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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225345/results-of-xpert-%C3%A2-mtb-rif-implementation-in-kyrgyzstan
#1
G Kurbaniyazova, M Joncevska, S Kalon, G Kalmambetova, T Mohr, A Toktogonova, K Takieva, K M Monirul Islam, F Luelmo
INTRODUCTION: In July 2012, the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) Quality Health Care Project introduced the Xpert® MTB/RIF assay at the facility level of the primary health care system in Kyrgyzstan. This study analysed the results of the implementation of Xpert. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Test results from 2734 patients from July 2012 to December 2014 were analysed. The sensitivity and specificity of Xpert in routine programme conditions were evaluated using culture and phenotypic drug susceptibility testing (DST) as gold standard...
March 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225342/outcomes-from-the-first-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-programme-in-kenya
#2
H Huerga, M Bastard, M Kamene, S Wanjala, A Arnold, N Oucho, I Chikwanha, F Varaine
SETTING: In March 2006, the first multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) treatment programme was implemented in Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To describe patients' treatment outcomes and adverse events. DESIGN: A retrospective case note review of patients started on MDR-TB treatment at two Médecins Sans Frontières-supported sites and the national referral hospital of Kenya was undertaken. Sites operated an ambulatory model of care. Patients were treated for a minimum of 24 months with at least 4-5 drugs for the intensive phase of treatment, including an injectable agent...
March 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225341/patterns-of-drug-resistance-among-patients-with-tuberculous-pleural-effusion-in-greece
#3
V Anastasakos, V Skouras, C Moschos, S Tsikrika, S Karabela, I Marinou, E Vogiatzakis, K Konstantinou, A Papavasiliou, I Kalomenidis
SETTING: Data on the relationship between pleural tuberculosis (TB) and anti-tuberculosis drug resistance are scarce. OBJECTIVE: To determine the patterns of drug resistance among pleural Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates in Greece and the incidence of tuberculous pleural effusion (TPE) among patients with multidrug-resistant (MDR) or extensively drug-resistant (XDR) pulmonary TB. DESIGN: Drug susceptibility testing (DST) results recorded in the database of the National Reference Centre for Tuberculosis in Athens, Greece, over a 9-year period (2003-2011) were reviewed...
March 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225340/pattern-of-first-and-second-line-drug-resistance-among-pulmonary-tuberculosis-retreatment-cases-in-pakistan
#4
A Javaid, R Hasan, A Zafar, M A Chaudry, S Qayyum, E Qadeer, Z Shaheen, N Agha, N Rizvi, M Z Afridi, M K Chima, A R Khan, A Ghafoor, S Khan, S R Awan, S Akhtar, K Choudry, Z H Iqbal, M Ansarie, N Ahmad
BACKGROUND: Drug resistance in general, and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in particular, threatens global tuberculosis (TB) control efforts. Population-based estimates of drug resistance are needed to develop strategies for controlling drug-resistant TB in Pakistan. OBJECTIVE: To obtain population-based data on Mycobacterium tuberculosis drug resistance in Pakistan. METHODS: To obtain drug resistance data, we conducted a population-based study of TB cases in all provinces of Pakistan...
March 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225339/latent-tuberculous-infection-in-household-contacts-of-multidrug-resistant-and-newly-diagnosed-tuberculosis
#5
G J Fox, N T Anh, N V Nhung, N T Loi, N B Hoa, L T Ngoc Anh, N K Cuong, T N Buu, G B Marks, D Menzies
BACKGROUND: Differences in the prevalence of latent tuberculous infection (LTBI) and tuberculosis (TB) disease among contacts of patients with multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) and drug-susceptible TB are not well understood. OBJECTIVE: To compare the prevalence of tuberculin skin test (TST) positivity in household contacts of patients with MDR-TB and in contacts of patients never previously treated for TB ('new TB'). DESIGN: Consecutive patients with MDR-TB and their household contacts at nine urban district clinics in Viet Nam were screened for TB and LTBI, and followed up for 6 months...
March 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222724/financial-barriers-and-coping-strategies-a-qualitative-study-of-accessing-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-and-tuberculosis-care-in-yunnan-china
#6
C Hutchison, M S Khan, J Yoong, X Lin, R J Coker
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) and multidrug-resistance tuberculosis (MDR-TB) pose serious challenges to global health, particularly in China, which has the second highest case burden in the world. Disparities in access to care for the poorest, rural TB patients may be exacerbated for MDR-TB patients, although this has not been investigated widely. We examine whether certain patient groups experience different barriers to accessing TB services, whether there are added challenges for patients with MDR-TB, and how patients and health providers cope in Yunnan, a mountainous province in China with a largely rural population and high TB burden...
February 22, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222189/molecular-epidemiology-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-complex-in-brussels-2010-2013
#7
Christelle Vluggen, Karine Soetaert, Guido Groenen, Maryse Wanlin, Martine Spitaels, Wouter Arrazola de Oñate, Maryse Fauville-Dufaux, Claude Saegerman, Vanessa Mathys
The tuberculosis (TB) incidence rate in Brussels-Capital Region is 3-fold higher than in Belgium as a whole. Eight years after the realization of initial prospective population-based molecular epidemiology investigations in this Region, a similar study over the period 2010-2013 was conducted. TB strains isolated from 945 patients were submitted to genotyping by standardized 24-locus-MIRU-VNTR typing and spoligotyping. The phylogenetic analysis showed that the LAM (16.7%) and Haarlem (15.7%) branches are the two most prevalent TB lineages circulating in Brussels...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214557/quadruple-first-line-drug-resistance-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-in-vietnam-what-can-we-learn-from-genes
#8
Huy Quang Nguyen, Nhung Viet Nguyen, Lucie Contamin, Thanh Hoa Thi Tran, Thuong Thi Vu, Hung Van Nguyen, Ngoc Lan Thi Nguyen, Son Thai Nguyen, Anh Duc Dang, Anne-Laure Bañuls, Van Anh Thi Nguyen
In Vietnam, a country with high tuberculosis (137/100.000 population) and multidrug-resistant (MDR)-TB burdens (7.8/100.000 population), little is known about the molecular signatures of drug resistance in general and more particularly of second line drug (SLD) resistance. This study is specifically focused on Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates resistant to four first-line drugs (FLDs) that make TB much more difficult to treat. The aim is to determine the proportion of SLD resistance in these quadruple drug resistant isolates and the genetic determinants linked to drug resistance to better understand the genetic processes leading to quadruple and extremely drug resistance (XDR)...
February 15, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210505/nanotechnology-based-approach-in-tuberculosis-treatment
#9
REVIEW
Mohammad Nasiruddin, Md Kausar Neyaz, Shilpi Das
Tuberculosis, commonly known as TB, is the second most fatal infectious disease after AIDS, caused by bacterium called Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Prolonged treatment, high pill burden, low compliance, and stiff administration schedules are factors that are responsible for emergence of MDR and XDR cases of tuberculosis. Till date, only BCG vaccine is available which is ineffective against adult pulmonary TB, which is the most common form of disease. Various unique antibodies have been developed to overcome drug resistance, reduce the treatment regimen, and elevate the compliance to treatment...
2017: Tuberculosis Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202091/isolation-unit-for-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-patients-in-a-low-endemic-country-a-step-towards-the-world-health-organization-end-tb-strategy
#10
M C Payen, J P VAN Vooren, O Vandenberg, N Clumeck, S DE Wit
Tuberculosis (TB) remains a threat to public health and is the second cause of death due to a single infectious agent after HIV/AIDS. The worldwide distribution of TB is heterogeneous. The incidence is decreasing in most high-income regions, but the situation remains worrying in many parts of the world. The emergence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains resistant to key agents used in treatment (rifampin and isoniazid) contributes to TB transmission around the world. To achieve TB elimination, both high and low endemic countries must upscale their efforts to decrease disease transmission and improve cure rates...
February 16, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28201993/structure-and-variation-of-crispr-and-crispr-flanking-regions-in-deleted-direct-repeat-region-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-complex-strains
#11
Paul Jeffrey Freidlin, Israel Nissan, Anna Luria, Drora Goldblatt, Lana Schaffer, Hasia Kaidar-Shwartz, Daniel Chemtob, Zeev Dveyrin, Steven Robert Head, Efrat Rorman
BACKGROUND: CRISPR and CRISPR-flanking genomic regions are important for molecular epidemiology of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) strains, and potentially for adaptive immunity to phage and plasmid DNA, and endogenous roles in the bacterium. Genotyping in the Israel National Mycobacterium Reference Center Tel-Aviv of over 1500 MTBC strains from 2008-2013 showed three strains with validated negative 43-spacer spoligotypes, that is, with putatively deleted direct repeat regions (deleted-DR/CRISPR regions)...
February 15, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199375/has-universal-screening-with-xpert%C3%A2-mtb-rif-increased-the-proportion-of-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-cases-diagnosed-in-a-routine-operational-setting
#12
Pren Naidoo, Rory Dunbar, Judy Caldwell, Carl Lombard, Nulda Beyers
SETTING: Primary health services in Cape Town, South Africa where the introduction of Xpert® MTB/RIF (Xpert) enabled simultaneous screening for tuberculosis (TB) and drug susceptibility in all presumptive cases. STUDY AIM: To compare the proportion of TB cases with drug susceptibility tests undertaken and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) diagnosed pre-treatment and during the course of 1st line treatment in the previous smear/culture and the newly introduced Xpert-based algorithms...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197340/phenotypic-and-genotypic-analysis-of-multidrug-resistant-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-isolates-from-sudanese-patients
#13
Solima M A Sabeel, Mohamed Ahmed Salih, Manasik Ali, Salah-Eldin El-Zaki, Nadir Abuzeid, Zeinab Abubaker Mohammed Elgadi, Hisham N Altayb, Asrar M A Elegail, Nuha Y Ibrahim, Bahaeldin K Elamin
Background. Currently, mutations in rpoB, KatG, and rrs genes and inhA promoter were considered to be involved in conferring resistance to rifampicin, isoniazid, and streptomycin in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB). Objective. The aims of this study were to detect the prevalence of first-line tuberculosis (TB) drug resistance among a group of previously treated and newly detected TB patients, to determine the association between prevalence of multidrug resistance (MDR) and demographic information (age and sex), to explain genes correlated with MDR Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and to characterize MTB via 16S ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA) analysis...
2017: Tuberculosis Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182726/spatial-patterns-of-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-and-relationships-to-socio-economic-demographic-and-household-factors-in-northwest-ethiopia
#14
Kefyalew Addis Alene, Kerri Viney, Emma S McBryde, Archie C A Clements
BACKGROUND: Understanding the geographical distribution of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in high TB burden countries such as Ethiopia is crucial for effective control of TB epidemics in these countries, and thus globally. We present the first spatial analysis of multidrug resistant tuberculosis, and its relationship to socio-economic, demographic and household factors in northwest Ethiopia. METHODS: An ecological study was conducted using data on patients diagnosed with MDR-TB at the University of Gondar Hospital MDR-TB treatment centre, for the period 2010 to 2015...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182570/long-term-outcome-and-safety-of-prolonged-bedaquiline-treatment-for-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis
#15
Lorenzo Guglielmetti, Marie Jaspard, Damien Le Dû, Marie Lachâtre, Dhiba Marigot-Outtandy, Christine Bernard, Nicolas Veziris, Jérôme Robert, Yazdan Yazdanpanah, Eric Caumes, Mathilde Fréchet-Jachym
Bedaquiline, a recently approved drug for the treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB), is recommended for a duration of 24 weeks. There are scarce data on patients treated with this drug outside clinical trials.All MDR-TB patients who started treatment from January 1, 2011 to December 31, 2013 and received ≥30 days of bedaquiline were included in a multicentre observational cohort.Among 45 MDR-TB patients, 53% harboured isolates resistant to both fluoroquinolones and second-line injectables, and 38% harboured isolates resistant to one of these drug classes...
December 22, 2016: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178199/combined-use-of-delamanid-and-bedaquiline-to-treat-multidrug-resistant-and-extensively-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-a-systematic-review
#16
REVIEW
Giovanni Battista Migliori, Emanuele Pontali, Giovanni Sotgiu, Rosella Centis, Lia D'Ambrosio, Simon Tiberi, Marina Tadolini, Susanna Esposito
The new drugs delamanid and bedaquiline are increasingly being used to treat multidrug-resistant (MDR-) and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB). The World Health Organization, based on lack of evidence, recommends their use under specific conditions and not in combination. No systematic review has yet evaluated the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of delamanid and bedaquiline used in combination. A search of peer-reviewed, scientific evidence was carried out, aimed at evaluating the efficacy/effectiveness, safety, and tolerability of delamanid and bedaquiline-containing regimens in individuals with pulmonary/extrapulmonary disease, which were bacteriologically confirmed as M/XDR-TB...
February 7, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173763/risk-factors-for-poor-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-treatment-outcomes-in-kyiv-oblast-ukraine
#17
Omowunmi Aibana, Mariya Bachmaha, Viatcheslav Krasiuk, Natasha Rybak, Timothy P Flanigan, Vasyl Petrenko, Megan B Murray
BACKGROUND: Ukraine is among ten countries with the highest burden of multidrug- resistant TB (MDR-TB) worldwide. Treatment success rates for MDR-TB in Ukraine remain below global success rates as reported by the World Health Organization. Few studies have evaluated predictors of poor MDR-TB outcomes in Ukraine. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of patients initiated on MDR-TB treatment in the Kyiv Oblast of Ukraine between January 01, 2012 and March 31st, 2015...
February 7, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166377/multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-transplant-recipients-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#18
Moises A Huaman, Robert Brawley, David Ashkin
Transplant recipients are at increased risk of tuberculosis (TB). We describe a case of pulmonary and vertebral multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) in a kidney transplant patient who required neurosurgical intervention and unfortunately developed fatal nosocomial complications. Thirteen transplant recipients with MDR-TB were previously reported in the literature (1 hematopoietic cell transplant, 1 heart transplant, 1 lung transplant, 1 heart-lung ransplant, and 9 kidney transplant recipients). Extrapulmonary disease, severe treatment complications, and deaths were observed in patients who developed MDR-TB after transplantation...
February 6, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163165/the-risk-of-global-epidemic-replacement-with-drug-resistant-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-strains
#19
REVIEW
Emma S McBryde, Michael T Meehan, Tan N Doan, Romain Ragonnet, Ben J Marais, Vanina Guernier, James M Trauer
OBJECTIVES: Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is a threat to tuberculosis (TB) control. To guide TB control, it is essential to understand the extent to which and the circumstances in which MDR-TB will replace drug-susceptible TB (DS-TB) as the dominant phenotype. The issue was examined by assessing evidence from genomics, pharmacokinetics, and epidemiology studies. This evidence was then synthesized into a mathematical model. METHODS: This model considers two TB strains, one with and one without an MDR phenotype...
February 2, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162983/activity-of-moxifloxacin-and-linezolid-against-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-in-combination-with-potentiator-drugs-verapamil-timcodar-colistin-and-sq109
#20
Gerjo J de Knegt, Aart van der Meijden, Corné P de Vogel, Rob E Aarnoutse, Jurriaan E M de Steenwinkel
Current treatment for tuberculosis (TB) is complicated by the emergence of multidrug resistant TB (MDR-TB). As a result, there is an urgent need for new powerful anti-TB regimens and novel strategies. In this study, we aimed to potentiate a moxifloxacin + linezolid backbone as treatment for MDR-TB with the efflux pump inhibitors verapamil and timcodar as well as with drugs that act on mycobacterial cell wall stability such as colistin and SQ109. Using a time-kill kinetics assay, the activities of moxifloxacin, linezolid, verapamil, timcodar, colistin and SQ109 as single drugs against Mycobacterium tuberculosis were evaluated...
February 2, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
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