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Yuehong Tong, Tal Ben Ami, Sungmin Hong, Rainer Heintzmann, Guido Gerig, Zsolt Ablonczy, Christine A Curcio, Thomas Ach, R Theodore Smith
PURPOSE: To elucidate the molecular pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and interpretation of fundus autofluorescence imaging, the authors identified spectral autofluorescence characteristics of drusen and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) in donor eyes with AMD. METHODS: Macular RPE/Bruch membrane flat mounts were prepared from 5 donor eyes with AMD. In 12 locations (1-3 per eye), hyperspectral autofluorescence images in 10-nm-wavelength steps were acquired at 2 excitation wavelengths (λex 436, 480 nm)...
September 30, 2016: Retina
Bing Lin, Xue-Bi Cai, Zhi-Li Zheng, Xiu-Feng Huang, Xiao-Ling Liu, Jia Qu, Zi-Bing Jin
Stargardt disease (STGD1) is a juvenile macular degeneration predominantly inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern, characterized by decreased central vision in the first 2 decades of life. The condition has a genetic basis due to mutation in the ABCA4 gene, and arises from the deposition of lipofuscin-like substance in the retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE) with secondary photoreceptor cell death. In this study, we describe the clinical and genetic features of Stargardt patients from four unrelated Chinese cohorts...
October 14, 2016: Scientific Reports
Ane Rementeria, Mathilde Mikolaczyk, Laurent Lanceleur, Gérard Blanc, Manu Soto, Jörg Schäfer, Beñat Zaldibar
Oysters are considered sentinel organisms in environmental water quality monitoring programs in which cell and tissue level biomarkers are reliable tools. Copper (Cu) and silver (Ag) are present in relatively high concentrations in several estuaries, potentially affecting environmental and human health. Crassostrea gigas oysters were exposed during 28 days to a range of environmentally relevant concentrations of Cu and Ag alone or in mixture. Effects were studied through cell and tissue level biomarkers approach...
September 7, 2016: Marine Environmental Research
Anna C Croce, Andrea Ferrigno, Laura G Di Pasqua, Clarissa Berardo, Valeria Maria Piccolini, Vittorio Bertone, Giovanni Bottiroli, Mariapia Vairetti
Liver tissue autofluorescence (AF) has been characterized in two models with a different potential to undergo disease progression to steatohepatitis: Wistar rats, administered with a methionine, choline deficient diet (MCD), and Zucker (fa/fa) rats, homozygous for a spontaneous mutation of leptin receptor. AF spectra were recorded from liver tissue cryostatic sections by microspectrofluorometry, under 366nm excitation. Curve fitting analysis was used to estimate the contribution of different endogenous fluorophores (EFs) to the overall AF emission: i) fluorescing fatty acids, a fraction of liver lipids up to now poorly considered and complicated to detect by conventional procedures; ii) lipofuscin-like lipopigments, biomarkers of oxidizing events; iii) NAD(P)H and flavins, biomarkers of energy metabolism and tissue redox state...
September 12, 2016: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
Ana M Calvo-Maroto, Jose J Esteve-Taboada, Alberto Domínguez-Vicent, Rafael J Pérez-Cambrodí, Alejandro Cerviño
Fundus autofluorescence (FAF) is a noninvasive imaging method to detect fundus endogenous fluorophores, mainly lipofuscin located in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). The FAF provides information about lipofuscin distribution and RPE health, and consequently an increased accumulation of lipofuscin has been correlated with ageing and development of certain retinal conditions. Areas covered: An exhaustive literature search in MEDLINE (via OVID) and PUBMED for articles related to ocular FAF in retinal diseases and different devices used for acquiring FAF imaging was conducted...
October 2016: Expert Review of Medical Devices
Joel Kaluzny, Patryk Purta, Zach Poskin, Jeremy D Rogers, Amani A Fawzi
PURPOSE: We investigated the autofluorescence (AF) signature of the microscopic features of retina with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) using 488 nm excitation. METHODS: The globes of four donors with AMD and four age-matched controls were embedded in paraffin and sectioned through the macula. Sections were excited using a 488 nm argon laser, and the AF emission was captured using a laser scanning confocal microscope (496-610 nm, 6 nm resolution). The data cubes were then analyzed to compare peak emission spectra between the AMD and the controls...
2016: PloS One
A F Brovkina, M V Budzinskaya, A S Stoyukhina, I V Musatkina
AIM: to determine potential benefits of optical coherence tomography (OCT) for precise diagnosis of choroidal hemangioma (CH). MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 27 patients (22 women, 5 men) with unilateral CH were examined. The age at diagnosis ranged from 30 to 76 years and averaged 53.7±5.29 years. Tumor thickness varied from 0.9 to 5.3 mm (2.17±0.41 mm; median of 1.9 mm), basal diameter - from 2.64 to 13.86 mm (median of 7.7 mm). RESULTS: Having analyzed OCT findings in CH patients, we came to the conclusion that retinal architectonics does not get distorted (like in cystic dystrophy, for example) before the tumor prominence reaches 1...
July 2016: Vestnik Oftalmologii
Michael J Heiferman, Amani A Fawzi
PURPOSE: To identify the origin and significance of discordance between blue-light autofluorescence (BL-AF; 488 nm) and near-infrared autofluorescence (NI-AF; 787 nm) in patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). METHODS: A total of 86 eyes of 59 patients with a diagnosis of AMD were included in this cross-sectional study conducted between March 9, 2015 and May 1, 2015. A masked observer examined the BL-AF, NI-AF, and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography images...
August 23, 2016: Retina
O J Castejón
Cerebellar cortical biopsies of the peritumoural region of seven patients with cerebellar haemangioma, mesencephalic meningioma, cerebellopontine astrocytoma, cerebellopontine meningioma, and medulloblastoma of cerebellar vermis were examined by means of conventional transmission electron microscopy. Granule cells showed oedematous cytoplasm and mitochondria. Swollen Golgi cells exhibited lipofuscin granules and intranuclear inclusions. Both neuron cell types displayed swollen dendritic digits synapsing with afferent mossy fibre endings...
2016: Folia Neuropathologica
K Kikugawa, Y Ido
We investigated fluorescence properties of 1,4-dihydropyridine-3,5-dicarbaldehydes and their formation in mild reaction of primary amines and malonaldehyde, in order to clarify the role of malonaldehyde in the formation of fluorescent components of lipofuscin. The compounds exhibited fluorescence with excitation maxima at 375-405 nm and emission maxima at 435-465 nm, which was similar to those of lipofuscin and the fluorescent substances derived from the reaction of oxidized fatty acids with primary amines...
August 1984: Lipids
H Shimasaki, N Ueta, O S Privett
The fluorescent substances produced by the reaction of linoleic acid hydroperoxides (LOOH) with ca. 20 different amino acids and bovine serum albumin (BSA) were studied. Only the amino acids, lysine, glycine, arginine, histidine and phenylalanine, gave products with strong fluorescent properties. Products of lysine had a fluorescence intensity of ca. 10 times those of glycine and 100 times those of phenylalanine. The N-acylation of amino acids greatly reduced the fluorescence of the products of the reaction except lysine and arginine...
December 1982: Lipids
Marina A Yakovleva, Alexander A Gulin, Tatiana B Feldman, Yuriy C Bel'skich, Patimat M Arbukhanova, Artem A Astaf'ev, Victor A Nadtochenko, Sergey A Borzenok, Mikhail A Ostrovsky
Lipofuscin granules accumulate in the cells of retinal pigment epithelium with age, particularly in patients with hereditary diseases. These granules are heterogeneous, being composed of mixtures of proteins and lipids, including more than 21 different fluorescent compounds. Bisretinoids and their photo-oxidation and photodegradation products represent the main source of lipofuscin fluorescence and exhibit phototoxic properties. This study used time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) with in-depth probing to assess the depth distribution of N-retinylidene-N-retinylethanolamine (A2E) and its singly and doubly oxidized forms (A2E-ox and A2E-2ox, respectively) within lipofuscin granules and in their surface layer (lipid membrane)...
October 2016: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
V Martínez-Cisuelo, J Gómez, I García-Junceda, A Naudí, R Cabré, N Mota-Martorell, M López-Torres, M González-Sánchez, R Pamplona, G Barja
Rapamycin consistently increases longevity in mice although the mechanism of action of this drug is unknown. In the present investigation we studied the effect of rapamycin on mitochondrial oxidative stress at the same dose that is known to increase longevity in mice (14mgofrapamycin/kg of diet). Middle aged mice (16months old) showed significant age-related increases in mitochondrial ROS production at complex I, accumulation of mtDNA fragments inside nuclear DNA, mitochondrial protein lipoxidation, and lipofuscin accumulation compared to young animals (4months old) in the liver...
October 2016: Experimental Gerontology
Alfried Kohlschütter, Angela Schulz
CLN2 disease is an inherited metabolic storage disorder caused by the deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme tripeptidyl peptidase 1 (TPP1). The disease affects mainly the brain and the retina and is characterized by progressive dysfunction of the central nervous system, leading to dementia, epilepsy, loss of motor function and blindness. The classical late infantile type begins at around three years of age with epilepsy and/or a standstill of psychomotor development, followed by a rapid loss of all abilities and death in childhood...
June 2016: Pediatric Endocrinology Reviews: PER
Hoon Jeon, Dong Seok Cha
The present study investigated the effects and underlying mechanism of ethylacetate fraction of Ribes fasciculatum (ERF) on the lifespan and stress tolerance using a Caenorhabditis elegans model. The longevity activity of ERF was determined by lifespan assay under normal culture condition. The survival rate of nematodes under various stress conditions was assessed to validate the effects of ERF on the stress tolerance. To determine the antioxidant potential of ERF, the superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels were investigated...
May 2016: Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines
Iteb Boughattas, Sabrine Hattab, Hamadi Boussetta, Valérie Sappin-Didier, Aldo Viarengo, Mohamed Banni, Susanna Sforzini
Eisenia andrei earthworms were exposed for 7 and 14 days to six samples of soil taken from around an abandoned lead (Pb) mine and characterized by different levels of metal contamination (S6-S1, this latter being the most contaminated soil). The organisms were analyzed for metal bioaccumulation and for biological parameters as biomarkers of stress (lysosomal membrane stability; lipofuscin lysosomal content; lysosomal/cytoplasmic volume ratio) and genotoxicity (Micronucleus frequency). Chemical analysis showed the loads of Pb, Cd, Zn, and Cu in the worms following exposure...
November 2016: Environmental Pollution
Anna Cleta Croce, Andrea Ferrigno, Vittorio Bertone, Valeria Maria Piccolini, Clarissa Berardo, Laura Giuseppina Di Pasqua, Vittoria Rizzo, Giovanni Bottiroli, Mariapia Vairetti
AIM: Livers with moderate steatosis are currently recruited as marginal organs to face donor shortage in transplantation, despite lipid excess and oxidative stress increase preservation injury risk. A sensitive, real time detection of liver metabolism engagement could help donor selection and preservation procedures, ameliorating the graft outcome. Hence, we investigated endogenous biomolecules with autofluorescence (AF) properties as biomarkers supporting the detection of liver oxidative events and the assessment of metabolic responses to external stimuli...
July 23, 2016: Hepatology Research: the Official Journal of the Japan Society of Hepatology
Xiao-Kui Ma, Dan Dan Guo, Eric Charles Peterson, Ying Dun, Dan Yang Li
Little is known about the chemical structure of purified extracellular polysaccharides from Phellinus sp., a fungal species with known medicinal properties. A combination of IR spectroscopy, methylation analysis and NMR were performed for the structural analysis of a purified extracellular polysaccharide derived from Phellinus sp. culture, denoted as SHP-1, along with an evaluation of the anti-aging effect in vivo of the polysaccharide supplementation. The structure of SHP-1 was established, with a backbone composed of →2,4)-α-d-glucopyranose-(1→ and →2)-β-d-mannopyranose-(1→ and two terminal glucopyranose branches...
August 10, 2016: Food & Function
Yoshiko Nakae, Peter J Stoward
Images of cryostat unstained sections of two skeletal muscles, diaphragm and extensor digitorum longus (EDL), from wild-type normal and dystrophic mdx mice were captured with a fluorescence microscope, binarised and analysed by an automated procedure using ImageJ free software. The numbers, Feret diameters and areas of autofluorescent lipofuscin (LF)-like granules in the sections were determined from the binary images. The mean numbers of counted LF granules per mm(3) muscle tissue correlated highly (r ≥ 0...
July 9, 2016: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
Zhuanhua Wang, Xiaoli Ma, Jiao Li, Xiaodong Cui
The peptides from sesame cake (PSC) which are the main by-product of agricultural processing of sesame were prepared. To evaluate benefits of PSC for health and longevity, antioxidant activity and anti-aging effects were studied in vitro and in a Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) model system. PSC exhibited antioxidant activity in vitro, and induced beneficial effects on lifespan and several health parameters of C.elegans, including pharyngeal pumping rate, locomotion and lipofuscin accumulation. In a mev-1 mutant, PSC increased lifespan, and it enhanced oxidative stress tolerance in wild-type nematodes...
September 2016: Experimental Gerontology
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