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Jinxuan Bai, Qingshun Bai, Zhen Tong
This article presents an experimental investigation on ductile-mode micro-milling of monocrystalline silicon using polycrystalline diamond (PCD) end mills. Experimental results indicate that the irregular fluctuation of cutting force always induces machined surface failure, even in ductile mode. The internal mechanism has not been investigated so far. The multiscale discrete dislocation plasticity framework was used to predict the dislocation structure and strain evolution under the discontinuous cutting process...
December 13, 2017: Materials
Elena K Schneider, Jian Li, Tony Velkov
Pandemic influenza is a constant global threat to human health. In particular, the pandemic potential of novel avian influenza viruses such as the H10N7 and H10N8 avian strains, which recently managed to cross the species barrier from birds to humans, are always of great concern as we are unlikely to have any prior immunity. Human and avian isolates of H10 influenza display the ability to rapidly adapt to replication in mammalian hosts. Fortunately, so far there is no evidence of efficient human-to-human transmission of any avian influenza virus...
December 13, 2017: Vaccines
Matthew Scarpelli, Jens Eickhoff, Enrique Cuna, Scott Perlman, Robert Jeraj
The statistical analysis of positron emission tomography (PET) standardized uptake value (SUV) measurements is challenging due to the skewed nature of SUV distributions. This limits utilization of powerful parametric statistical models for analyzing SUV measurements. An ad-hoc approach, which is frequently used in practice, is to blindly use a log transformation, which may or may not result in normal SUV distributions. This study sought to identify optimal transformations leading to normally distributed PET SUVs extracted from tumors and assess the effects of therapy on the optimal transformations...
December 13, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Yash M Patel, Stuart Guterman
Issue: Since the 1980s, private plans have played an increasingly important role in the Medicare program. While initially created with the goals of reducing costs, improving choice, and enhancing quality, risk-based plans--now known as Medicare Advantage plans--have undergone significant policy changes since their inception; these changes have not always aligned with the original policy objectives. Goal: To examine major policy changes to Medicare risk plans and the effects of these policies on plan participation, enrollment, average premiums and cost-sharing, total costs to Medicare, and quality of care...
December 1, 2017: Issue Brief of the Commonwealth Fund
Zongliang Xie, Haotong Ma, Bo Qi, Ge Ren, Xiaojun He, Li Dong, Yufeng Tan, Shan Qiao
The next generation of optical sparse aperture systems will provide high angular resolution for astronomical observations. Spatial modulation diversity (SMD) is a newly developed post-processing technique for such telescopes, faced with challenges of imaging faint objects, which are very attractive for astronomers but always make raw diversity images suffer serious photon noise. In this paper, we propose an improved SMD with denoising reprocessing embedded to address the problem. The blocking-matching and 3D filtering algorithm, a state-of-the-art denoising technique, is first employed to process the diversity images with low photon intensities generated by spatial modulation, specifically switching off each sub-aperture sequentially...
December 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
I Wiedemann, A Maehlmeyer, S Jansen, A R Sharifi, C Knorr
The flagellar beating of a spermatozoa's axoneme is caused by the varying activation and inactivation of dynein molecules. Dynein, axonemal, light chain 4 (DNAL4) is a functional candidate gene for sperm motility as it encodes a small subunit of the dyneins. We resequenced the porcine DNAL4 using three artificial insemination (AI) boars each with high (>68%) or low (<60%) motility, and detected 23 SNP. These were then genotyped for 82 AI boars. Using spermatological records, significantly negative genetic correlations between ejaculate volume (VOL) and the further spermatological parameters concentration (CONC) (r = -...
December 12, 2017: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
K M Samways, D X Soto, R A Cunjak
Changes in the isotopic composition (δ13 C and δ15 N) in biofilm, macro-invertebrates and resident salmonids were used to characterize temporal dynamics of marine derived nutrients (MDNs) incorporation between stream reaches with and without MDN inputs. Five Atlantic rivers were chosen to represent contrasting MDN subsidies: four rivers with considerable numbers of anadromous fishes; one river with little MDN input. Rainbow smelt Osmerus mordax, alewife Alosa pseudoharengus, sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus and Atlantic salmon Salmo salar, were the primary anadromous species for the sampled rivers...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Fish Biology
Saleh Bamohabat, Jamal Nourinezhad, Yazdan Mazaheri
BACKGROUND: Six liner measurements of constant cranial cervical ganglion (CCG), three inconstant main, first, second middle cervical ganglia (MG, MG1, MG2), and interganglionic branch (IGB) were taken to determine normal fetal growth rates and patterns of cervical sympathetic trunk (CST) components in different gestational ages. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 40 sheep fetuses of both sexes aged from 60 to 140 days were divided into 4 groups and eighty sides of fetuses were examined under a stereomicroscope using a digital caliper...
December 13, 2017: Folia Morphologica (Warsz)
M Berner, Th Lattmann, Ph Stalder, P Wigger
Background: The complication of vein patch rupture is well described after carotid patch angioplasty; however, there is a paucity of data about the safety of vein patch closure in the setting of femoral endarterectomy. Methods/results: From May 2012 to May 2015, 115 femoral endarterectomies with patch closure were performed. A patch rupture occurred in three cases (2.6%) with a mortality rate of 66% (2/3). In all cases the greater saphenous vein below the knee was used as patch material...
2017: EJVES Short Reports
Vera Lucia Frazão, Helder de Souza Miyahara, Ricardo Akihiro Kirihara, Ana Lucia Lei Munhoz Lima, Alberto Tesconi Croci, José Ricardo Negreiros Vicente
Objective: To characterize the socio-economic and demographic profile of patients undergoing surgery for revision total hip arthroplasty regarding the diagnosis of deep prosthetic infection. Methods: Twenty patients were retrospectively studied, admitted in the period between 2009 and 2010 by the Hip Surgery Group with the diagnosis of deep prosthetic infection, whose proposed treatment was surgical. This study was carried out in the presence of the patient by completing two forms applied by the social worker of the Group...
November 2017: Revista Brasileira de Ortopedia
Atsushi Hiraoka, Kojiro Michitaka, Takashi Kumada, Namiki Izumi, Masumi Kadoya, Norihiro Kokudo, Shoji Kubo, Yutaka Matsuyama, Osamu Nakashima, Michiie Sakamoto, Tadatoshi Takayama, Takashi Kokudo, Kosuke Kashiwabara, Masatoshi Kudo
Background/Aim: Recently, albumin-bilirubin (ALBI) scoring/grading, consisting of only albumin and total bilirubin, has been proposed. We examined the efficacy of this grading system for determining hepatic function in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods/Materials: The prognoses of 46,681 HCC patients based on results obtained from a nationwide survey conducted in Japan from 2001 to 2007 were evaluated using (1) Japan Integrated Staging (JIS), consisting of Child-Pugh classification and TNM staging (TNM), (2) modified JIS (m-JIS), consisting of liver damage grading and TNM, and (3) ALBI-TNM (ALBI-T), consisting of ALBI grading and TNM, and the results were compared...
November 2017: Liver Cancer
Gerard Lynch, Catherine Taggart, Philip Campbell
Mental health legislation in Northern Ireland has always been separate from legislation in the rest of the UK; the Mental Health (Northern Ireland) Order (MHO) had been in place since 1986. In common with other jurisdictions, this legislation utilises the presence of mental disorder and risk as criteria for detention and involuntary treatment. The MHO has been replaced by the Mental Capacity Act (Northern Ireland) 2016 (MCA), an example of 'fusion' legislation in which impairment of decision-making capacity and best interests are the only criteria to be used when making decisions across health and social care...
December 2017: BJPsych Bulletin
Przemysław J Boratyński
Scoring permutations of experimental chemical shift deviations and DFT/GIAO calculated deviations of isotropic shieldings for sets of four diastereomers can help to assign their relative configurations. This method was exercised on a set of diastereomeric Cinchona alkaloid derivatives, where 13C NMR data always identified the proper configuration. The presented approach is also an attempt to quantify the assignment by exclusion.
2017: Beilstein Journal of Organic Chemistry
M C Alamar, Roberta Tosetti, Sandra Landahl, Antonio Bermejo, Leon A Terry
Potatoes represent an important staple food crop across the planet. Yet, to maintain tuber quality and extend availability, there is a necessity to store tubers for long periods often using industrial-scale facilities. In this context, preserving potato quality is pivotal for the seed, fresh and processing sectors. The industry has always innovated and invested in improved post-harvest storage. However, the pace of technological change has and will continue to increase. For instance, more stringent legislation and changing consumer attitudes have driven renewed interest in creating alternative or complementary post-harvest treatments to traditional chemically reliant sprout suppression and disease control...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Madhusudhanan Jegadeesan, Neerav Goyal, Subash Gupta
Safe performance of donor hepatectomy is crucial for sustainability of a living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) program. Middle hepatic vein (MHV) is always encountered during parenchymal transection irrespective of right or left donor hepatectomies. Here we present a safe and effective technique for tackling MHV bleed during LDLT from a single centre experience.
December 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hepatology
David Head, Deirdre A Devine, P D Marsh
Dental caries is the most prevalent infection globally and a substantial economic burden in developed countries. Dietary sugars are the main risk factor, and drive increased proportions of acid-producing and acid-tolerating (aciduric) bacterial species within dental biofilms. Recent longitudinal studies have suggested that caries is most strongly correlated with total sugar intake, contrasting with the prevailing view that intake frequency is the primary determinant. To explore this possibility, we employed a computational model for supragingival plaque to systematically sample combinations of sugar frequency and total amount, allowing their independent contributions on the ratio of aciduric (i...
December 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
Ming-Yong Ye, Mei-Xia Shen, Xiu-Min Lin
There is always a coupling between the degenerate clockwise (CW) and counter-clockwise (CCW) modes in a whisperinggallery- mode (WGM) optical microresonator, since the surface of the microresonator can not be perfectly smooth. It is important to measure this coupling strength in many applications. When the coupling strength is strong, the conventional method by observing mode splitting in the stationary spectrum can be used to measure its value. However, when the coupling strength is weak, the conventional method will not work...
December 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
Hirotaka Katsukura, Tomohiro Miyata, Manabu Shirai, Hiroaki Matsumoto, Teruyasu Mizoguchi
Reactions in gaseous phases and at gas/solid interfaces are widely used in industry. Understanding of the reaction mechanism, namely where, when, and how these gaseous reactions proceed, is crucial for the development of further efficient reaction systems. To achieve such an understanding, it is indispensable to grasp the dynamic behavior of the gaseous molecules at the active site of the chemical reaction. However, estimation of the dynamic behavior of gaseous molecules in specific nanometer-scale regions is always accompanied by great difficulties...
December 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
Aurore Claude-Taupin, Jingyue Jia, Michal Mudd, Vojo Deretic
Autophagy is conventionally described as a degradative, catabolic pathway and a tributary to the lysosomal system where the cytoplasmic material sequestered by autophagosomes gets degraded. However, autophagosomes or autophagosome-related organelles do not always follow this route. It has recently come to light that autophagy can terminate in cytosolic protein secretion or release of sequestered material from the cells, rather than in their degradation. In this review, we address this relatively new but growing aspect of autophagy as a complex pathway, which is far more versatile than originally anticipated...
December 12, 2017: Essays in Biochemistry
Joanna Tw Chu, Man Ping Wang, Chen Shen, Kasisomayajula Viswanath, Tai Hing Lam, Sophia Siu Chee Chan
BACKGROUND: The Internet has become an established source for health information. The number of individuals using the Internet to search for health information, ranging from healthy lifestyle advice to treatment and diseases, continues to grow. Scholars have emphasized the need to give greater voice and influence to health consumers. Hong Kong, being one of the most technologically advanced and connected cities in the world, has one of the highest Internet penetration rates in the world...
December 12, 2017: Interactive Journal of Medical Research
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