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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226195/global-transcriptional-response-of-human-liver-cells-to-ethanol-stress-of-different-strength-reveals-hormetic-behavior
#1
Wolfgang Schmidt-Heck, Eva C Wönne, Thomas Hiller, Uwe Menzel, Dirk Koczan, Georg Damm, Daniel Seehofer, Fanny Knöspel, Nora Freyer, Reinhard Guthke, Steven Dooley, Katrin Zeilinger
BACKGROUND: The liver is the major site for alcohol metabolism in the body and therefore, the primary target organ for ethanol-induced toxicity. In this study, we investigated the in vitro response of human liver cells to different ethanol concentrations in a perfused bioartificial liver device that mimics the complex architecture of the natural organ. METHODS: Primary human liver cells were cultured in the bioartificial liver device and treated for 24 hours with medium containing 150 mM (low), 300 mM (medium) or 600 mM (high) ethanol, while a control culture was kept untreated...
February 22, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212849/hydrogen-sulfide-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-and-alcohol-mediated-neurotoxicity
#2
REVIEW
Akash K George, Jyotirmaya Behera, Kimberly E Kelly, Yuankun Zhai, Neetu Tyagi
Alcohol is one of the most socially accepted addictive drugs in modern society. Its abuse affects virtually all organ systems with the central nervous system (CNS) being particularly vulnerable to excessive alcohol exposure. Alcohol exposure also causes profound damage to both the adult and developing brain. Excessive alcohol consumption induces numerous pathophysiological stress responses, one of which is the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response. Potential mechanisms that trigger the alcohol induced ER stress response are either directly or indirectly related to alcohol metabolism, which include toxic levels of acetaldehyde and homocysteine, oxidative stress and abnormal epigenetic modifications...
February 14, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212679/histopathological-study-of-cardiac-lesions-in-methamphetamine-poisoning-related-deaths
#3
Maryam Akhgari, Homeira Mobaraki, Afshar Etemadi-Aleagha
BACKGROUND: Methamphetamine abuse is a worldwide health concern. Methamphetamine causes health hazards in many vital organs. It can cause damage to cardiac tissue via catecholamines release. Methamphetamine related deaths are becoming one of the most important problems in Iran. The purpose of the present study was to determine cardiac pathology in methamphetamine poisoning-related deaths. METHODS: The study included 100 cases of methamphetamine poisoning-related deaths and 100 cases as control group...
February 17, 2017: Daru: Journal of Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212632/exome-wide-association-study-identifies-genetic-polymorphisms-of-c12orf51-myl2-and-aldh2-associated-with-blood-lead-levels-in-the-general-korean-population
#4
Sang-Yong Eom, Myung Sil Hwang, Ji-Ae Lim, Byung-Sun Choi, Ho-Jang Kwon, Jung-Duck Park, Yong-Dae Kim, Heon Kim
BACKGROUND: Lead (Pb) is a ubiquitous toxic metal present in the environment that poses adverse health effects to humans. Inter-individual variation in blood Pb levels is affected by various factors, including genetic makeup. However, limited data are available on the association between genetic variation and blood Pb levels. The purpose of this study was to identify the genetic markers associated with blood Pb levels in the Korean population. METHODS: The study subjects consisted of 1,483 healthy adults with no history of occupational exposure to Pb...
February 17, 2017: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209962/characterization-of-celiac-disease-related-oat-proteins-bases-for-the-development-of-high-quality-oat-varieties-suitable-for-celiac-patients
#5
María J Giménez, Ana Real, M Dolores García-Molina, Carolina Sousa, Francisco Barro
Some studies have suggested that the immunogenicity of oats depends on the cultivar. RP-HPLC has been proposed as a useful technique to select varieties of oats with reduced immunogenicity. The aim of this study was to identify both the avenin protein patterns associated with low gluten content and the available variability for the development of new non-toxic oat cultivars. The peaks of alcohol-soluble avenins of a collection of landraces and cultivars of oats have been characterized based on the RP-HPLC elution times...
February 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207828/the-wide-spectrum-high-biocidal-potency-of-bioxy-formulation-when-dissolved-in-water-at-different-concentrations
#6
Dori Dagher, Ken Ungar, Richard Robison, Fadi Dagher
Traditional surface disinfectants that have long been applied in medicine, animal husbandry, manufacturing and institutions are inconvenient at best and dangerous at worst. Moreover, some of these substances have adverse environmental impacts: for example, quaternary ammonium compounds ("quats") are reproductive toxicants in both fish and mammals. Halogens are corrosive both to metals and living tissues, are highly reactive, can be readily neutralized by metals, and react with organic matter to form toxic, persistent by-products such as dioxins and furans...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191327/transdermal-spirit-methanol-poisoning-a-case-report
#7
Hatice Dogan, Banu Yilmaz Karakus, Kubra Serefoglu Cabuk, Ozlem Uzun, Huseyin Yenice, Aysun Orucoglu
INTRODUCTION: Methanol is a highly toxic substance and methanol poisoning results in severe health situations. Methanol poisoning occurs when it is consumed by various methods such as orally, by inhalation, and transdermally. Transdermal poisoning is rarely seen and causes severe health complications. CASE PRESENTATION: A 59-year-old male patient was admitted to the emergency room due to blurred vision and knee pain. He had wrapped alcohol soaked cotton around his knees because of pain, and left it for 10 hours at night...
November 2016: Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185962/design-and-evaluation-of-antibiotic-releasing-self-assembled-scaffolds-at-room-temperature-using-biodegradable-polymer-particles
#8
Prasad Admane, Jatin Gupta, Ancy I J, Robin Kumar, Amulya K Panda
Biodegradable polymer-based drug-eluting implants offer many advantages such as predictable drug release kinetics, safety, and acceptable drug loading under ambient conditions. Herein, we describe fabrication and evaluation of antibiotic loaded scaffolds for localized delivery and tissue engineering applications. PDLLA particles entrapping gentamycin were formulated using solvent evaporation method and used for scaffold fabrication. Optimization of formulation parameters such as pH of the internal aqueous phase and combination of excipients like glycerol, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) resulted in high entrapment efficiencies up to 96% of gentamicin in particles with drug load of 16-18μg/mg of polymer particles...
February 6, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182352/changed-profile-of-serum-transferrin-isoforms-in-liver-diseases
#9
Monika Gudowska, Ewa Gruszewska, Anatol Panasiuk, Bogdan Cylwik, Magdalena Swiderska, Robert Filisiak, Maciej Szmitkowski, Lech Chrostek
BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to assess the effect of liver diseases on the serum profile of transferrin isoforms. METHODS: Patients with alcoholic cirrhosis (AC) - 63 subjects, non-alcoholic cirrhosis (NAC) - 28, and toxic hepatitis (HT) - 32 were studied. The cirrhotic patients were classified according to the Child-Pugh scale. Samples were analyzed by capillary electrophoresis with the MINICAP system. RESULTS: Significant differences were noted in the relative concentrations of disialotransferrin in HT patients (mean ± SD; 1...
February 1, 2017: Clinical Laboratory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168648/homogeneous-reduction-of-carbon-dioxide-with-hydrogen
#10
REVIEW
Kaiwu Dong, Rauf Razzaq, Yuya Hu, Kuiling Ding
Carbon dioxide (CO2), a key greenhouse gas produced from both anthropogenic and natural sources, has been recently considered to be an important C1 building-block for the synthesis of many industrial fuels and chemicals. Catalytic hydrogenation of CO2 using a homogeneous system is regarded as an efficient process for CO2 valorization. This approach leads to the direct products including formic acid (HCOOH), carbon monoxide (CO), methanol (MeOH), and methane (CH4). The hydrogenation of CO2 to CO followed by alkene carbonylation provides value-added compounds, which also avoids the tedious separation and transportation of toxic CO...
April 2017: Topics in Current Chemistry (Journal)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167221/toxicological-evaluation-of-5-methoxy-2-aminoindane-meai-binge-mitigating-agent-in-development
#11
Jakob A Shimshoni, Ilan Winkler, Nir Edery, Ezekiel Golan, René van Wettum, David Nutt
5-Methoxy-2-aminoindane (MEAI) is a psychoactive compound of the aminoindane class, which in recent years has been recreationally used by many people, who reported of a mild euphoric, alcohol-like tipsy experience and reduced desire to consume alcoholic beverages. In the light of these observations it was decided to progress MEAI through a preliminary drug development route and evaluate the acute and subacute toxicity of MEAI administrated orally to Sprague Dawley rats, as well as to determine potential in-vitro cytotoxic and mutagenic effects using state-of-the-art protocols...
February 4, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167130/genotoxicity-of-lipid-oxidation-compounds
#12
REVIEW
Peter M Eckl, Nikolaus Bresgen
Lipid peroxidation, the oxidative degradation of membrane lipids by reactive oxygen species generates a large variety of breakdown products such as alkanes, aldehydes, ketones, alcohols, furans and others. Due to their reactivity aldehydes (alkanals, 2-alkenals, 2,4-alkadienals, 4-hydroxyalkenals) received a lot of attention, in particular because they can diffuse from the site of formation and interact with proteins and nucleic acids thus acting as second toxic messengers. The major aldehydic peroxidation product of membrane lipids is 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE)...
February 5, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164195/a-potential-sex-dimorphism-in-the-relationship-between-bitter-taste-and-alcohol-consumption
#13
Emma Louise Beckett, Konsta Duesing, Lyndell Boyd, Zoe Yates, Martin Veysey, Mark Lucock
BACKGROUND: Bitterness is an innate aversive taste important in detecting potentially toxic substances, including alcohol. However, bitter compounds exist in many foods and beverages, and can be desirable, such as in beer. TAS2R38 is a well-studied bitter taste receptor with common polymorphisms. Some have reported relationships between TAS2R38 genotypes, bitter taste phenotype and alcohol intake, however results have been mixed. These mixed results may be explained by the varying taste properties of different alcoholic beverages or a sex dimorphism in responses...
February 6, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163821/the-role-of-cyp2e1-in-the-drug-metabolism-or-bioactivation-in-the-brain
#14
REVIEW
W A García-Suástegui, L A Ramos-Chávez, M Rubio-Osornio, M Calvillo-Velasco, J A Atzin-Méndez, J Guevara, D Silva-Adaya
Organisms have metabolic pathways that are responsible for removing toxic agents. We always associate the liver as the major organ responsible for detoxification of the body; however this process occurs in many tissues. In the same way, as in the liver, the brain expresses metabolic pathways associated with the elimination of xenobiotics. Besides the detoxifying role of CYP2E1 for compounds such as electrophilic agents, reactive oxygen species, free radical products, and the bioactivation of xenobiotics, CYP2E1 is also related in several diseases and pathophysiological conditions...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163111/a-compromised-liver-alters-polychlorinated-biphenyl-mediated-toxicity
#15
Banrida Wahlang, Jordan T Perkins, Michael C Petriello, Jessie B Hoffman, Arnold J Stromberg, Bernhard Hennig
Exposure to environmental toxicants namely polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) is correlated with multiple health disorders including liver and cardiovascular diseases. The liver is important for both xenobiotic and endobiotic metabolism. However, the responses of an injured liver to subsequent environmental insults has not been investigated. The current study aims to evaluate the role of a compromised liver in PCB-induced toxicity and define the implications on overall body homeostasis. Male C57Bl/6 mice were fed either an amino acid control diet (CD) or a methionine-choline deficient diet (MCD) during the 12-week study...
February 2, 2017: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162177/-prognostic-factors-for-inability-to-walk-independently-in-patients-with-multiple-system-atrophy
#16
Z W Wang, X H Wu, F Qiu, J G Liu, W Yao, M Jiang, S S Wang, Z G Chen, X K Qi
Objective: To explore the prognostic factors for inability to walk independently in patients with multiple system atrophy (MSA). Methods: A total of 123 patients with clinically confirmed MSA admitted to Navy General Hospital and Dongfang Hospital affiliated to the Second Clinical Medical College of Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, from February 2013 to February 2016, were retrospectively reviewed. Clinical data and all records were collected and all subjects were followed up by a telephone call in February 2016...
February 1, 2017: Zhonghua Nei Ke za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Internal Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160250/thiopurines-and-methotrexate-use-in-ibd-patients-in-a-biologic-era
#17
REVIEW
Gerassimos J Mantzaris
Although we have been living in the era of biologic therapy for several decades, the use of immunomodulators (primarily thiopurines [azathioprine and mercaptopurine] and less so methotrexate) still remains an important component of the inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) pharmaceutical arsenal. Thiopurines as monotherapy exert corticosteroid-sparing effects and can maintain long-term remission in a considerable proportion of patients who have frequent relapses and are or have become mesalazine and/or corticosteroid intolerant or refractory...
February 3, 2017: Current Treatment Options in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159660/anticoccidial-activity-of-artemisia-vestita-anthemideae-asteraceae-a-traditional-herb-growing-in-the-western-himalayas-kashmir-india
#18
Shazia Ahad, Syed Tanveer, Irshad Ahmad Nawchoo, Tauseef Ahmad Malik
Coccidiosis, caused by various species of genus Eimeria, is a major parasitic disease in chicken. The increasing resistance of these parasites to currently used anticoccidial drugs has stimulated the search for new methods of control. As part of this effort, a study was designed to see the anticoccidial effect of different solvent extracts of Artemisia vestita-a traditional herb growing in Kashmir Himalayas. The plant extracts were prepared using different solvents. Preliminary toxicity study was first carried out to see the safety of crude plant extracts...
January 31, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159643/metabolic-flexibility-of-a-butyrate-pathway-mutant-of-clostridium-acetobutylicum
#19
Minyeong Yoo, Christian Croux, Isabelle Meynial-Salles, Philippe Soucaille
Clostridium acetobutylicum possesses two homologous buk genes, buk (or buk1) and buk2, which encode butyrate kinases involved in the last step of butyrate formation. To investigate the contribution of buk in detail, an in-frame deletion mutant was constructed. However, in all the Δbuk mutants obtained, partial deletions of the upstream ptb gene were observed, and low phosphotransbutyrylase and butyrate kinase activities were measured. This demonstrates that i) buk (CA_C3075) is the key butyrate kinase-encoding gene and that buk2 (CA_C1660) that is poorly transcribed only plays a minor role; and ii) strongly suggests that a Δbuk mutant is not viable if the ptb gene is not also inactivated, probably due to the accumulation of butyryl-phosphate, which might be toxic for the cell...
January 31, 2017: Metabolic Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150902/iron-chemistry-at-the-service-of-life
#20
REVIEW
Manu Sánchez, Laura Sabio, Natividad Gálvez, Mercè Capdevila, Jose M Dominguez-Vera
Iron is an essential element for almost all organisms on Earth. It is necessary for a number of crucial processes such as hemoglobin and myoglobin transport and storage of oxygen in mammals; electron transfer support in a variety of iron-sulfur protein or cytochrome reactions; and activation and catalysis of reactions of a wide range of substrate like alkanes, olefins, and alcohols. Living organisms adopted iron as the main metal to carry out all of these functions due to the rich coordination chemistry of its two main redox states, Fe(2+) and Fe(3+) , and because of its abundance in the Earth's crust and oceans...
February 2, 2017: IUBMB Life
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