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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531452/the-effect-of-glutamine-and-arginine-enriched-nutritional-support-on-quality-of-life-in-head-and-neck-cancer-patients-treated-with-imrt
#1
Sezin Yuce Sari, Gozde Yazici, Deniz Yuce, Erdem Karabulut, Mustafa Cengiz, Gokhan Ozyigit
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Oral mucositis and esophagitis are common acute toxicities of radiotherapy (RT) for head and neck cancer (HNC). In order to decrease the rates of these toxicities, we compared quality of life in HNC patients that did and did not receive a glutamine and arginine-enriched solution (GAES) during RT. METHODS: A total of 29 patients received intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT); 15 used GAES b.i.d. during the treatment, and a matched cohort of 14 patients did not...
December 2016: Clinical Nutrition ESPEN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531097/evolution-not-revolution-nutrition-and-obesity
#2
Elaine C Rush, Mary R Yan
The increasing prevalence of obesity over the course of life is a global health challenge because of its strong and positive association with significant health problems such as type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, stroke, and some cancers. The complex causes and drivers of obesity include genetic factors, social, ecological and political influences, food production and supply, and dietary patterns. Public health messages and government food and activity guidelines have little impact; the retail food environment has many low-priced, nutrient-poor, but energy-dense products and there is a gap between what an individual knows and what they do...
May 20, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530532/the-effect-of-cognitive-remediation-therapy-on-social-skills-in-institutionalized-elderly-patients-with-schizophrenia
#3
Fatemeh Mohammadi, Yadollah Abolfathi Momtaz, Seyedeh Ameneh Motallebi, Shahnaz Boosepasi
BACKGROUND: There is limited scientific investigations on cognitive remediation in elderly patients with schizophrenia. The present study was aimed to examine the efficacy of cognitive remediation therapy on social skills in institutionalized elderly patients with schizophrenia. METHODS: The study employed a randomized clinical trial. A total of 60 institutionalized elderly patients with schizophrenia from Razi Psychiatric Hospital, Tehran were selected and randomly allocated into two equal groups (control and intervention)...
May 22, 2017: Reviews on Recent Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529028/ecology-of-problem-individuals-and-the-efficacy-of-selective-wildlife-management
#4
REVIEW
George J F Swan, Steve M Redpath, Stuart Bearhop, Robbie A McDonald
As a result of ecological and social drivers, the management of problems caused by wildlife is becoming more selective, often targeting specific animals. Narrowing the sights of management relies upon the ecology of certain 'problem individuals' and their disproportionate contribution to impacts upon human interests. We assess the ecological evidence for problem individuals and confirm that some individuals or classes can be both disproportionately responsible and more likely to reoffend. The benefits of management can sometimes be short-lived, and selective management can affect tolerance of wildlife for better or worse, but, when effectively targeted, selective management can bring benefits by mitigating impact and conflict, often in a more socially acceptable way...
May 18, 2017: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528713/sociodemographics-and-the-impact-of-a-colostomy-to-indigent-families-and-children-with-colorectal-disorders-in-honduras
#5
W Krois, A J M Dingemans, P X Hernández, M L Metzelder, J Craniotis Rios, C A Reck-Burneo
INTRODUCTION: To describe the social impact of a colostomy on indigent families and affected children with anorectal malformations (ARM) or Hirschsprung's disease (HD) in San Pedro Sula, Honduras, we specifically targeted very low-income households that attended an international medical brigade for ARM and HD in 2016. METHODS: The impact of a colostomy on the families and children's daily life was analyzed by personal interviews with a questionnaire. RESULTS: Twenty families with children were included in the study...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528525/urban-youth-knowledge-and-attitudes-regarding-lead-poisoning
#6
Sandra Bogar, Aniko Szabo, Shane Woodruff, Sheri Johnson
Environmental health literacy (EHL) is a promising and evolving field of research that could benefit from youth engagement. Yet studies focused on youths' environmental health awareness and concerns are limited. For example, although lead exposure remains a threat to youth development in urban environments, no published studies have measured urban youth's knowledge of lead poisoning. A CBPR partnership established a youth advisory council (YAC) who helped to design, interpret and disseminate a mixed methods study exploring environmental health perceptions among urban youths ages 10-18...
May 20, 2017: Journal of Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528389/a-life-less-lonely-the-state-of-the-art-in-interventions-to-reduce-loneliness-in-people-with-mental-health-problems
#7
REVIEW
Farhana Mann, Jessica K Bone, Brynmor Lloyd-Evans, Johanna Frerichs, Vanessa Pinfold, Ruimin Ma, Jingyi Wang, Sonia Johnson
PURPOSE: There is growing evidence of significant harmful effects of loneliness. Relatively little work has focused on how best to reduce loneliness in people with mental health problems. We aim to present an overview of the current state of the art in loneliness interventions in people with mental health problems, identify relevant challenges, and highlight priorities for future research and implementation. METHODS: A scoping review of the published and grey literature was conducted, as well as discussions with relevant experts, to propose a broad classification system for types of interventions targeting loneliness...
May 20, 2017: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528245/can-inequality-be-tamed-through-boundary-work-a-qualitative-study-of-health-promotion-aimed-at-reducing-health-inequalities
#8
Pia Vivian Pedersen, Ulf Hjelmar, Mette Terp Høybye, Morten Hulvej Rod
This paper examines the organisational dynamics that arise in health promotion aimed at reducing health inequalities. The paper draws on ethnographic fieldwork among public health officers in Danish municipalities and qualitative interviews from an evaluation of health promotion programmes targeting homeless and other marginalised citizens. Analytically, we focus on 'boundary work', i.e. the ways in which social and symbolic boundaries are established, maintained, transgressed and negotiated, both at the administrative level and among frontline professionals...
May 10, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527096/childhood-predictors-of-young-adult-social-functioning-in-22q11-2-deletion-syndrome
#9
Kayla E Wagner, Wendy R Kates, Wanda Fremont, Kevin M Antshel
The primary objectives of the current prospective longitudinal study were to (a) describe social functioning outcomes and (b) identify childhood predictors of social functioning in young adults with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS). Childhood predictors of young adult social functioning were examined. Family environment and parental stress in adolescence were investigated as potential mediators between childhood variables and adult social functioning. Parent rated childhood internalizing symptoms significantly predicted young adult social functioning in 22q11...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526822/shortest-paths-in-multiplex-networks
#10
Saeed Ghariblou, Mostafa Salehi, Matteo Magnani, Mahdi Jalili
The shortest path problem is one of the most fundamental networks optimization problems. Nowadays, individuals interact in extraordinarily numerous ways through their offline and online life (e.g., co-authorship, co-workership, or retweet relation in Twitter). These interactions have two key features. First, they have a heterogeneous nature, and second, they have different strengths that are weighted based on their degree of intimacy, trustworthiness, service exchange or influence among individuals. These networks are known as multiplex networks...
May 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526662/attachment-style-and-internet-addiction-an-online-survey
#11
Christiane Eichenberg, Markus Schott, Oliver Decker, Brigitte Sindelar
BACKGROUND: One of the clinically relevant problems of Internet use is the phenomenon of Internet addiction. Considering the fact that there is ample evidence for the relationship between attachment style and substance abuse, it stands to reason that attachment theory can also make an important contribution to the understanding of the pathogenesis of Internet addiction. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine people's tendency toward pathological Internet usage in relation to their attachment style...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526049/psychological-status-and-quality-of-life-among-primary-caregivers-of-individuals-with-mental-illness-a-hospital-based-study
#12
Anitha Jeyagurunathan, Vathsala Sagayadevan, Edimansyah Abdin, YunJue Zhang, Sherilyn Chang, Saleha Shafie, Restria Fauziana Abdul Rahman, Janhavi Ajit Vaingankar, Siow Ann Chong, Mythily Subramaniam
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to explore the psychological status and quality of life among primary caregivers of individuals suffering from various mental illnesses including early psychosis, chronic schizophrenia, depressive disorders, anxiety disorders and dementia. METHODS: A total of 350 primary caregivers with relatives seeking treatment at a tertiary psychiatric hospital were recruited for this study. Socio-demographic data was obtained and the brief version of the World Health Organisation Quality of Life instrument was used to assess caregiver's quality of life (QOL)...
May 19, 2017: Health and Quality of Life Outcomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525824/evaluation-of-the-quality-of-life-of-pregnant-women-from-2005-to-2015
#13
REVIEW
M Morin, C Vayssiere, O Claris, F Irague, S Mallah, L Molinier, Y Matillon
Over the past two decades, quality of life has become an essential preoccupation in the care of patients. Many measuring instruments are available to assess physical, psychological and social quality of life. These tools allow healthcare professionals to determine the best quality of their patients. However, the quality of life for the pregnant woman seems to be little studied. This article presents the results of a bibliographic review of publications between 2005 and 2015 - referenced in PUBMED and COCHRANE - on the quality of life of pregnant women giving birth after the 22nd week of amenorrhea...
May 10, 2017: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524260/presence-of-ethanol-sensitive-glycine-receptors-in-medium-spiny-neurons-in-the-mouse-nucleus-accumbens
#14
B Förstera, B Muñoz, M K Lobo, R Chandra, D M Lovinger, L G Aguayo
Alcohol abuse causes major social, economic and health-related problems worldwide. Alcohol, like other drugs of abuse, increases levels of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens, facilitating behavioural reinforcement and substance abuse. Previous studies suggested that glycine receptors (GlyRs) are involved in the regulation of accumbal dopamine levels. Here, we investigated the presence of GlyRs in accumbal dopamine receptor medium spiny neurons (MSNs) of C57BL/6J mice, analyzing mRNA expression-levels and immunoreactivity of GlyR subunits, as well as ethanol sensitivity...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523603/engagement-compliance-and-retention-with-a-gamified-online-social-networking-physical-activity-intervention
#15
Jillian Ryan, Sarah Edney, Carol Maher
Health behaviour interventions delivered via online social networks are an increasingly popular approach to addressing lifestyle-related health problems. However, research to date consistently reports poor user engagement and retention. The current study examined user engagement, compliance and retention with Active Team-a gamified physical activity intervention delivered by via an online Facebook application. Associations between engagement and participant (n = 51) demographic and team characteristics (sex, age, education and team size) were examined, as well as temporal trends in engagement during the 50-day intervention...
May 18, 2017: Translational Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523464/the-role-of-ontogeny-in-the-evolution-of-human-cooperation
#16
Michael Tomasello, Ivan Gonzalez-Cabrera
To explain the evolutionary emergence of uniquely human skills and motivations for cooperation, Tomasello et al. (2012, in Current Anthropology 53(6):673-92) proposed the interdependence hypothesis. The key adaptive context in this account was the obligate collaborative foraging of early human adults. Hawkes (2014, in Human Nature 25(1):28-48), following Hrdy (Mothers and Others, Harvard University Press, 2009), provided an alternative account for the emergence of uniquely human cooperative skills in which the key was early human infants' attempts to solicit care and attention from adults in a cooperative breeding context...
May 18, 2017: Human Nature: An Interdisciplinary Biosocial Perspective
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523429/kir-lilrb-and-their-ligands-genes-as-potential-biomarkers-in-recurrent-implantation-failure
#17
REVIEW
Izabela Nowak, Karolina Wilczyńska, Jacek R Wilczyński, Andrzej Malinowski, Paweł Radwan, Michał Radwan, Piotr Kuśnierczyk
Reproductive failure in humans is a very important social and economic problem, because nowadays women decide to conceive later in life and delay motherhood. Unfortunately, with increasing age they have less chance for natural fertilization and maintenance of pregnancy. Many of them need assisted reproductive technology. Approximately 10% of women after in vitro fertilization-embryo transfers experience recurrent implantation failure (RIF). Multiple factors may contribute to RIF, including oocyte and sperm quality, parental chromosomal anomalies, genetic or metabolic abnormalities of the embryo, poor uterine receptivity, immunological disturbances in the implantation site, and some gynecologic pathologies such as endometriosis, uterine fibroids, hydrosalpinx and endometrial polyps...
May 18, 2017: Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523116/obstacles-and-problems-of-ethical-leadership-from-the-perspective-of-nursing-leaders-a-qualitative-content-analysis
#18
Maasoumeh Barkhordari-Sharifabad, Tahereh Ashktorab, Foroozan Atashzadeh-Shoorideh
In the nursing profession, leadership plays a significant role in creating motivation and thus enabling nurses to provide high quality care. Ethics is an essential component of leadership qualifications and the ethical leader can help create an ethical atmosphere, offer ethical guidance, and ensure the occupational satisfaction of personnel through prioritizing moralities. However, some issues prevent the implementation of this type of leadership by nursing leaders. The aim of this study was to identify and describe some problems and obstacles in ethical leadership faced by nursing leaders, and to help them achieve more accurate information and broader perspective in this field...
2017: Journal of Medical Ethics and History of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522892/enhancing-communication-in-adults-with-dementia-and-age-related-hearing-loss
#19
REVIEW
Sara K Mamo, Esther Oh, Frank R Lin
For many adults with dementia, age-related hearing loss is undiagnosed and/or untreated. Untreated hearing loss can exacerbate common dementia-related behavioral symptoms, such as depression, apathy, agitation. Despite the potential benefits to the individual and the family, pursuing and adopting hearing aids for persons with dementia presents with many challenges. As such, this group of vulnerable older adults is well suited for alternative approaches that adopt an interventional audiology framework. This article reviews alternative hearing care models that we have tested when working with older adults with cognitive impairments...
May 2017: Seminars in Hearing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521753/socioeconomic-inequalities-in-neonatal-and-postneonatal-mortality-evidence-from-rural-iran-1998-2013
#20
Alireza Khajavi, Farhad Pishgar, Mina Dehghani, Shohreh Naderimagham
BACKGROUND: Over the past three decades, interventions have been implemented to reduce childhood mortality in Iran. Despite declines in overall mortality rates, inequalities in mortality across socioeconomic groups have remained unchanged. In this study, we assessed inequalities in infant mortality in rural regions of Iran. METHODS: We obtained data from the Iranian vital registration system, which includes data on 5,626,158 live births, 79,457 neonatal deaths, and 36,397 postneonatal deaths in rural areas of Iran over the course of a 16-year period, which was then divided into 4 four-year intervals...
May 18, 2017: International Journal for Equity in Health
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