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Non-accidental injury

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779843/sociodemographic-determinants-of-non-accidental-traumatic-injuries-in-children
#1
Omar Nunez Lopez, Byron D Hughes, Deepak Adhikari, Kari Williams, Ravi S Radhakrishnan, Kanika A Bowen-Jallow
BACKGROUND: Traumatic injuries account for 18% of child abuse cases and 1680 children die from abuse annually. We set out to determine the impact of sociodemographic characteristics on resource utilization and outcomes in nonaccidental trauma (NAT). METHODS: We used the Kid's Inpatient Database to identify children with two main subgroups of child abuse diagnoses: NAT and other forms of child abuse. Income was represented by quartiles. Statistical analysis included descriptive statistics and regression analyses...
May 12, 2018: American Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764820/unexplained-bruising-a-developing-story
#2
Lucy Backhouse, Danielle Furnell, Isabelle Li Kam Wa
We present the case of a 10-month-old male infant who presented to accident and emergency with unexplained bruising of the ear. Initial blood tests showed no clotting or platelet abnormalities and non-accidental injury investigation commenced. He was subsequently reviewed by the dermatology team who suggested the diagnosis of acute haemorrhagic oedema of infancy presumably triggered by a viral or bacterial infection, and the clinical findings fit this diagnosis.
May 14, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725561/endoscopic-lavage-of-extensive-chronic-subdural-hematoma-in-an-infant-after-abusive-head-trauma-adaptation-of-a-technique-from-ventricular-neuroendoscopy
#3
Thomas Beez, Ann Kristin Schmitz, Hans-Jakob Steiger, Christopher Munoz-Bendix
Subdural fluid collections are frequently encountered in young children after non-accidental injury. In a subset of patients, these collections progress in size and ultimately require permanent drainage, which is commonly achieved with subdural-peritoneal shunts. However, excessive protein and cellular contents in the fluid are potential risk factors for shunt failure. Here, we describe the adaptation of an endoscopic lavage technique established for ventricular endoscopy with the aim of improving fluid condition prior to shunting...
March 2, 2018: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713941/single-stab-injuries
#4
Michael P Burke, Yeliena Baber, Zoe Cheung, Mark Fitzgerald
Determining the manner of death in cases involving multiple stab injuries from a knife is generally straightforward. The medico-legal investigation of a stabbing death caused by a single stab injury from a knife comprises a smaller but potentially more problematic subset of forensic cases. We reviewed our institute's experience with single stab injuries and endeavored to identify features identified at the post-mortem examination which may aid in the differentiation between cases of homicide, suicide and accidental death...
May 1, 2018: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652872/medical-management-of-transgender-children-and-adolescents
#5
María Fernanda Castilla-Peón
Transgender or gender nonconforming (GN) persons identify themselves with a gender which is different from that correspondent to their birth sex. The demand for health services by families with transgender children or adolescents tends to increase. The prevalence of GN in children is unknown; however, it has been estimated to be > 1% in adolescents. Transgender persons are at increased risk of depression, suicide, illicit drug abuse, human immunodeficiency virus infection, and non-accidental injury. The most accepted model for the care of transgender persons assumes that these adverse outcomes are the consequence of social margination rather than the GI condition itself...
2018: Boletín Médico del Hospital Infantil de México
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644452/implications-of-non-accidental-trauma-on-resource-utilization-and-outcomes
#6
Cristen N Litz, Ernest K Amankwah, Paul D Danielson, Nicole M Chandler
PURPOSE: The purpose was to compare the resource utilization and outcomes between patients with suspected (SUSP) and confirmed (CONF) non-accidental trauma (NAT). METHODS: The institutional trauma registry was reviewed for patients aged 0-18 years presenting from 2007 to 2012 with a diagnosis of suspicion for NAT. Patients with suspected and confirmed NAT were compared. RESULTS: There were 281 patients included. CONF presented with a higher heart rate (142 ± 27 vs 128 ± 23 bpm, p < 0...
April 11, 2018: Pediatric Surgery International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622333/emergency-care-of-pediatric-burns
#7
REVIEW
Ashley M Strobel, Ryan Fey
Although the overall incidence of and mortality rate associated with burn injury have decreased in recent decades, burns remain a significant source of morbidity and mortality in children. Children with major burns require emergent resuscitation. Resuscitation is similar to that for adults, including pain control, airway management, and administration of intravenous fluid. However, in pediatrics, fluid resuscitation is needed for burns greater than or equal to 15% of total body surface area (TBSA) compared with burns greater than or equal to 20% TBSA for adults...
May 2018: Emergency Medicine Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616363/a-comparative-in-vivo-scrutiny-of-biosynthesized-copper-and-zinc-oxide-nanoparticles-by-intraperitoneal-and-intravenous-administration-routes-in-rats
#8
Ashajyothi C, Harish K Handral, Chandrakanth Kelmani R
During the present time, anti-microbial features of copper (Cu) and zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs) are extensively used to combat the growth of pathogenic microbes. CuNPs and ZnONPs are recurrently used in cosmetics, medicine and food additives, and their potential for toxic impacts on human and ecosystem is of high concern. In this study, the fate and toxicity of 16- to 96-nm-ranged biosynthesized copper (Bio-CuNPs) and zinc oxide (Bio-ZnONPs) was assessed in male Wistar rats. In vivo exposures of the two nanoparticles are achieved through two different administration routes namely, intraperitoneal (i/p) and intravenous (i/v) injections...
April 3, 2018: Nanoscale Research Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29575311/bubble-trouble-cutaneous-mastocytosis-mistaken-as-non-accidental-injury
#9
Wei Chern Gavin Fong, Wedad Abdelrahman, Susannah E Hoey
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29573327/imaging-of-non-accidental-injury-what-is-clinical-best-practice
#10
REVIEW
Amy Nguyen, Robin Hart
Non-accidental injury (NAI) remains the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in children. Fractures are the second most common findings of NAI, after cutaneous lesions such as bruises and contusions. Imaging in NAI remains a controversial issue with little agreement concerning how, when and what imaging modalities should be used in the investigation of suspected cases. This review addresses the radiological investigations and findings of NAI, and the differential diagnoses of these findings. Adherence to the international guidelines for skeletal survey imaging is recommended...
March 24, 2018: Journal of Medical Radiation Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29566681/mapping-staff-perspectives-towards-the-delivery-of-hospital-care-for-children-and-young-people-with-and-without-learning-disabilities-in-england-a-mixed-methods-national-study
#11
Kate Oulton, Faith Gibson, Lucinda Carr, Angela Hassiotis, Carey Jewitt, Charlotte Kenten, Jessica Russell, Mark Whiting, Irene Tuffrey-Wijne, Jo Wray
BACKGROUND: Children and young people (CYP) with learning disabilities (LD) are a vulnerable population with increased risk of abuse and accidental injury and whose parents have reported concerns about the quality, safety and accessibility of their hospital care. The Care Quality Commission's (CQC) view of best practice for this group of patients includes: access to senior LD nurse provision; a clearly visible flagging system for identifying them; the use of hospital passports; and defined communication strategies (Glasper, Comp Child Adolesc Nurs 40:63-67, 2017)...
March 23, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29541949/the-radiation-footprint-on-the-pediatric-trauma-patient
#12
Raquel M Schears, Zainab Farzal, Zehra Farzal, Anne C Fischer
BACKGROUND: The actual baseline of radiation exposure used in evaluating pediatric trauma is not known and has relied on estimates in the literature that may not reflect clinical reality. Our objectives were to determine the baseline amount of radiation delivered in a pediatric trauma evaluation and correlate radiation exposure with trauma activation status to identify the cohort most at risk. METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated trauma patients (N = 1050) at an independent Level I children's hospital for each level of trauma activation (consults, alerts, stats) from June 2010 to January 2011...
March 14, 2018: International Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29523358/injury-patterns-of-child-abuse-experience-of-two-level-1-pediatric-trauma-centers
#13
Yangyang R Yu, Annalyn S DeMello, Christopher S Greeley, Charles S Cox, Bindi J Naik-Mathuria, David E Wesson
PURPOSE: This study examines non-accidental trauma (NAT) fatalities as a percentage of all injury fatalities and identifies injury patterns in NAT admissions to two level 1 pediatric trauma centers. METHODS: We reviewed all children (<5years old) treated for NAT from 2011 to 2015. Patient demographics, injury sites, and survival were obtained from both institutional trauma registries. RESULTS: Of 4623 trauma admissions, 557 (12%) were due to NAT...
May 2018: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29521078/recognition-and-nursing-management-of-children-with-non-traumatic-limp
#14
Elizabeth Wilson, Peter Cox, Karen Greaves, Siba Prosad Paul
Children with acute onset non-traumatic limp often present to emergency departments (EDs). The limp can occasionally be associated with medical emergencies such as septic arthritis and slipped upper femoral epiphysis but is often due to less severe conditions. This article discusses the common and self-limiting causes of acute onset of non-traumatic limp in children, such as transient synovitis, reactive arthritis, and benign acute childhood myositis. It also discusses more severe conditions, including septic arthritis, osteomyelitis, slipped upper femoral epiphysis, Perthes disease, malignancies and non-accidental injury...
March 9, 2018: Emergency Nurse: the Journal of the RCN Accident and Emergency Nursing Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29515983/suspicious-scars-physical-child-abuse-vs-ehlers-danlos-syndrome
#15
Amal Nishantha Vadysinghe, Chatula Usari Wickramashinghe, Dineshi Nadira Nanayakkara, Chandishni Ishara Kaluarachchi
Child abuse is a sensitive topic among many medical practitioners and the diagnosis of this entity requires awareness about conditions which can mimic physical child abuse. Here, the authors present a case of a 13-year-old school non-attendee who was referred due to multiple scars, over areas prone to accidental as well as non-accidental injury, who underwent medicolegal examination due to suspicion of physical child abuse. On further inquiry, it was discovered that she had easy bruising and poor wound healing...
January 2018: Autopsy & Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29514837/an-uncommon-chronic-osteochondral-defect-in-the-lateral-tibial-plateau-detected-after-a-separate-injury
#16
Raymond Leung, Panos Thomas
Osteochondral defects (OCD) are rare conditions that usually present in young adolescents. The causes include trauma, inflammation, ischaemia, genetics and changes at secondary ossification centres. The case report presents a 27-year-old man with chronic intermittent left knee pain for about 3 years. He typically develops the symptom after prolonged standing or when rising from a prolonged seated position. An initial MRI scan in 2014 did not identify and report an OCD that was present in his left lateral tibial plateau...
March 7, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29502881/head-imaging-in-suspected-non-accidental-injury-in-the-paediatric-population-in-the-advent-of-volumetric-ct-imaging-has-the-skull-x-ray-become-redundant
#17
S R Sharp, S M Patel, R E Brown, C Landes
AIM: To assess whether the inclusion of skull radiography, as part of the skeletal survey performed in suspected non-accidental injury (NAI), is still justified when volume computed tomography (CT) of the head has also been performed. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective study which included 94 patients aged between 24 days and 23 months who presented to the Emergency Department between August 2014 to July 2016 and had subsequent investigations for suspected NAI...
May 2018: Clinical Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29465848/the-avocado-hand
#18
G Rahmani, J Martin-Smith, P Sullivan
Accidental self-inflicted knife injuries to digits are a common cause of tendon and nerve injury requiring hand surgery. There has been an apparent increase in avocado related hand injuries. Classically, the patients hold the avocado in their non-dominant hand while using a knife to cut/peel the fruit with their dominant hand. The mechanism of injury is usually a stabbing injury to the non-dominant hand as the knife slips past the stone, through the soft avocado fruit. Despite their apparent increased incidence, we could not find any cases in the literature which describe the "avocado hand"...
December 18, 2017: Irish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463389/trauma-in-pregnancy
#19
REVIEW
Christopher Kevin Huls, Corey Detlefs
Trauma is the leading non-obstetric cause of death during pregnancy and approximately 6-8% of all pregnancies are complicated by injury, both accidental and intentional. The initial evaluation and management of the injured pregnant patient often requires a multidisciplinary, collaborative team to provide the optimal outcome for both mother and fetus. It is important to recognize that even minor mechanisms of injury may result in poor outcomes for both fetus and mother. Injured pregnant patients meeting admission criteria experience a progressive increase in the number of complications as well as the number of patients that require delivery...
February 2018: Seminars in Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463334/the-role-of-oral-health-in-complex-emergencies-and-disaster-rehabilitation-medicine
#20
Vishal R Aggarwal
This paper presents an overview of the importance of oral health in complex emergencies. It highlights the importance of maintaining general and oral health in the acute, intermediate and long-term phases of such events which are increasing in frequency. The importance of oral health as an early warning sign for systemic disease and deprivation is also explored along with the crucial role of oral health in maintaining quality of life through adequate nutrition and speech. The overview of oral health in these situations identifies the need for training dental personnel as members of rehabilitation teams that set out to manage these disasters...
February 21, 2018: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
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