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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149917/treatment-outcome-with-a-short-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-regimen-in-nine-african-countries
#1
A Trébucq, V Schwoebel, Z Kashongwe, A Bakayoko, C Kuaban, J Noeske, S Hassane, B Souleymane, A Piubello, F Ciza, V Fikouma, M Gasana, M Ouedraogo, M Gninafon, A Van Deun, D M Cirillo, K G Koura, H L Rieder
<h2>SETTING:</h2>Nine countries in West and Central Africa.<h2>OBJECTIVE:</h2>To assess outcomes and adverse drug events of a standardised 9-month treatment regimen for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) among patients never previously treated with second-line drugs.<h2>DESIGN:</h2>Prospective observational study of MDR-TB patients treated with a standardised 9-month regimen including moxifloxacin, clofazimine, ethambutol (EMB) and pyrazinamide (PZA) throughout, supplemented by kanamycin, prothionamide and high-dose isoniazid during an intensive phase of a minimum of 4 to a maximum of 6 months...
November 17, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143876/deregulation-of-genes-associated-with-alternate-drug-resistance-mechanisms-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#2
Kalpana Sriraman, Kayzad Nilgiriwala, Dhananjaya Saranath, Anirvan Chatterjee, Nerges Mistry
Alternate mechanisms of drug resistance involving intrinsic defense pathways play an important role in development of drug resistance. Deregulation of drug efflux, cellular metabolism, and DNA repair have been indicated to have effect on drug tolerance and persistence. Here we chose eight genes from these pathways to investigate their association with development of multidrug resistance (MDR). We generated mono drug resistant and MDR strains of rifampicin and isoniazid and examined the differential expression of genes belonging to efflux, DNA repair and cell wall lipid synthesis pathways...
November 16, 2017: Current Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142798/verification-of-diagnosis-in-tuberculosis-a-case-report-and-discussion
#3
Amanda M Dave, Abed Adelrahman, Vishist Mehta, Stephen Cavalieri, Renuga Vivekanadan
Tuberculosis (TB), caused by strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (M. tuberculosis), is a pulmonary infection that is spread by airborne droplet transmission. The development and spread of drug-resistant strains of M. tuberculosisgreatly jeopardize TB control efforts. We report the case of a previously healthy 43-year-old male, visiting from China, who presented to the emergency department complaining of hemoptysis of 10 days' duration. Cultures were positive for acid fast bacteria and negative for fungi...
September 3, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137626/treatment-outcomes-of-mdr-tuberculosis-patients-in-brazil-a-retrospective-cohort-analysis
#4
Mayara Lisboa Bastos, Lorrayne Beliqui Cosme, Geisa Fregona, Thiago Nascimento do Prado, Adelmo Inácio Bertolde, Eliana Zandonade, Mauro N Sanchez, Margareth Pretti Dalcolmo, Afrânio Kritski, Anete Trajman, Ethel Leonor Noia Maciel
BACKGROUND: Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is a threat for the global TB epidemic control. Despite existing evidence that individualized treatment of MDR-TB is superior to standardized regimens, the latter are recommended in Brazil, mainly because drug-susceptibility tests (DST) are often restricted to first-line drugs in public laboratories. We compared treatment outcomes of MDR-TB patients using standardized versus individualized regimens in Brazil, a high TB-burden, low resistance setting...
November 14, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135397/electrolytes-imbalance-caused-by-amikacin-in-patients-receiving-multi-drug-resistance-tuberculosis-treatment-at-hazara-region-kpk-pakistan
#5
Faheem Jan, Mukhtiar Hassan, Naveed Muhammad, Shahid Wali, Hafiz Sajid Akbar, Qazi Mashhood Atta, Farzana Gul
Introduction: Multi drug resistance-tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is considered amongst one of the fatal medical and public health issue. Greater frequency of adverse reactions has been observed using 2nd line antituberculosis drugs, which rises the rate of morbidity. Hypokalemia and hyponatremia are common in patients receiving MDR-TB treatment. Materials and Methods: This study was aimed to assess the effect of amikacin as multidrug resistance tuberculosis treatment on serum sodium and potassium level...
September 2017: Tüberküloz Ve Toraks
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133560/levofloxacin-population-pharmacokinetics-in-south-african-children-treated-for-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis
#6
Paolo Denti, Anthony J Garcia-Prats, Heather R Draper, Lubbe Wiesner, Jana Winckler, Stephanie Thee, Kelly E Dooley, Rada M Savic, Helen M McIlleron, H Simon Schaaf, Anneke C Hesseling
Background: Levofloxacin is increasingly used in the treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). There are limited paediatric pharmacokinetic data to inform dose selection for children.Methods: Children routinely receiving levofloxacin (250 mg adult tablets) for MDR-TB prophylaxis or disease in Cape Town, South Africa, underwent pharmacokinetic sampling following a 15 or 20 mg/kg dose, given as whole tablet(s) or crushed, orally, or by nasogastric tube. Pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated using non-linear mixed effects modelling...
November 13, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133558/pharmacokinetics-and-drug-drug-interactions-of-lopinavir-ritonavir-administered-with-first-and-second-line-antituberculosis-drugs-in-hiv-infected-children-treated-for-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis
#7
Louvina E van der Laan, Anthony J Garcia-Prats, H Simon Schaaf, Tjokosela Tikiso, Lubbe Wiesner, Mine de Kock, Jana Winckler, Jennifer Norman, Helen McIlleron, Paolo Denti, Anneke C Hesseling
Background Lopinavir/ritonavir forms the backbone of current first-line antiretroviral regimens in young HIV-infected children. As multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis (TB) frequently occurs in young children in high-burden TB settings, it is important to identify potential interactions between MDR-TB treatment and lopinavir/ritonavir. We describe the pharmacokinetics of and potential drug-drug interactions between lopinavir/ritonavir and routine drugs used for MDR-TB treatment in HIV-infected children.Methods A combined population pharmacokinetic model was developed to jointly describe the pharmacokinetics of lopinavir and ritonavir in 32 HIV-infected children (16 on MDR-TB treatment with combinations of high-dose isoniazid, pyrazinamide, ethambutol, ethionamide, terizidone, a fluoroquinolone, and amikacin: and 16 without TB), who were established on a lopinavir/ritonavir-containing antiretroviral regimen...
November 13, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129484/detection-of-resistance-to-fluoroquinolones-and-injectable-drugs-among-antituberculosis-drugs-by-allele-specific-primer-extension-on-a-microsphere-based-platform
#8
Kyungjong Kim, Jeong Seong Yang, Hee Baeg Choi, Seung Heon Lee
Molecular drug susceptibility testing (DST) for antituberculosis drugs is important for improving the efficacy of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) treatment. In this study, we developed a molecular high-throughput assay system based on allele-specific primer extension (ASPE) and MagPlex-TAG microspheres, referred to here as TAG-ASPE, which can detect mutations related to resistance to injectable second-line drugs and fluoroquinolones. Target genes were amplified by multiplex PCR using DNA from H37Rv and 190 clinical Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains and extended by ASPE using 22 ASPE primers...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Microbiological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123441/evaluation-of-the-bactec-mgit-960-sl-dst-kit-and-the-genotype-mtbdrsl-test-for-detecting-extensively-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-cases
#9
Kemal Tekin, Ali Albay, Hulya Simsek, Ali Korhan Sig, Mustafa Guney
Objective: The present study aimed to evaluate the performances of the BACTEC MGIT 960 SL DST kit and the GenoType MTBDRsl test for detecting second-line antituberculosis drug resistance in Multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) cases. Materials and Methods: Forty-six MDR-TB strains were studied. Second-line antituberculosis drug resistances were detected using the BACTEC MGIT 960 SL DST kit and the GenoType MTBDRsl test. The Middlebrook 7H10 agar proportion method was used as the reference test...
October 2017: Eurasian Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116637/epidemiology-of-drug-resistant-tuberculosis
#10
Anna S Dean, Helen Cox, Matteo Zignol
As we move into the era of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), the World Health Organization (WHO) has developed the End TB strategy 2016-2035 with a goal to end the global epidemic of tuberculosis (TB) by 2035. Achieving the targets laid out in the Strategy will require strengthening of the whole TB diagnosis and treatment cascade, including improved case detection, the establishment of universal drug susceptibility testing and rapid treatment initiation. An estimated 3.9% of new TB cases and 21% of previously treated cases had rifampicin-resistant (RR) or multidrug-resistant (MDR) TB in 2015...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116218/improvement-in-clinical-outcome-and-infection-control-using-molecular-diagnostic-techniques-for-early-detection-of-mdr-tuberculous-spondylitis-a-multicenter-retrospective-study
#11
Wenjie Wu, Jingtong Lyu, Peng Cheng, Yuan Cheng, Zehua Zhang, Litao Li, Yonghong Zheng, Jianzhong Xu
There has been limited research on the therapeutic efficacy of molecular diagnosis of spinal tuberculosis. We attempted to determine whether the utilization of molecular diagnosis to detect multidrug-resistant spinal tuberculosis can improve clinical outcomes. A multicenter retrospective study was conducted from February 2009 to June 2015. Ninety-two consecutive culture-confirmed multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) patients with spinal tuberculosis who were diagnosed clinically and by imaging were enrolled in the study...
November 8, 2017: Emerging Microbes & Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110871/prevalence-of-rifampicin-resistant-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-among-human-immunodeficiency-virus-seropositive-patients-and-their-treatment-outcomes
#12
C K Vidyaraj, A Chitra, S Smita, M Muthuraj, S Govindarajan, B Usharani, S Anbazhagi
Multidrug resistant (MDR) and extensively drug resistant tuberculosis (TB) are a threat to the TB control programs in developing countries, and the situation is worsened by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pandemic. This study was performed to correlate treatment outcome with the resistance patterns in HIV-seropositive patients coinfected with pulmonary TB. Sputum specimens were collected from 1643 HIV-seropositive patients and subjected to microscopy and liquid culture for TB. The smear- and culture-positive Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates were subjected to Genotype MTBDRplus assay version 2...
December 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110862/low-pre-diagnosis-attrition-but-high-pre-treatment-attrition-among-patients-with-mdr-tb-an-operational-research-from-chennai-india
#13
Hemant Deepak Shewade, Dina Nair, Joel S Klinton, Malik Parmar, J Lavanya, Lakshmi Murali, Vivek Gupta, Jaya Prasad Tripathy, Soumya Swaminathan, Ajay M V Kumar
BACKGROUND: Worldwide, there's concern over high pre-diagnosis and pre-treatment attritions or delays in Multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) diagnosis and treatment pathway (DTP). We conducted this operational research among patients with presumptive MDR-TB in north and central Chennai, India to determine attrition and turnaround times (TAT) at various steps of DTP and factors associated with attrition. METHODS: Study was conducted in Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme setting...
December 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110640/prevalence-and-molecular-characterization-of-pyrazinamide-resistance-among-multidrug-resistant-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-isolates-from-southern-china
#14
Yu Pang, Damian Zhu, Huiwen Zheng, Jing Shen, Yan Hu, Jie Liu, Yanlin Zhao
BACKGROUND: Pyrazinamide (PZA) plays a unique role in the treatment for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in both first- and second-line regimens. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and molecular characterization of PZA resistance among MDR-TB isolates collected in Chongqing municipality. METHODS: A total of 133 MDR-TB isolates were collected from the smear-positive tuberculosis patients who were registered at local TB dispensaries of Chongqing...
November 6, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098997/adverse-drug-reactions-and-treatment-outcome-analysis-of-dots-plus-therapy-of-mdr-tb-patients-at-district-tuberculosis-centre-a-four-year-retrospective-study
#15
Arif I Dela, Nitish Kumar D Tank, Anil P Singh, Kiran G Piparva
BACKGROUND: Treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) requires the use of expensive and toxic second-line anti-tubercular drugs which are given for a longer duration. Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) of second-line antitubercular drugs affect compliance and thereby treatment outcome. We set out to analyze ADRs and treatment outcome of MDR-TB patients receiving directly observed treatments plus therapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective study of registered MDR-TB cases at district tuberculosis center during 2010-2014 was performed...
November 2017: Lung India: Official Organ of Indian Chest Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097470/draft-genome-sequence-of-the-first-confirmed-isolate-of-multidrug-resistant-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-in-tasmania
#16
Sanjay S Gautam, Micheál Mac Aogáin, Ronan F O'Toole
The spread of multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis (TB) has become a major global challenge. In 2016, Tasmania recorded its first known incidence of MDR-TB. Here, we report the draft whole-genome sequence of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolate from this case, TASMDR1, and describe single-nucleotide polymorphisms associated with its drug resistance.
November 2, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094039/host-directed-therapeutic-strategies-for-tuberculosis
#17
REVIEW
Afsal Kolloli, Selvakumar Subbian
Tuberculosis (TB), caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in humans worldwide. Currently, the standard treatment for TB involves multiple antibiotics administered for at least 6 months. Although multiple antibiotics therapy is necessary to prevent the development of drug resistance, the prolonged duration of treatment, combined with toxicity of drugs, contributes to patient non-compliance that can leads to the development of drug-resistant Mtb (MDR and XDR) strains...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092043/emerging-resistant-clones-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-in-a-spatiotemporal-context
#18
Anna Vyazovaya, Klavdia Levina, Viacheslav Zhuravlev, Piret Viiklepp, Marge Kütt, Igor Mokrousov
Objectives: We assessed the genetic structure of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis population in Estonia with a special focus on major epidemic/endemic clones and drug resistance determinants. We investigated the hypothesis of the decisive impact of massive human influx on the locally circulating genotypes. Estonia received a mass immigration from Russia during 1945-90 followed by enhanced interaction with the EU since 1991. Methods: The study sample included M. tuberculosis isolates from patients newly diagnosed with TB in 2014 in North Estonia (including the capital Tallinn)...
October 30, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091137/correlation-between-the-bactec-mgit-960-culture-system-with-genotype-mtbdrplus-and-tb-sprint-in-multidrug-resistant-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-clinical-isolates-from-brazil
#19
Nayanne Gama Teixeira Dantas, Phillip Noel Suffys, Wânia da Silva Carvalho, Harrison Magdinier Gomes, Isabela Neves de Almeida, Lida Jouca de Assis Figueiredo, Alan Douglas Gonçalves, Michel Kireopori Gomgnimbou, Guislaine Refregier, Christophe Sola, Silvana Spíndola de Miranda
BACKGROUND: The accurate detection of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is critical for the application of appropriate patient treatment and prevention of transmission of drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates. The goal of this study was to evaluate the correlation between phenotypic and molecular techniques for drug-resistant tuberculosis diagnostics. Molecular techniques used were the line probe assay genotype MTBDRplus and the recently described tuberculosis-spoligo-rifampin-isoniazid typing (TB-SPRINT) bead-based assay...
November 2017: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079215/design-and-synthesis-of-indolopyridone-hybrids-as-new-antituberculosis-agents
#20
Muzafar Ahmad Rather, Faheem Rasool, Zubair Shanib Bhat, Hafiz-Ullah Dar, Mubashir Maqbool, Shajrul Amin, Syed Khalid Yousuf, Zahoor Ahmad
Tuberculosis continues to be the most dangerous infectious disease globally and need for development of new therapies is of utmost importance. In this study we describe the rationale design for synthesis using molecular hybridization and subsequent in-vitro antimycobacterial activity of various indolo-pyridone hybrid molecules against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv. A total of 16 indolo-pyridone hybrid molecules were synthesized with 85-90% yields and characterized by various spectroscopic techniques. Four compounds were ineffective with MIC >256 μg/ml (highest concentration tested), six exhibited poor activity with MIC > 100 μg/ml, four showed moderate activity with MIC > 50 μg/ml and two had notable anti-TB activity with MIC values 32 μg/ml...
October 24, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
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