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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452409/recruitment-and-retention-of-trainee-physicians-a-retrospective-analysis-of-the-motivations-and-influences-on-career-choice-of-trainee-physicians
#1
C Ryan, E Ward, M Jones
Background: Across the UK there are vacant physician posts at every level. This increases workload and stress for those who remain, in turn making substantive jobs less attractive. Aim: To understand the influences on career choice and retention in training of current trainee physicians. Methods: An online survey, with a combination of closed and free text questions, was developed to assess factors that affected career choices. This was sent to all core and higher specialty trainees in Scotland and Associate or Collegiate members of the Royal College of Physicians Edinburgh not training in Scotland...
February 14, 2018: QJM: Monthly Journal of the Association of Physicians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452241/raw-material-variability-of-an-active-pharmaceutical-ingredient-and-its-relevance-for-processability-in-secondary-continuous-pharmaceutical-manufacturing
#2
F Stauffer, V Vanhoorne, G Pilcer, P-F Chavez, S Rome, M A Schubert, L Aerts, T De Beer
Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (API) raw material variability is not always thoroughly considered during pharmaceutical process development, mainly due to low quantities of drug substance available. However, synthesis, crystallization routes and production sites evolve during product development and product life cycle leading to changes in physical material attributes which can potentially affect their processability. Recent literature highlights the need for a global approach to understand the link between material synthesis, material variability, process and product quality...
February 13, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451878/control-fast-or-control-smart-when-should-invading-pathogens-be-controlled
#3
Robin N Thompson, Christopher A Gilligan, Nik J Cunniffe
The intuitive response to an invading pathogen is to start disease management as rapidly as possible, since this would be expected to minimise the future impacts of disease. However, since more spread data become available as an outbreak unfolds, processes underpinning pathogen transmission can almost always be characterised more precisely later in epidemics. This allows the future progression of any outbreak to be forecast more accurately, and so enables control interventions to be targeted more precisely...
February 16, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451496/significantly-enhanced-visible-light-response-in-single-tio2-nanowire-by-nitrogen-ion-implantation
#4
Pengcheng Wu, Xianyin Song, Shuyao Si, Zunjian Ke, Cheng Li, Wenqing Li, Xiangheng Xiao, Chang-Zong Jiang
Metal-oxide semiconductor TiO2 shows enormous potential in the field of photoelectric detection, however, the only UV-light absorption always restricts its widespread application. It is considered that nitrogen doping can improve the visible light absorption of TiO2, but the effect of traditional chemical doping is far from being used for visible light detection. Herein we dramatically broadened the absorption spectrum of TiO2 nanowire (NW) by nitrogen ions implantation and applied the N-doped single TiO2 NW to visible light detection for the first time...
February 16, 2018: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451432/diagnosing-isolated-hepatosplenic-tuberculosis-in-an-immunocompetent-patient-a-case-report
#5
Om Dawani, Raja Samir Khan, Mujtaba Jamal Syed, Abdul Moid Shehzad, Ahmed Alratoot, Muhammad Faizan Ahmed
For many years, tuberculosis (TB) has been endemic in Pakistan; many rare and unusual presentations have been reported. There is a myriad of non-specific symptoms which always requires a high index of clinical suspicion for TB. World Health Organization data suggest that Pakistan ranks as the fifth highest country burdened with TB and has the fourth highest prevalence of multi-drug resistant TB globally. With an annual incidence of 277 cases per 100,000, the importance of early diagnosis and treatment is self-evident...
January 1, 2018: Tropical Doctor
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450933/face-cooling-reveals-a-relative-inability-to-increase-cardiac-parasympathetic-activation-during-passive-heat-stress
#6
Zachary J Schlader, Morgan C O'Leary, James R Sackett, Blair D Johnson
We tested the hypothesis that passive heat stress attenuates the increase in cardiac parasympathetic stimulation, vascular resistance, and blood pressure evoked by face cooling. During normothermia and when intestinal temperature was elevated by 1.0 ± 0.2°C, eleven healthy young adults underwent 3 min of face cooling. Face cooling was accomplished by placing a 2.5 L bag of ice water (0 ± 0°C) over the cheeks, eyes, and forehead. Primary variables included forehead skin temperature, mean arterial pressure, and systemic, forearm and cutaneous vascular resistances...
February 15, 2018: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450732/combined-prostatic-urethral-lift-and-remodeling-of-the-prostate-and-bladder-neck-a-modified-transurethral-approach-in-the-treatment-of-symptomatic-lower-urinary-tract-obstruction
#7
Martin Schoenthaler, Karl-Dietrich Sievert, Dominik Stefan Schoeb, Arkadiusz Miernik, Thomas Kunit, Simon Hein, Thomas R W Herrmann, Konrad Wilhelm
PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to evaluate the feasibility and safety of combining prostatic urethral lift (PUL) and a limited resection of the prostatic middle lobe or bladder neck incision in the treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). METHODS: Twenty-eight patients were treated at two tertiary centers and followed prospectively. Patient evaluations included patient characteristics, relief of LUTS symptoms, erectile and ejaculatory function, continence, operative time and adverse events...
February 15, 2018: World Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450695/a-clinical-approach-to-arrhythmias-revisited-in-2018-from-ecg-over-noninvasive-and-invasive-electrophysiology-to-advanced-imaging
#8
REVIEW
L Jordaens
Understanding arrhythmias and their treatment is not always easy. The current straightforward approach with catheter ablation and device therapy is an amazing achievement, but does not make management of underlying or other cardiac disease and pharmacological therapy unnecessary. The goal of this paper is to describe how much of the knowledge of the 1980s and early 1990s can and should still be applied in the modern treatment of patients with arrhythmias. After an introduction, this review will focus on paroxysmal atrial fibrillation and a prototype of 'idiopathic' ventricular arrhythmias, two diseases with a striking similarity, and will discuss the arrhythmogenesis...
February 15, 2018: Netherlands Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450617/a-natural-variant-of-arylsulfatase-from-kluyveromyces-lactis-shows-no-formylglycine-modification-and-has-no-enzyme-activity
#9
Timo Stressler, Katrin Reichenberger, Claudia Glück, Sebastian Leptihn, Jens Pfannstiel, Paul Swietalski, Andreas Kuhn, Ines Seitl, Lutz Fischer
Kluyveromyces lactis is a common fungal microorganism used for the production of enzyme preparations such as β-galactosidases (native) or chymosin (recombinant). It is generally important that enzyme preparations have no unwanted side activities. In the case of β-galactosidase preparations produced from K. lactis, an unwanted side activity could be the presence of arylsulfatase (EC 3.1.6.1). Due to the action of arylsulfatase, an unpleasant "cowshed-like" off-flavor would occur in the final product...
February 15, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450495/tutorial-and-guidelines-on-measurement-of-sound-pressure-level-in-voice-and-speech
#10
Jan G Švec, Svante Granqvist
Purpose: Sound pressure level (SPL) measurement of voice and speech is often considered a trivial matter, but the measured levels are often reported incorrectly or incompletely, making them difficult to compare among various studies. This article aims at explaining the fundamental principles behind these measurements and providing guidelines to improve their accuracy and reproducibility. Method: Basic information is put together from standards, technical, voice and speech literature, and practical experience of the authors and is explained for nontechnical readers...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450393/management-of-diplopia
#11
REVIEW
Daniela Adriana Iliescu, Cristina Mihaela Timaru, Nicolae Alexe, Elena Gosav, Algerino De Simone, Mehdi Batras, Cornel Stefan
Diplopia (seeing double) is an ophthalmologic complaint found mainly in elder patients. It can have both ocular and neurological causes. A careful history and clinical examination must detail the type of diplopia (monocular/ binocular), onset, and progression, associated and relieving factors. In case of monocular diplopia, refraction and biomicroscopic examination of the ocular media are mandatory. The cause of ocular misalignment for binocular diplopia must be determined and life-threatening conditions (such as posterior communicating artery aneurysm) must imply an immediate treatment...
July 2017: Romanian Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450231/free-will-in-addictive-behaviors-a-matter-of-definition
#12
REVIEW
W Miles Cox, Eric Klinger, Javad Salehi Fadardi
Certain people are at risk for using alcohol or other drugs excessively and for developing problems with their use. Their susceptibility might arise from a variety of factors, including their genetic make-up, brain chemistry, family background, personality and other psychological variables, and environmental and sociocultural variables. Moreover, after substance use has become established, there are additional cognitive-motivational variables (e.g., substance-related attentional bias) that contribute to enacting behaviors consistent with the person's motivation to acquire and use the substance...
June 2017: Addictive Behaviors Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449890/benefits-harms-and-evidence-reflections-from-uk-primary-healthcare
#13
Margaret McCartney
In this paper I examine the relationship between benefits, harms and evidence-based medicine in the context of British primary healthcare. First, I will examine: 'What is a benefit and what is a harm?' Second, what should we know about where the balance of risk and benefit appear to lie? Third, what should we do with this knowledge, particularly in the context of the biopsychosocial gaze of primary care? I conclude that even perfect knowledge about benefits and harms requires to be translated in the context of the individual patient: it also requires to be interpreted according to what that persons' wishes are...
January 2018: London Journal of Primary Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449727/adenoid-ameloblastoma-with-dentinoid-and-cellular-atypia-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#14
B Ae O Khalele
Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor (AOT) is always benign. Given the very rare recurrence rate and the zero potential of malignant transformation, authors have considered it a hamartoma. Accordingly, 'AOT' is no more than a misnomer. This report, however, describes the first recognition of cellular atypia and plemorphism in a peripheral orophayrngeal AOT which embraces an ameloblastic component. The overall picture was diagnosed, after careful histological and immunohitochemical assessment, as a peripheral adenoid ameloblastoma...
December 2017: Pathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449579/analysis-of-epistasis-among-qtls-on-heading-date-based-on-single-segment-substitution-lines-in-rice
#15
Zifeng Yang, Lingling Jin, Haitao Zhu, Shaokui Wang, Guiquan Zhang, Guifu Liu
Heading date directly determines the planting districts and seasons, and thus plays an important role for producing and introducing of varieties. Limited to the materials and methodologies, analysis of epistasis still presents an obvious challenge. This thesis estimated effectively four types of epistatic components among dual QTLs on heading date based on eight single segment substitution lines (SSSLs) in rice. The results confirmed that they carried truly with heading date QTLs. Eleven pairs of QTLs were with 50...
February 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449437/dynamic-clonal-progression-in-xenografts-of-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-with-intrachromosomal-amplification-of-chromosome-21
#16
Paul B Sinclair, Helen H Blair, Sarra L Ryan, Lars Buechler, Joanna Cheng, Jake Clayton, Rebecca Hanna, Shaun Hollern, Zoe Hawking, Matthew Bashton, Claire J Schwab, Lisa Jones, Lisa J Russell, Helen Marr, Peter Carey, Christina Halsey, Olaf Heidenreich, Anthony V Moorman, Christine J Harrison
Intrachromosomal amplification of chromosome 21 is a heterogeneous chromosomal rearrangement occurring in 2% of childhood precursor B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. There are no cell lines with iAMP21 and these abnormalities are too complex to faithfully engineer in animal models. As a resource for future functional and pre-clinical studies, we have created xenografts from intrachromosomal amplification of chromosome 21 leukemia patient blasts and characterised them by in-vivo and ex-vivo luminescent imaging, FLOW immunophenotyping, and histological and ultrastructural analysis of bone marrow and the central nervous system...
February 15, 2018: Haematologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449151/multiphase-evaluation-of-contrast-enhanced-endoscopic-ultrasonography-in-the-diagnosis-of-pancreatic-solid-lesions
#17
Takuya Ishikawa, Yoshiki Hirooka, Hiroki Kawashima, Eizaburo Ohno, Kiyotaka Hashizume, Kohei Funasaka, Masanao Nakamura, Ryoji Miyahara, Osamu Watanabe, Masatoshi Ishigami, Hidemi Goto
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Time-intensity curve (TIC) under contrast-enhanced EUS (CE-EUS) allows continuous and quantitative evaluation of targeted area in the pancreas. However, TIC is not always available and the procedure is complicated. We aimed to propose a simplified method by evaluating multiple phases of CE-EUS in the diagnosis of pancreatic solid lesions. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 210 patients with pancreatic solid lesions including 142 with pancreatic ductal cancer (PDAC), 31 with pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasm, 13 with solid pseudopapillary neoplasm and 24 with mass-forming pancreatitis who underwent CE-EUS and achieved final diagnoses...
February 9, 2018: Pancreatology: Official Journal of the International Association of Pancreatology (IAP) ... [et Al.]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449027/suberized-transport-barriers-in-arabidopsis-barley-and-rice-roots-from-the-model-plant-to-crop-species
#18
Tino Kreszies, Lukas Schreiber, Kosala Ranathunge
Water is the most important prerequisite for life and plays a major role during uptake and transport of nutrients. Roots are the plant organs that take up the major part of water, from the surrounding soil. Water uptake is related to the root system architecture, root growth, age and species dependent complex developmental changes in the anatomical structures. The latter is mainly attributed to the deposition of suberized barriers in certain layers of cell walls, such as endo- and exodermis. With respect to water permeability, changes in the suberization of roots are most relevant...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448940/comparative-analysis-of-alfalfa-medicago-sativa-l-leaf-transcriptomes-reveals-genotype-specific-salt-tolerance-mechanisms
#19
Yunting Lei, Yuxing Xu, Christian Hettenhausen, Chengkai Lu, Guojing Shen, Cuiping Zhang, Jing Li, Juan Song, Honghui Lin, Jianqiang Wu
BACKGROUND: Soil salinity is an important factor affecting growth, development, and productivity of almost all land plants, including the forage crop alfalfa (Medicago sativa). However, little is known about how alfalfa responds and adapts to salt stress, particularly among different salt-tolerant cultivars. RESULTS: Among seven alfalfa cultivars, we found that Zhongmu-1 (ZM) is relatively salt-tolerant and Xingjiang Daye (XJ) is salt-sensitive. Compared to XJ, ZM showed slower growth under low-salt conditions, but exhibited stronger tolerance to salt stress...
February 15, 2018: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448932/interference-competition-as-a-key-determinant-for-spatial-distribution-of-mangrove-crabs
#20
Stefano Cannicci, Marco Fusi, Filippo Cimó, Farid Dahdouh-Guebas, Sara Fratini
BACKGROUND: The spatial distribution of mangrove crabs has been commonly associated with tree zonation and abiotic factors such as ground temperature and soil granulometry. Conversely, no studies were designed to investigate the role of competition for resources and predation in shaping crab distribution in mangroves, despite these biotic factors are recognised as key determinants for spatial patterns observed in the communities colonising rocky and sandy intertidal habitats.We studied floral and faunal assemblages in two zones of a Sri Lankan mangrove, a man-made upper intertidal level and a natural eulittoral, mid-shore one...
February 15, 2018: BMC Ecology
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