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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911422/-diagnostic-potential-of-optical-coherence-tomography-for-small-choroidal-melanomas
#1
A F Brovkina, A S Stoyukhina, I V Musatkina
AIM: To investigate the sequence of OCT manifestations in choroidal melanoma (CM) with account to its growth. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 28 CM patients were examined. Of them, 18 patients with early CM, 10 - with medium-sized CM. The mean patient age at diagnosis was 60.54±5.31 years. Tumor location was macular (15 eyes) or perimacular (13 eyes), its prominence varied from 0.98 to 4.9 mm and basal diameter - from 5.08 to 18.9 mm. Additionally to OCT, tumor autofluorescence was studied in all cases...
2016: Vestnik Oftalmologii
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909686/lipofuscins-prepared-by-modification-of-photoreceptor-cells-via-glycation-or-lipid-peroxidation-show-the-similar-phototoxicity
#2
Alexander Dontsov, Anna Koromyslova, Mikhail Ostrovsky, Natalia Sakina
AIM: To investigate the effect of two ways of lipofuscin production (lipid peroxidation and glycation) on lipofuscin fluorescence characteristics and phototoxicity and to compare them with the properties of natural lipofuscin. METHODS: Model lipofuscins were prepared on the basis of bovine photoreceptor outer segments (POS) with bisretinoid A2E addition. One set of samples was prepared from POS modified by lipid peroxidation, while another set from POS modified by glycation with fructose...
November 20, 2016: World Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881166/using-the-social-amoeba-dictyostelium-to-study-the-functions-of-proteins-linked-to-neuronal-ceroid-lipofuscinosis
#3
REVIEW
Robert J Huber
Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (NCL), also known as Batten disease, is a debilitating neurological disorder that affects both children and adults. Thirteen genetically distinct genes have been identified that when mutated, result in abnormal lysosomal function and an excessive accumulation of ceroid lipofuscin in neurons, as well as other cell types outside of the central nervous system. The NCL family of proteins is comprised of lysosomal enzymes (PPT1/CLN1, TPP1/CLN2, CTSD/CLN10, CTSF/CLN13), proteins that peripherally associate with membranes (DNAJC5/CLN4, KCTD7/CLN14), a soluble lysosomal protein (CLN5), a protein present in the secretory pathway (PGRN/CLN11), and several proteins that display different subcellular localizations (CLN3, CLN6, MFSD8/CLN7, CLN8, ATP13A2/CLN12)...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853905/an-antidiabetic-polyherbal-phytomedicine-confers-stress-resistance-and-extends-lifespan-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#4
Laxmi Rathor, Aakanksha Pant, Harshika Awasthi, Dayanandan Mani, Rakesh Pandey
An Ayurvedic polyherbal extract (PHE) comprising six herbs viz. Berberis aristata, Cyperus rotundus, Cedrus deodara, Emblica officinalis, Terminalia chebula and Terminalia bellirica is mentioned as an effective anti-hyperglycemic agent in 'Charaka Samhita', the classical text of Ayurveda. Previously, antidiabetic drug metformin was found to elicit antiaging effects and PHE was also found to exhibit antidiabetic effects in humans. Therefore, we screened it for its in vivo antioxidant antiaging effect on stress and lifespan using human homologous Caenorhabditis elegans model system...
November 16, 2016: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847630/clinical-applications-of-fundus-autofluorescence-in-retinal-disease
#5
REVIEW
Madeline Yung, Michael A Klufas, David Sarraf
Fundus autofluorescence (FAF) is a non-invasive retinal imaging modality used in clinical practice to provide a density map of lipofuscin, the predominant ocular fluorophore, in the retinal pigment epithelium. Multiple commercially available imaging systems, including the fundus camera, the confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope, and the ultra-widefield imaging device, are available to the clinician. Each offers unique advantages for evaluating various retinal diseases. The clinical applications of FAF continue to expand...
2016: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843235/flat-choroidal-melanoma-masquerading-as-central-serous-chorioretinopathy
#6
Timothy Patrick Higgins, Chloe T L Khoo, George Magrath, Carol L Shields
There are several mimickers of choroidal melanoma. We report a patient with recent family stress who developed blurred vision to 20/50 OD and was found to have unilateral central serous chorioretinopathy and a coincidental choroidal nevus. After 1 year without resolution of the subretinal fluid, the patient was referred for our opinion. On examination, visual acuity was 20/50 in the right eye and 20/20 in the left eye. The left eye was normal. Evaluation of the right eye showed a small, pigmented submacular choroidal lesion measuring 4 mm × 3 mm...
September 2016: Oman Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826111/effect-of-ranching-time-on-melanomacrophage-centres-in-anterior-kidney-and-spleen-of-southern-bluefin-tuna-thunnus-maccoyii
#7
Daryl Evans, Barbara Nowak
Melanomacrophage centres (MMCs) are common in the haemopoietic tissue of fish and are an important component of the humoral immune response. Increasingly they are being studied as a biomarker of environmental stress in both wild and aquaculture fish stocks. Computer image analysis of histological sections of the head kidney and spleen of ranched Southern bluefin tuna (SBT) was used to investigate changes in MMCs over various stages of the ranching cycle. Histochemical pigment differentiation indicated haemosiderin, lipofuscin and melanin were present in MMCs of both the kidney and spleen, with kidney MMCs being highly positive for lipofuscin and melanin and spleen having high levels of haemosiderin and a lower level of melanin than kidney...
December 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824490/cost-effective-elimination-of-lipofuscin-fluorescence-from-formalin-fixed-brain-tissue-by-white-phosphor-light-emitting-diode-array
#8
Yulong Sun, Avi Chakrabartty
Autofluorescence of aldehyde-fixed tissues greatly hinders fluorescence microscopy. In particular, lipofuscin, an autofluorescent component of aged brain tissue, complicates fluorescence imaging of tissue in neurodegenerative diseases. Background and lipofuscin fluorescence can be reduced by greater than 90% through photobleaching using white phosphor light emitting diode arrays prior to treatment with fluorescent probes. We compared the effect of photobleaching versus established chemical quenchers on the quality of fluorescent staining in formalin-fixed brain tissue of frontotemporal dementia with tau-positive inclusions...
December 2016: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824154/manganese-mediated-acceleration-of-age-related-hearing-loss-in-mice
#9
Nobutaka Ohgami, Ichiro Yajima, Machiko Iida, Xiang Li, Reina Oshino, Mayuko Y Kumasaka, Masashi Kato
Despite the fact that manganese (Mn) is known to be a neurotoxic element relevant to age-related disorders, the risk of oral exposure to Mn for age-related hearing loss remains unclear. In this study, we orally exposed wild-type young adult mice to Mn (Mn-exposed WT-mice) at 1.65 and 16.50 mg/L for 4 weeks. Mn-exposed WT-mice showed acceleration of age-related hearing loss. Mn-exposed WT-mice had neurodegeneration of spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) with increased number of lipofuscin granules. Mn-exposed WT-mice also had increased hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (Hif-1α) protein with less hydroxylation at proline 564 and decreased c-Ret protein in SGNs...
November 8, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812872/sudan-black-b-the-specific-histochemical-stain-for-lipofuscin-a-novel-method-to-detect-senescent-cells
#10
Konstantinos Evangelou, Vassilis G Gorgoulis
The Sudan-Black-B (SBB) histochemical stain is well known to specifically react against lipofuscin, an aggregate of oxidized proteins, lipids, and metals. Lipofuscin is related to many ageing processes. It is also known to accumulate in senescent cells. We recently proved that lipofuscin detection, when applying the SBB staining, is highly specific for the visualization of senescent cells. Here, we present in detail this SBB method that can detect senescent cells in any material, irrespective of its preparation...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796896/the-cutaneous-telocytes
#11
Catalin G Manole, Olga Simionescu
Telocytes (TCs) are interstitial cells found in stroma of many organs, including the skin dermis. Ultrastructurally, normal skin TCs recapitulates all the previously documented features in interstitum of other organs. Their (ultra)structural hallmark is the presence of particular shaped cellular prolongations (termed telopodes), along other features as cellular organelles representation and their distribution within cell body and its prolongations. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) or high magnification light microscopy indicated that the particular shape of telopodes alternate characteristically thin segments (termed podomeres) and dilated segments (called podoms)...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27778018/neuronal-ceroid-lipofuscinosis-in-an-adult-american-staffordshire-terrier
#12
Anna Nolte, Aimara Bello, Michaela Drögemüller, Tosso Leeb, Eva Brockhaus, Wolfgang Baumgärtner, Peter Wohlsein
A female, 5-year-old American Staffordshire Terrier with severe progressive neurological deficits, particularly in terms of ataxia and keeping balance, was examined pathomorphologically and a genetic analysis was performed. In neurons of various localizations of the central nervous system an accumulation of a finely granular pale eosinophilic or light brown material was found. In addition, the cerebellum revealed marked degeneration and loss of Purkinje and inner granule cells. The accumulated PAS-positive, argyrophilic, autofluorescent material showed ultrastructurally a lamellar appearance suggestive of lipofuscin...
October 25, 2016: Tierärztliche Praxis. Ausgabe K, Kleintiere/Heimtiere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27773704/membrane-damage-by-betulinic-acid-provides-insights-into-cellular-aging
#13
Waleska K Martins, Andreza B Gomide, Érico T Costa, Helena C Junqueira, Beatriz S Stolf, Rosangela Itri, Maurício S Baptista
BACKGROUND: Cell senescence is a process of central importance to the understanding of aging as well as to the development of new drugs. It is related with genomic instability, which has been shown to occur in the presence of autophagy deficiency. Yet, the mechanism that triggers genomic instability and senescence from a condition of autophagy deficiency remains unknown. By analyzing the consequences of treating human keratinocytes (HaCaT) with the pentacyclic triterpenoid Betulinic Acid (BA) we were able to propose that cell senescence can develop as a response to parallel damage in the membranes of mitochondria and lysosome...
October 20, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770614/lysosomal-storage-of-subunit-c-of-mitochondrial-atp-synthase-in-brain-specific-atp13a2-deficient-mice
#14
Shigeto Sato, Masato Koike, Manabu Funayama, Junji Ezaki, Takahiro Fukuda, Takashi Ueno, Yasuo Uchiyama, Nobutaka Hattori
Kufor-Rakeb syndrome (KRS) is an autosomal recessive form of early-onset parkinsonism linked to the PARK9 locus. The causative gene for KRS is Atp13a2, which encodes a lysosomal type 5 P-type ATPase. We recently showed that KRS/PARK9-linked mutations lead to several lysosomal alterations, including reduced proteolytic processing of cathepsin D in vitro. However, it remains unknown how deficiency of Atp13a2 is connected to lysosomal impairments. To address this issue, we analyzed brain tissues of Atp13a2 conditional-knockout mice, which exhibited characteristic features of neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis, including accumulation of lipofuscin positive for subunit c of mitochondrial ATP synthase, suggesting that a common pathogenic mechanism underlies both neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis and Parkinson disease...
October 19, 2016: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766665/early-lipofuscin-accumulation-in-frontal-lobe-epilepsy
#15
Joan Yw Liu, Cheryl Reeves, Beate Diehl, Antonietta Coppola, Aliya Al-Hajri, Chandrashekar Hoskote, Salim Al Mughairy, Mohamed Tachrount, Michael Groves, Zuzanna Michalak, Kevin Mills, Andrew W McEvoy, Anna Miserocchi, Sanjay M Sisodiya, Maria Thom
OBJECTIVE: This study reports on a novel brain pathology in young patients with Frontal Lobe Epilepsy that is distinct from Focal Cortical Dysplasia. METHODS: Surgical specimens from twenty young adults with frontal lobe epilepsy (mean age, 30 years) were investigated with histological/immunohistochemical markers for cortical laminar architecture, mammalian target of rapamycin pathway activation and inhibition, cellular autophagy, and synaptic vesicle-mediated trafficking as well as proteomics analysis...
October 20, 2016: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749696/hyperspectral-autofluorescence-imaging-of-drusen-and-retinal-pigment-epithelium-in-donor-eyes-with-age-related-macular-degeneration
#16
Yuehong Tong, Tal Ben Ami, Sungmin Hong, Rainer Heintzmann, Guido Gerig, Zsolt Ablonczy, Christine A Curcio, Thomas Ach, R Theodore Smith
PURPOSE: To elucidate the molecular pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and interpretation of fundus autofluorescence imaging, the authors identified spectral autofluorescence characteristics of drusen and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) in donor eyes with AMD. METHODS: Macular RPE/Bruch membrane flat mounts were prepared from 5 donor eyes with AMD. In 12 locations (1-3 per eye), hyperspectral autofluorescence images in 10-nm-wavelength steps were acquired at 2 excitation wavelengths (λex 436, 480 nm)...
September 30, 2016: Retina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27739528/clinical-and-genetic-analyses-reveal-novel-pathogenic-abca4-mutations-in-stargardt-disease-families
#17
Bing Lin, Xue-Bi Cai, Zhi-Li Zheng, Xiu-Feng Huang, Xiao-Ling Liu, Jia Qu, Zi-Bing Jin
Stargardt disease (STGD1) is a juvenile macular degeneration predominantly inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern, characterized by decreased central vision in the first 2 decades of life. The condition has a genetic basis due to mutation in the ABCA4 gene, and arises from the deposition of lipofuscin-like substance in the retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE) with secondary photoreceptor cell death. In this study, we describe the clinical and genetic features of Stargardt patients from four unrelated Chinese cohorts...
October 14, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27637811/assessment-of-the-effects-of-cu-and-ag-in-oysters-crassostrea-gigas-thunberg-1793-using-a-battery-of-cell-and-tissue-level-biomarkers
#18
Ane Rementeria, Mathilde Mikolaczyk, Laurent Lanceleur, Gérard Blanc, Manu Soto, Jörg Schäfer, Beñat Zaldibar
Oysters are considered sentinel organisms in environmental water quality monitoring programs in which cell and tissue level biomarkers are reliable tools. Copper (Cu) and silver (Ag) are present in relatively high concentrations in several estuaries, potentially affecting environmental and human health. Crassostrea gigas oysters were exposed during 28 days to a range of environmentally relevant concentrations of Cu and Ag alone or in mixture. Effects were studied through cell and tissue level biomarkers approach...
December 2016: Marine Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27636007/autofluorescence-discrimination-of-metabolic-fingerprint-in-nutritional-and-genetic-fatty-liver-models
#19
Anna C Croce, Andrea Ferrigno, Laura G Di Pasqua, Clarissa Berardo, Valeria Maria Piccolini, Vittorio Bertone, Giovanni Bottiroli, Mariapia Vairetti
Liver tissue autofluorescence (AF) has been characterized in two models with a different potential to undergo disease progression to steatohepatitis: Wistar rats, administered with a methionine, choline deficient diet (MCD), and Zucker (fa/fa) rats, homozygous for a spontaneous mutation of leptin receptor. AF spectra were recorded from liver tissue cryostatic sections by microspectrofluorometry, under 366nm excitation. Curve fitting analysis was used to estimate the contribution of different endogenous fluorophores (EFs) to the overall AF emission: i) fluorescing fatty acids, a fraction of liver lipids up to now poorly considered and complicated to detect by conventional procedures; ii) lipofuscin-like lipopigments, biomarkers of oxidizing events; iii) NAD(P)H and flavins, biomarkers of energy metabolism and tissue redox state...
September 12, 2016: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27634136/confocal-scanning-laser-ophthalmoscopy-versus-modified-conventional-fundus-camera-for-fundus-autofluorescence
#20
Ana M Calvo-Maroto, Jose J Esteve-Taboada, Alberto Domínguez-Vicent, Rafael J Pérez-Cambrodí, Alejandro Cerviño
Fundus autofluorescence (FAF) is a noninvasive imaging method to detect fundus endogenous fluorophores, mainly lipofuscin located in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). The FAF provides information about lipofuscin distribution and RPE health, and consequently an increased accumulation of lipofuscin has been correlated with ageing and development of certain retinal conditions. Areas covered: An exhaustive literature search in MEDLINE (via OVID) and PUBMED for articles related to ocular FAF in retinal diseases and different devices used for acquiring FAF imaging was conducted...
October 2016: Expert Review of Medical Devices
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