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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926571/whole-genome-sequencing-illuminates-the-evolution-and-spread-of-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-southwest-nigeria
#1
Madikay Senghore, Jacob Otu, Adam Witney, Florian Gehre, Emma L Doughty, Gemma L Kay, Phillip Butcher, Kayode Salako, Aderemi Kehinde, Nneka Onyejepu, Emmanuel Idigbe, Tumani Corrah, Bouke de Jong, Mark J Pallen, Martin Antonio
Nigeria has an emerging problem with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). Whole-genome sequencing was used to understand the epidemiology of tuberculosis and genetics of multi-drug resistance among patients from two tertiary referral centers in Southwest Nigeria. In line with previous molecular epidemiology studies, most isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from this dataset belonged to the Cameroon clade within the Euro-American lineage. Phylogenetic analysis showed this clade was undergoing clonal expansion in this region, and suggests that it was involved in community transmission of sensitive and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919150/in-vitro-anti-tuberculosis-activity-of-azole-drugs-against-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-clinical-isolates
#2
Belén R Imperiale, Ángel A Cataldi, Nora S Morcillo
BACKGROUND: Latent tuberculosis has been associated with the persistence of dormant Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the organism of infected individuals, who are reservoirs of the bacilli and the source for spreading the disease in the community. New active anti-TB drugs exerting their metabolic action at different stages and on latent/dormant bacilli are urgently required to avoid endogenous reactivations and to be part of treatments of multi- and extensively-drug resistant tuberculosis (M/XDR-TB)...
September 14, 2017: Revista Argentina de Microbiología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911354/drug-resistance-patterns-among-extra-pulmonary-tuberculosis-cases-in-a-tertiary-care-centre-in-north-india
#3
S K Sharma, J Chaubey, B K Singh, R Sharma, A Mittal, A Sharma
BACKGROUND: xtra-pulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) is a growing public health concern, and data on drug resistance are limited. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Specimens from 2468 clinically diagnosed EPTB patients received at the Intermediate Reference Laboratory (IRL) of a tertiary centre in India were subjected to Ziehl-Neelsen staining, Xpert® MTB/RIF testing, liquid culture and drug susceptibility testing (DST) using automated BACTEC MGIT™ 960™. Line-probe assay (LPA) was performed on all culture-positive isolates...
October 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911353/persistently-high-early-mortality-despite-rapid-diagnostics-for-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-cases-in-south-africa
#4
K Schnippel, C Firnhaber, N Ndjeka, F Conradie, L Page-Shipp, R Berhanu, E Sinanovic
OBJECTIVE: To describe the timing and predictors of mortality among multidrug- and rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis (MDR/RR-TB) patients reported in the South African electronic drug-resistant TB register (EDRweb), 2012-2014. DESIGN: We present time-to-event survival analysis and Cox proportional hazards regression. Identity numbers were matched to the National Vital Statistics Register. RESULTS: Of the 20 653 patients included in the analysis (median age 35 years, interquartile range 28-43), over half were male (n = 10 944, 53...
October 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905529/who-treatment-guidelines-for-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-2016-update-applicability-in-south-korea
#5
REVIEW
Doosoo Jeon
Despite progress made in tuberculosis control worldwide, the disease burden and treatment outcome of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) patients have remained virtually unchanged. In 2016, the World Health Organization released new guidelines for the management of MDR-TB. The guidelines are intended to improve detection rate and treatment outcome for MDR-TB through novel, rapid molecular testing and shorter treatment regimens. Key changes include the introduction of a new, shorter MDR-TB treatment regimen, a new classification of medicines and updated recommendations for the conventional MDR-TB regimen...
September 1, 2017: Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903800/predicting-treatment-failure-death-and-drug-resistance-using-a-computed-risk-score-among-newly-diagnosed-tb-patients-in-tamaulipas-mexico
#6
B E Abdelbary, M Garcia-Viveros, H Ramirez-Oropesa, M H Rahbar, B I Restrepo
The purpose of this study was to develop a method for identifying newly diagnosed tuberculosis (TB) patients at risk for TB adverse events in Tamaulipas, Mexico. Surveillance data between 2006 and 2013 (8431 subjects) was used to develop risk scores based on predictive modelling. The final models revealed that TB patients failing their treatment regimen were more likely to have at most a primary school education, multi-drug resistance (MDR)-TB, and few to moderate bacilli on acid-fast bacilli smear. TB patients who died were more likely to be older males with MDR-TB, HIV, malnutrition, and reporting excessive alcohol use...
September 14, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899805/performance-of-genotype-%C3%A2-mtbdrplus-assay-in-the-diagnosis-of-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-tangier-morocco
#7
Hind Karimi, Latifa En-Nanai, Amal Oudghiri, Imane Chaoui, Amin Laglaoui, Jamal Eddine Bourkadi, Mohammed El Mzibri, Mohammed Abid
OBJECTIVES: In Morocco, tuberculosis (TB) is a major public health problem with high morbidity and mortality. The main problem faced by the National TB program is the high rate of drug resistant (DR), particularly multi-drug resistant (MDR) strains. Diagnosis of DR-TB is mainly performed by conventional techniques which are time consuming with limited efficacy. In 2014, GenoType(®) MTBDRplus assay was introduced in Morocco for drug resistance testing. In this regard, the present study was planned to assess the diagnostic accuracy of GenoType(®) MTBDRplus assay...
September 9, 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893611/emerging-peak-on-the-phylogeographic-landscape-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-in-west-asia-definitely-smoke-likely-fire
#8
Igor Mokrousov, Egor Shitikov, Yuriy Skiba, Sergey Kolchenko, Ekaterina Chernyaeva, Anna Vyazovaya
To date, a major attention was justly given to the global lineages of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Here, we demonstrated an importance of the minor ones, on an example of intriguing and underestimated NEW-1 family that belongs to Euro-American lineage (lineage 4). Analysis of the global WGS/NGS datasets (5715 strains) identified 2235 strains of Lineage 4 and 66 strains of sublineage L4.5. This latter is marked with RD122 genomic deletion and includes NEW-1 family. Phylogenomic analysis confirmed a separate position of the NEW-1 family that we tentatively designate L4...
September 8, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887289/baseline-resistance-and-cross-resistance-among-fluoroquinolones-in-multi-drug-resistant-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-isolates-at-a-national-reference-laboratory
#9
Mamatha H G, V Shanthi
OBJECTIVES: Pre-existing fluoroquinolone (FQ) resistance in Multiple Drug Resistant Tuberculosis (MDR TB) patients is a major threat in treating MDR TB. This study was conducted to assess the percentage of FQ resistance among MDR TB patients and to determine whether there is complete cross-resistance between FQs (ofloxacin, levofloxacin and moxifloxacin) used as second line drugs in TB treatment. METHODS: Among 879 MDR TB suspects tested, 68 were confirmed to be MDRTB and mono rifampicin resistant...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884143/use-of-genotype-mtbdrplus-assay-for-diagnosis-of-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-nepal
#10
Elina Maharjan, Narayan Dutt Pant, Sanjeev Neupane, Jyoti Amatya, Bhawana Shrestha
The main aims of this study were to study the patterns of mutations in rpoB, katG, and inhA genes in Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains isolated from patients from Nepal and to evaluate the performance of genotype MTBDRplus assay, taking conventional drug susceptibility testing as gold standard for diagnosis of MDR-TB. A total of 69 Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains isolated from 73 smear positive sputum samples from patients suspected of suffering from multidrug-resistant tuberculosis were used in our study...
2017: International Scholarly Research Notices
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869227/a-study-on-beijing-genotype-in-the-clinical-isolates-of-pulmonary-drug-resistant-tuberculosis
#11
Ankit Kumar, Ajay Kumar Verma, Surya Kant, Ved Prakash, Anand Srivastava, Kanchan Srivastava, Amita Jain, Kishore K Srivastava
BACKGROUND: Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) Beijing strains are spread worldwide and are responsible for major outbreaks of tuberculosis (TB), sometimes spreading multidrug resistance (MDR). AIM: The aim of this study was to explore clinical features associated with the infection with Beijing strains among MDR patients of pulmonary TB in Lucknow and surrounding areas. MATERIALS AND METHODS: It was a hospital-based epidemiological study. Our study population was selected from all the newly diagnosed patients attending outpatient department and admitted patients of Department of Respiratory Medicine, King George's Medical University, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India...
September 2017: Lung India: Official Organ of Indian Chest Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869226/inconsistency-in-the-reporting-of-antitubercular-drug-susceptibility-tests-in-an-endemic-region
#12
Avinandan Saha, Preyas J Vaidya, Vinod B Chavhan, Kamlesh V Pandey, Arvind H Kate, Prashant N Chhajed
BACKGROUND: Individualized treatment for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB) is associated with improved outcomes. Therapy needs to be tailored to drug susceptibility testing (DST) results. We present our observations on the inconsistency in DST reporting in an endemic region with a high prevalence of MDR TB. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 118 DST reports from 10 different laboratories. OBSERVATIONS: Of 118 patients, only 79 (67%) had DST reports with results to all first-line drugs, a fluoroquinolone (excluding ciprofloxacin), all aminoglycosides, and a polypeptide...
September 2017: Lung India: Official Organ of Indian Chest Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867962/vaccine-research-and-development-tuberculosis-as-a-global-health-threat
#13
REVIEW
Mohammed Maikudi Usman, Salmah Ismail, Teow Chong Teoh
One of the aims of the World Health Organisation (WHO) Millennium Development Goals (MDG) is to reduce the number of cases of tuberculosis (TB) infection by the year 2015. However, 9 million new cases were reported in 2013, with an estimated 480,000 new cases of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) globally. Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is the most available and currently used candidate vaccine against tuberculosis; it prevents childhood TB, but its effectiveness against pulmonary TB in adults and adolescents is disputed...
2017: Central-European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28862683/mechanochemical-synthesis-and-biological-evaluation-of-novel-isoniazid-derivatives-with-potent-antitubercular-activity
#14
Paulo F M Oliveira, Brigitte Guidetti, Alain Chamayou, Christiane André-Barrès, Jan Madacki, Jana Korduláková, Giorgia Mori, Beatrice Silvia Orena, Laurent Roberto Chiarelli, Maria Rosalia Pasca, Christian Lherbet, Chantal Carayon, Stéphane Massou, Michel Baron, Michel Baltas
A series of isoniazid derivatives bearing a phenolic or heteroaromatic coupled frame were obtained by mechanochemical means. Their pH stability and their structural (conformer/isomer) analysis were checked. The activity of prepared derivatives against Mycobacterium tuberculosis cell growth was evaluated. Some compounds such as phenolic hydrazine 1a and almost all heteroaromatic ones, especially 2, 5 and 7, are more active than isoniazid, and their activity against some M. tuberculosis MDR clinical isolates was determined...
September 1, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851285/the-impact-of-drug-resistance-on-the-risk-of-tuberculosis-infection-and-disease-in-child-household-contacts-a-cross-sectional-study
#15
Vera Golla, Kathryn Snow, Anna M Mandalakas, Simon H Schaaf, Karen Du Preez, Anneke C Hesseling, James A Seddon
BACKGROUND: The relative fitness of organisms causing drug-susceptible (DS) and multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis (TB) is unclear. We compared the risk of TB infection and TB disease in young child household contacts of adults with confirmed DS-TB and MDR-TB. METHODS: In this cross-sectional analysis we included data from two community-based contact cohort investigation studies conducted in parallel in Cape Town, South Africa. Children <5 years of age with household exposure to an infectious TB case were included between August 2008 to June 2011...
August 29, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840388/molecular-screening-of-multidrug-resistance-tuberculosis-by-a-designated-public-health-laboratory-in-taiwan
#16
H-C Lin, C-L Perng, Y-W Lai, F-G Lin, C-J Chiang, H-A Lin, R Jou, T-S Chiueh
This manuscript describes our experience in early identifying MDR-TB cases in high-risk populations by setting up a single-referral molecular diagnosis laboratory in Taiwan. Taiwan Centers for Disease Control designated a single-referral laboratory to provide the GenoType MTBDRplus test for screening high-risk MDR-TB populations nationwide in 2012-2015. A total of 5,838 sputum specimens from 3,308 patients were tested within 3 days turnaround time. Compared with the conventional culture and drug susceptibility testing, the overall performance of the GenoType MTBDRplus test for detecting TB infection showed accuracy of 70...
August 24, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840010/delamanid-and-bedaquiline-to-treat-multidrug-resistant-and-extensively-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-children-a-systematic-review
#17
REVIEW
Lia D'Ambrosio, Rosella Centis, Simon Tiberi, Marina Tadolini, Margareth Dalcolmo, Adrian Rendon, Susanna Esposito, Giovanni Battista Migliori
The new drugs delamanid and bedaquiline are increasingly used to treat multidrug-resistant (MDR-) and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB). As evidence is lacking, the World Health Organization recommends their use under specific conditions in adults, delamanid only being recommended in children ≥6 years of age. No systematic review has yet evaluated the efficacy, safety and tolerability of the new drugs in children. A search of peer-reviewed, scientific evidence was performed, to evaluate the efficacy/effectiveness, safety, and tolerability of delamanid or bedaquiline-containing regimens in children with confirmed M/XDR-TB...
July 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836544/multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-burden-among-the-new-tuberculosis-patients-in-zhejiang-province-an-observational-study-2009-2013
#18
Ying Peng, Song-Hua Chen, Le Zhang, Bin Chen, Ming-Wu Zhang, Tie-Niu He, Fei Wang, Cheng-Liang Chai, Lin Zhou, Yu Zhang, Xiao-Meng Wang, Zhongwei Jia
BACKGROUND: Screening on multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) has been limited to the serious TB subpopulations excluding the new TB patients. This study aimed to examine MDR-TB burden among the new TB patients. METHODS: We conducted a study in Zhejiang Province during 2009-2013 to screen for MDR-TB patients among the low MDR-TB risk patients and five subpopulations of high MDR-TB risk patients. The number, prevalence, and trend of MDR-TB were compared while the logistic regression model was used to examine risk factors related to MDR-TB...
September 5, 2017: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830384/emergence-and-clonal-transmission-of-multi-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-among-patients-in-chad
#19
Awa Ba Diallo, Gedeon W Ossoga, Geraldine Daneau, Seynabou Lo, Richard Ngandolo, Colette Diguimbaye Djaibé, Barou Djouater, Souleymane Mboup, Bouke C de Jong, Aissatou G Diallo, Florian Gehre
BACKGROUND: Emergence of Multidrug-resistant (MDR) strains constitutes a significant public health problem worldwide. Prevalence of MDR tuberculosis from Chad is unavailable to date. METHODS: We collected samples from consecutive TB patients nationwide in the seven major cities of Chad between 2007 and 2012 to characterize drug resistance and the population structure of circulating Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) strains. We tested drug sensitivity using Line Probe Assays and phenotypic drug susceptibility testing (DST) were used for second line drugs...
August 22, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826452/fast-implementation-in-bangladesh-high-frequency-of-unsuspected-tuberculosis-justifies-challenges-of-scale-up
#20
R R Nathavitharana, P Daru, A E Barrera, S M Mostofa Kamal, S Islam, M Ul-Alam, R Sultana, M Rahman, Md S Hossain, P Lederer, S Hurwitz, K Chakraborty, N Kak, D B Tierney, E Nardell
SETTING: National Institute of Diseases of the Chest and Hospital, Dhaka; Bangladesh Institute of Research and Rehabilitation in Diabetes, Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders, Dhaka; and Chittagong Chest Disease Hospital, Chittagong, Bangladesh. OBJECTIVE: To present operational data and discuss the challenges of implementing FAST (Find cases Actively, Separate safely and Treat effectively) as a tuberculosis (TB) transmission control strategy. DESIGN: FAST was implemented sequentially at three hospitals...
September 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
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