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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810312/-analysis-of-infection-and-drug-resistance-in-6-107-cases-of-extrapulmonary-tuberculosis-in-chengdu-area
#1
D M Wang, Q F Li, M Zhu, Y H Xu, J Luo, Y J Li, J Zhong, Z J Wu
Objective: To analyze the infection and drug resistance of extrapulmonary tuberculosis, in order to provide useful references for prevention and treatment of tuberculosis (TB). Methods: A total of 6 107 suspected cases of extrapulmonary tuberculosis, including lymph node, pleural, peritoneal, meningeal, urinary tract, and bone tuberculosis, were collected retrospectively from January 2013 to December 2015 in Public Health Clinical Center of Chengdu. There were 4 033 male and 2 074 female patients, and the average age was 37 years...
August 12, 2017: Chinese Journal of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802406/real-time-pcr-followed-by-high-resolution-melting-curve-analysis-a-rapid-and-pragmatic-approach-for-screening-of-multidrug-resistant-extrapulmonary-tuberculosis
#2
Kusum Sharma, Megha Sharma, Shreya Singh, Manish Modi, Aman Sharma, Pallab Ray, Subhash Varma
INTRODUCTION: Multidrug resistance (MDR) in extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) is a diagnostic challenge in an endemic country like India. Timely detection of MDR-TB can contribute to a better patient outcome. OBJECTIVE: To perform real-time PCR (qPCR) using rpoB, mpb64 and IS6110 gene on a variety of EPTB samples and to compare the performance of different gene targets. All qPCR positive samples were subjected to high resolution melt-curve analysis (HRM analysis) for rpoB and katG gene to evaluate its potential for MDR screening among different sample types...
September 2017: Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798931/prevalence-and-molecular-characterization-of-second-line-drugs-resistance-among-multidrug-resistant-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-isolates-in-southwest-of-china
#3
Y Hu, L Xu, Y L He, Y Pang, N Lu, J Liu, J Shen, D M Zhu, X Feng, Y W Wang, C Yang
This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) isolates resistant to the second-line antituberculosis drugs (SLDs) and its association with resistant-related gene mutations in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) isolates from Southwest of China. There were 81 isolates resistant to at least one of the SLDs among 156 MDR-TB isolates (81/156, 51.9%). The rates of general resistance to each of the drugs were as follows: OFX (66/156, 42.3%), KAN (26/156, 16.7%), CAP (13/156, 8...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798367/epidemiology-of-tuberculosis-in-chongqing-china-a-secular-trend-from-1992-to-2015
#4
Bo Wu, Ya Yu, Weijia Xie, Ying Liu, Yao Zhang, Daiyu Hu, Yafei Li
Chongqing is a southwest city of China with high tuberculosis (TB) burden. An observational retrospective study has been performed based on routine TB surveillance data in Chongqing from 1992 to 2015. The TB notification rate has declined to 70.8 cases per 100,000 population from the peak of 106 cases per 100,000 in 2005. The TB notification rate in population over-65 years has become the highest among all-ages population since 2010. The average proportion of farmers in all notified cases from 2008 to 2015 was 62...
August 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794886/evaluation-of-genexpert-mtb-rif-for-determination-of-rifampicin-resistance-among-new-tuberculosis-cases-in-west-and-northwest-iran
#5
S Atashi, B Izadi, S Jalilian, S H Madani, A Farahani, P Mohajeri
Despite a Mycobacterium tuberculosis control programme and anti-tuberculosis drugs, drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) is one of the most serious public health issues worldwide. Rapid laboratory diagnosis of M. tuberculosis is needed for the diagnosis of multidrug-resistant (MDR) TB and to find the optimal treatment protocol. The purpose of this study was to detect resistance to rifampicin in new cases of TB using the GeneXpert MTB/RIF (M. tuberculosis/rifampicin) assay and the standard proportional method in west and northwest Iran...
September 2017: New Microbes and New Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793873/epidemiological-trends-and-outcomes-of-extensively-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-shandong-china
#6
Xiao-Chun He, Ning-Ning Tao, Yao Liu, Xian-Xin Zhang, Huai-Chen Li
BACKGROUND: Extensively Drug-Resistant (XDR) Tuberculosis (TB) has posed a great threat to global health and finance systems, especially for developing countries with high TB and Multidrug-Resistant (MDR) TB burden. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed HIV-uninfected TB case confirmed and treated in Shandong Provincial Chest Hospital (SPCH) between January 2008 and December 2015. Unique characteristics of XDR-TB were identified; its longitudinal changes and survival were analyzed...
August 9, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793376/genotype-mtbdrplus-assay-for-screening-and-characterization-of-isoniazid-and-rifampicin-resistance-associated-mutations-in-multidrug-resistant-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-from-india
#7
Sunil Sethi, Rakesh Yadav, Shreya Singh, Rajiv Khaneja, Ashutosh Aggarwal, Priyanka Agarwal, Digambar Behera
Multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is rising and World health organization has recommended the line probe assay (LPA) for screening. In this study we assess LPA at a tertiary care center from North India in 1758 samples from suspected MDR-TB cases. All smear positive and/or M.tuberculosis culture confirmed cases (n=1170) were subjected to GenoType-MTBDR assay. Amongst these the majority were retreatment cases, smear positive at diagnosis (n=637). MDR prevalence of 7.8% was observed with the highest cases reported amongst MDR contacts (33...
August 9, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791686/the-role-of-dna-polymerase-chain-reaction-culture-and-histopathology-in-the-diagnosis-of-cutaneous-tuberculosis
#8
Puneet Agarwal, Elangbam Nelson Singh, Uma Shankar Agarwal, Ramsingh Meena, Saroj Purohit, Surendra Kumar
BACKGROUND: Cutaneous tuberculosis (TB) is re-emerging as a significant problem in India due to increased incidence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), other immunosuppressive states/factors like drugs, and emergence of multidrug resistance (MDR-TB). Proper diagnosis is warranted as there is varied clinical presentation and similarity with many other diseases. OBJECTIVE: To assess the sensitivities of DNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR), culture, and histopathology for the diagnosis of cutaneous TB in clinically suspected skin lesions...
August 9, 2017: International Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789982/mycobacterium-tuberculosis-genotypes-and-predominant-clones-among-the-multidrug-resistant-isolates-in-spain-1998-2005
#9
Sofía Samper, Patricia Gavín, Isabel Millán, María José Iglesias, María Soledad Jiménez, David Couvin, Nalin Rastogi
Although the incidence of tuberculosis (TB) is gradually decreasing in Spain, there is an increase in the proportion of foreign-born cases. This changing scenario is slowly shifting the local TB epidemiology from endemic to imported cases with an increased risk for multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug resistant (XDR) strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. MDR/XDR strains from Spain (n=366 MTBC isolates, 1 strain per patient) isolated between 1998 and 2005 were retained for this retrospective analysis...
August 5, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789609/dose-and-time-dependency-of-the-toxicity-and-pharmacokinetic-profiles-of-bedaquiline-and-its-n-desmethyl-metabolite-in-dogs
#10
Ilham Smyej, Sandra De Jonghe, Adriana Looszova, Geert Mannens, Tom Verhaeghe, Sandy Thijssen, Sofie Starckx, Ann Lampo, Marie-Claude Rouan
Bedaquiline (BDQ) is an antibiotic to treat pulmonary multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). Studies up to 39 weeks were conducted orally in dogs to assess the toxicity and pharmacokinetics of BDQ and its N-desmethyl metabolite (D-BDQ). Phospholipidosis (PLD) seen in the monocytic phagocytic system was considered an adaptive change. Skeletal muscle, heart, stomach, liver, and pancreas toxicities with D-BDQ as the main contributor were associated with a less-than-dose-proportional increase in plasma exposure and an overproportional tissue uptake of BDQ and D-BDQ at high-dose levels...
January 1, 2017: Toxicologic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783758/evaluation-of-a-nurse-practitioner-physician-task-sharing-model-for-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-south-africa
#11
Jason E Farley, Norbert Ndjeka, Ana M Kelly, Erin Whitehouse, Simmi Lachman, Chakra Budhathoki, Kelly Lowensen, Ellie Bergren, Hloniphile Mabuza, Ntombasekhaya Mlandu, Martie van der Walt
BACKGROUND: Treatment success rates for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in South Africa remain close to 50%. Lack of access to timely, decentralized care is a contributing factor. We evaluated MDR-TB treatment outcomes from a clinical cohort with task-sharing between a clinical nurse practitioner (CNP) and a medical officer (MO). METHODS: We completed a retrospective evaluation of outcomes from a prospective, programmatically-based MDR-TB cohort who were enrolled and received care between 2012 and 2015 at a peri-urban hospital in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782605/drug-adherence-and-efficacy-of-smear-microscopy-in-the-diagnosis-of-pulmonary-tuberculosis-after-2-months-of-medication-in-north-western-tanzania
#12
Benson R Kidenya, Stephen E Mshana, Lisa Gerwing-Adima, Jeremiah Kidola, Christa Kasang
OBJECTIVES: The study aimed at assessing the Tuberculosis (TB) medication adherence level and the efficacy of smear microscopy in the diagnosing pulmonary TB at month 2. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted at the four sites located in the Northern-western Tanzania. New smear positive, pulmonary TB patients were followed up and their adherence to TB medication assessed after 2 months of the treatment. In addition, the acid fast bacilli (AFB) smear microscopy was performed after 2 and 5 months of the treatment...
August 3, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780247/direct-detection-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-and-drug-resistance-in-respiratory-specimen-using-abbott-realtime-mtb-detection-and-rif-inh-resistance-assay
#13
Kingsley King-Gee Tam, Kenneth Siu-Sing Leung, Sabrina Wai-Chi To, Gilman Kit-Hang Siu, Terrence Chi-Kong Lau, Victor Chi-Man Shek, Cindy Wing-Sze Tse, Samson Sai-Yin Wong, Pak-Leung Ho, Wing-Cheong Yam
Abbott RealTime MTB (Abbott-RT) in conjunction with Abbott RealTime MTB RIF/INH Resistance (Abbott-RIF/INH) is a new, high-throughput automated nucleic acid amplification platform (Abbott-MDR) for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) and the genotypic markers for rifampicin (RIF) and isoniazid (INH) resistance directly from respiratory specimens. This prospective study evaluated the diagnostic performance of this new platform for MTBC and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) using 610 sputum specimens in a tuberculosis high-burden setting...
July 1, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774560/a-novel-nanoemulsion-vaccine-induces-mucosal-interleukin-17-responses-and-confers-protection-upon-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-challenge-in-mice
#14
Mushtaq Ahmed, Douglas M Smith, Tarek Hamouda, Javier Rangel-Moreno, Ali Fattom, Shabaana A Khader
Tuberculosis (TB), caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is contracted via aerosol infection, typically affecting the lungs. Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) is the only licensed vaccine and has variable efficacy in protecting against pulmonary TB. Additionally, chemotherapy is associated with low compliance contributing to development of multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) Mtb. Thus, there is an urgent need for the design of more effective vaccines against TB...
July 31, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767036/six-month-response-to-delamanid-treatment-in-mdr-tb-patients
#15
Cathy Hewison, Gabriella Ferlazzo, Zaza Avaliani, Armen Hayrapetyan, Sylvie Jonckheere, Zarema Khaidarkhanova, Erika Mohr, Animesh Sinha, Alena Skrahina, Debrah Vambe, Irina Vasilyeva, Nathalie Lachenal, Francis Varaine
Delamanid, recently available for the treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB), has had limited use outside clinical trials. We present the early treatment results for 53 patients from 7 countries who received a delamanid-containing treatment for MDR TB. Results show good tolerability and treatment response at 6 months.
October 15, 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764749/evaluation-of-antimycobacterial-leishmanicidal-and-antibacterial-activity-of-three-medicinal-orchids-of-arunachal-pradesh-india
#16
Manisha Bhatnagar, Nandan Sarkar, Nigam Gandharv, Ona Apang, Sarman Singh, Sabari Ghosal
BACKGROUND: The ethnic population of Arunachal Pradesh uses a number of orchids as such, or in decoction for various ailments. Three untapped orchids namely, Rhynchostylis retusa, Tropidia curculioides and Satyrium nepalense, traditionally used in tuberculosis, asthma and cold stage of malaria in folk medicine, were selected for the present study. METHODS: Dried material of each plant was divided into three parts. Solvent extraction and fractionation afforded altogether 30 extracts and fractions, which were evaluated against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (H37Rv and MDR strain) for antimycobacterial activity; promastigotes and amastigotes of Leishmania donovani for leishmanicidal activity and two gram positive and three gram negative clinical isolates for antibacterial activity...
August 1, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760681/genetic-diversity-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-and-transmission-associated-with-first-line-drug-resistance-a-first-analysis-in-jalisco-mexico
#17
Gladys Lopez-Avalos, Guadalupe Gonzalez-Palomar, Martín Lopez-Rodriguez, Carlos Arturo Vazquez-Chacon, Gustavo Mora-Aguilera, Juan Antonio Gonzalez-Barrios, Juan Carlos Villanueva-Arias, Manuel Sandoval-Diaz, Ulises Miranda-Hernández, Ikuri Alvarez-Maya
OBJECTIVES: To analyze the frequency of gene mutations associated to drug resistant in clinical samples from population of the Jalisco state (Mexico) and then evaluate the genetic variability of TB and MDR-TB strains to describe the frequency of M. tuberculosis families. METHODS: We analyzed the clinical isolates of M. tuberculosis obtained from Jalisco state of Mexico. Isolates were subjected to drug susceptibility testing and mutations were characterized by sequencing, followed by genotyping using spoligotyping and Interspersed Repetitive Units-Variable Number of Tandem Repeat (MIRU-VNTR)...
July 28, 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759620/prevalence-of-pulmonary-tuberculosis-among-prison-inmates-a-cross-sectional-survey-at-the-correctional-and-detention-facility-of-abidjan-c%C3%A3-te-d-ivoire
#18
Benjamin Séri, Ange Koffi, Christine Danel, Timothée Ouassa, Marcel-Angora Blehoué, Eric Ouattara, Jeanne-d'Arc Assemien, Jean-Marie Masumbuko, Patrick Coffie, Nathalie Cartier, Arnaud Laurent, Gilles Raguin, Denis Malvy, Thérèse N'Dri-Yoman, Serge P Eholié, Serge K Domoua, Xavier Anglaret, Marie-Catherine Receveur
BACKGROUND: In Côte d'Ivoire, a TB prison program has been developed since 1999. This program includes offering TB screening to prisoners who show up with TB symptoms at the infirmary. Our objective was to estimate the prevalence of pulmonary TB among inmates at the Correctional and Detention Facility of Abidjan, the largest prison of Côte d'Ivoire, 16 years after this TB program was implemented. METHODS: Between March and September 2015, inmates, were screened for pulmonary TB using systematic direct smear microscopy, culture and chest X-ray...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756826/frequency-of-multi-drug-resistance-and-mutations-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-isolates-from-punjab-state-of-india
#19
Ritu Singhal, Jyoti Arora, Grish C Sah, Manpreet Bhalla, Rohit Sarin, Vithal Prasad Myneedu
Data regarding prevalence of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) and associated common mutations is scarce from Punjab region. The study was designed to determine rate of MDR-TB among presumptive MDR-TB from Punjab and mutation patterns using GenoType MTBDRplus assay. Total of 812 consecutive sputum samples were received from January 2012 to July 2013, from 14 districts of Punjab at the National Reference Laboratory at New Delhi for diagnosis of MDR-TB as hand holding activity. Presumptive MDR-TB patients were identified on basis of criterion B defined by the programme...
September 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751411/effectiveness-and-safety-of-standardised-shorter-regimens-for-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-individual-patient-data-and-aggregate-data-meta-analyses
#20
Faiz Ahmad Khan, M A Hamid Salim, Philipp du Cros, Esther C Casas, Atajan Khamraev, Welile Sikhondze, Andrea Benedetti, Mayara Bastos, Zhiyi Lan, Ernesto Jaramillo, Dennis Falzon, Dick Menzies
We assessed the effectiveness and safety of standardised, shorter multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) regimens by pooling data from observational studies.Published studies were identified from medical databases; unpublished studies were identified from expert consultation. We conducted aggregate data meta-analyses to estimate pooled proportions of treatment outcomes and individual patient data (IPD) meta-regression to identify risk factors for unsuccessful treatment in patients treated with 9- to 12-month MDR-TB regimens composed of a second-line injectable, gatifloxacin/moxifloxacin, prothionamide, clofazimine, isoniazid, pyrazinamide and ethambutol...
July 2017: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
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