brain's microcirculation, inhibiting platelet aggregation, leukocyte adhesion, and migration. Inhibition of eNOS activity results in exacerbation of neuronal injury after ischemia by triggering diverse cellular mechanisms, including inflammatory responses. To examine the relative contribution of eNOS in stroke-induced neuroinflammation, we analyzed the effects of systemic treatment with l-N-(1-iminoethyl)ornithine (L-NIO), a relatively selective eNOS inhibitor, on the expression of MiR-155-5p, a key mediator of innate immunity regulation and endothelial dysfunction, in the cortex of male rats subjected to transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAo) followed by 24 hr of reperfusion...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
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