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Lipofuscin

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664989/choroidal-caverns-a-previously-unreported-optical-coherence-tomography-finding-in-best-vitelliform-dystrophy
#1
Adriano Carnevali, Riccardo Sacconi, Eleonora Corbelli, Lea Querques, Francesco Bandello, Giuseppe Querques
Best vitelliform macular dystrophy (VMD) is an autosomal dominant inherited dystrophy, most frequently caused by mutations in the BEST1 gene. The authors describe "choroidal caverns," a previously unreported optical coherence tomography finding in the choriocapillary and choroid of Best VMD. Histopathologic examination in eyes with Best VDM shows extensive deposition of lipofuscin in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) throughout the retina and accumulation of fibrillar material under the RPE and in the choroid...
April 1, 2018: Ophthalmic Surgery, Lasers & Imaging Retina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624848/autofluorescence-based-optical-biopsy-an-effective-diagnostic-tool-in-hepatology
#2
Anna Cleta Croce, Andrea Ferrigno, Giovanni Bottiroli, Mariapia Vairetti
Autofluorescence emission of liver tissue depends on the presence of endogenous biomolecules able to fluoresce under suitable light excitation. Overall autofluorescence emission contains much information of diagnostic value, because it is the sum of individual autofluorescence contributions from fluorophores involved in metabolism, for example NAD(P)H, flavins, lipofuscins, retinoids, porphyrins, bilirubin and lipids, or in structural architecture, for example fibrous proteins, in close relationship with normal, altered or diseased conditions of the liver...
April 6, 2018: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622768/role-of-phospholipase-d-in-the-lifespan-of-caenorhabditis-elegans
#3
Jeong-Hwan Park, Jeong-Woo Park, Ju-Hyeon Lee, Dong-Yun Kim, Jeong-Hoon Hahm, Young-Seuk Bae
We have previously shown that phospholipase D (PLD) downregulation accelerates cellular senescence, which is widely believed to play an important role in aging, by stimulating reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation in human cells. In this study, we examined the role of PLD in aging using the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. The mRNA level of pld-1 was found to be inversely correlated with aging. RNAi-mediated knockdown of pld-1 expression in nematodes enhanced ROS and lipofuscin accumulation and decreased lifespan, motility, and resistance to stress compared to that in nematodes treated with control RNAi...
April 6, 2018: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29611160/stress-induced-changes-in-the-aged-rat-adrenal-cortex-histological-and-histomorphometric-study
#4
Sherif Mohamed Zaki, Fayza Abdelraouf Abdelgawad, Ehab Abdel Aziz El-Shaarawy, Rasha Abdel Khalek Radwan, Basma Emad Aboul-Hoda
BACKGROUND: Stress exposure exerts direct effects on the morphology and functionality of the adrenal cortex. In addition, aging effects growth, differentiation, apoptosis and cellularity of the cortex. The missing data is the combined effect of stress and aging on the adrenal cortex. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the structural changes in the adrenal cortex following the exposure to stress in the adult and aged albino rats. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 40 rats were divided into groups I, II (adult and senile)...
April 3, 2018: Folia Morphologica (Warsz)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599913/time-dependent-effects-of-late-onset-dietary-intake-of-salidroside-on-lifespan-and-age-related-biomarkers-of-the-annual-fish-nothobranchius-guentheri
#5
Xia Wang, Xiaoyuan Du, Yang Zhou, Su Wang, Feng Su, Shicui Zhang
One of the most studied and widely accepted conjectures of aging process is the oxidative stress theory. Previous studies have shown that salidroside can protect D-galactose-induced mouse model against aging and a formulation of Rhodiola rosea extracts (SHR-5) containing salidroside increases lifespan of fruit fly. However, direct evidence linking salidroside itself with the observed anti-aging effect in vivo and relevant molecular mechanisms are poorly defined. In this study, we first demonstrated that salidroside exhibited a time-dependent effect, and late-onset long-term salidroside dietary intake extended the lifespan in the annual fish Nothobranchius guentheri ...
March 13, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29597005/non-syndromic-retinitis-pigmentosa
#6
REVIEW
Sanne K Verbakel, Ramon A C van Huet, Camiel J F Boon, Anneke I den Hollander, Rob W J Collin, Caroline C W Klaver, Carel B Hoyng, Ronald Roepman, B Jeroen Klevering
Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) encompasses a group of inherited retinal dystrophies characterized by the primary degeneration of rod and cone photoreceptors. RP is a leading cause of visual disability, with a worldwide prevalence of 1:4000. Although the majority of RP cases are non-syndromic, 20-30% of patients with RP also have an associated non-ocular condition. RP typically manifests with night blindness in adolescence, followed by concentric visual field loss, reflecting the principal dysfunction of rod photoreceptors; central vision loss occurs later in life due to cone dysfunction...
March 26, 2018: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29590254/xanthine-oxidase-activity-in-patients-with-age-related-cataract-associated-with-hypertension
#7
B Kisic, D Miric, L Zoric, J V Rasic, R Grbic, Lj M Popovic, A M Arsic
Reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation are important factors that contribute to the development of age-related cataract. The study included 130 patients with age-related cataract, 69 of whom were diagnosed with hypertension (HT), 20 with hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM), and 41 had no accompanying condition. The following parameters were measured in the serum of the examinees: products of lipid peroxidation malondialdehyde (MDA) and lipofuscin-like fluorophores (LLF), activity of prooxidative enzymes xanthine oxidase (XO) and myeloperoxidase (MPO), antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), the concentration of thiol groups, and the ferric reducing activity of plasma...
March 26, 2018: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29587599/pathological-and-clinical-pathological-changes-induced-by-four-week-repeated-dose-oral-administration-of-the-wood-preservative-chromated-copper-arsenate-in-wistar-rats
#8
Naofumi Takahashi, Toshinori Yoshida, Sayuri Kojima, Satoru Yamaguchi, Ryoichi Ohtsuka, Makio Takeda, Tadashi Kosaka, Takanori Harada
Chromated copper arsenate (CCA) is used as a wood preservative worldwide. Exposure to it may adversely affect human health. Some events have increased human exposure to CCA, including the Great East Japan Earthquake, which generated a large amount of lumber debris from CCA-treated woods. We elucidated the toxicity due to daily exposure to CCA over a 4-week period at doses of 0, 8, 40, and 80 mg/kg/day in Wistar Hannover rats. Chromium (Cr) and arsenic (As), but not copper, were detected in the plasma samples of rats treated with various doses of CCA...
January 1, 2018: Toxicologic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29580826/protein-aggregates-and-proteostasis-in-aging-amylin-and-%C3%AE-cell-function
#9
REVIEW
Michaela Press, Tobias Jung, Jeannette König, Tilman Grune, Annika Höhn
The ubiquitin-proteasomal-system (UPS) and the autophagy-lysosomal-system (ALS) are both highly susceptible for disturbances leading to the accumulation of cellular damage. A decline of protein degradation during aging results in the formation of oxidatively damaged and aggregated proteins finally, resulting in failure of cellular functionality. Besides protein aggregation in response to oxidative damage, amyloids are a different type of protein aggregates able to distract proteostasis and interfere with cellular functionality...
March 23, 2018: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29579543/igfbp-3-plays-an-important-role-in-senescence-as-an-aging-marker
#10
Sugyeong Hong, Moon-Moo Kim
Aging study requires aging markers to measure the degree of aging process. The aging markers such as senescence associated-β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal), lipofuscin, telomere, p53 and p16 have been known in aging study until now. Therefore, we investigated the role of genes and proteins related to aging in young, senescent and H2 O2 -induced old cells to develop a novel aging marker involved in aging mechanism. After cellular aging was compared in young, senescent and H2 O2 -induced old cells using SA-β-galactosidase staining assay, the expression level of genes and proteins in senescent and H2 O2 -induced old cells were compared and analyzed with those of young cells using RT-PCR, western blot and immunofluorescence staining...
March 20, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29578940/relationship-of-clinical-features-and-baseline-tumor-size-with-gene-expression-profile-status-in-uveal-melanoma-a-multi-institutional-study
#11
Duncan Berry, Michael Seider, Sandra Stinnett, Prithvi Mruthyunjaya, Amy C Schefler
PURPOSE: To study the relationship between gene expression profile subclass and clinical features in a multicenter cohort of patients with uveal melanoma. METHODS: A retrospective, multicenter study was undertaken with patients entered from nine major ocular oncology centers from across the United States. Eligible patients had uveal melanoma and underwent I-125 plaque brachytherapy with concurrent tumor biopsy with gene expression profile testing between January 1, 2010, and October 28, 2014...
March 23, 2018: Retina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29571108/effects-of-dietary-pb-and-cd-and-their-combination-on-lysosomal-and-tissue-level-biomarkers-and-histopathology-in-digestive-gland-of-the-land-snail-cantareus-apertus-born-1778
#12
Anwar Mleiki, Beñat Zaldibar, Urtzi Izagirre, Najoua Trigui El Menif, Ionan Marigómez
The present study was aimed at determining cell and tissue-level biomarkers and histopathological alterations in the green garden snail, Cantareus apertus (Born, 1778), exposed to different nominal dietary concentrations of Pb (25, 100 and 2500 mg Pb/kg), Cd (5, 10 and 100 mg Cd/kg) and their combination (25 mg Pb + 5 mg Cd/Kg, 100 mg Pb + 10 mg Cd/kg and 2500 mg Pb + 100 mg Cd/ kg) for 1 and 8 weeks. Lead and Cd exerted histopathological effects on the digestive gland in a dose-dependent manner and related to lysosomal and tissue-level biomarkers...
March 20, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29560601/spectral-characteristics-of-autofluorescence-in-renal-tissue-and-methods-for-reducing-fluorescence-background-in-confocal-laser-scanning-microscopy
#13
Yang Zhang, Yang Wang, Wei-Wei Cao, Ke-Tao Ma, Wei Ji, Zi-Wei Han, Jun-Qiang Si, Li Li
Significant autofluorescence (AF) of renal tissue is one of the major causes restricting the use of immunofluorescent staining. This study aimed at controlling renal tissue AF and testing an effective method for optimizing specific signals. In the present study, we observed emergence of strong AF in all renal cells under different fluorescent channels. Significant concentration-dependent reduction in AF of kidney tissue was observed with the use of sodium borohydride (NaBH4 ) and Sudan black B (SBB) alone (p < 0...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Fluorescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29557377/hyperhomocysteinemia-induces-injury-in-olfactory-bulb-neurons-by-downregulating-hes1-and-hes5-expression
#14
Jing-Wen Zhang, Bo Pang, Qi Zhao, Yue Chang, Yi-Li Wang, Yi-Deng Jiang, Li Jing
Hyperhomocysteinemia has been shown to be associated with neurodegenerative diseases; however, lesions or histological changes and mechanisms underlying homocysteine-induced injury in olfactory bulb neurons remain unclear. In this study, hyperhomocysteinemia was induced in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice with 1.7% methionine. Pathological changes in the olfactory bulb were observed through hematoxylin-eosin and Pischingert staining. Cell apoptosis in the olfactory bulb was determined through terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) staining...
February 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29542424/effect-of-short-term-quercetin-caloric-restriction-and-combined-treatment-on-oxidative-stress-parameters-acetylcholinesterase-and-atpases-enzyme-activities-in-the-cerebral-cortex-of-aged-rat-brain
#15
Phaniendra Alugoju, Vkd Krishan Swamy, Latha Periyasamy
Aging is characterized by gradual accumulation of macromolecular damage leading to progressive loss of physiological function and increased susceptibility to diverse diseases. Effective anti-aging strategies involving caloric restriction or antioxidant supplementation are receiving growing attention to attenuate macromolecular damage in age associated pathology. In the present study, we for the first time investigated the effect of quercetin, caloric restriction and combined treatment (caloric restriction with quercetin) on oxidative stress parameters, acetylcholinesterase and ATPases enzyme activities in the cerebral cortex of aged male wistar rat brain...
March 14, 2018: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29542350/pharmacotherapy-of-retinal-disease-with-visual-cycle-modulators
#16
Rehan M Hussain, Ninel Z Gregori, Thomas A Ciulla, Byron L Lam
Pharmacotherapy with visual cycle modulators (VCMs) is under investigation for retinitis pigmentosa (RP), Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA), Stargardt macular dystrophy (SMD) and nonexudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD), all blinding diseases that lack effective treatment options. Areas covered: The authors review investigational VCMs, including oral retinoids, 9-cis-retinyl-acetate (zuretinol) and 9-cis-β-carotene, which restore 11-cis-retinal levels in RP and LCA caused by LRAT and RPE65 gene mutations, and may improve visual acuity and visual fields...
March 15, 2018: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29541735/quercetin-3-o-%C3%AE-l-arabinopyranoside-protects-against-retinal-cell-death-via-blue-light-induced-damage-in-human-rpe-cells-and-balb-c-mice
#17
Jun Kim, Hong Lan Jin, Dae Sik Jang, Kwang Won Jeong, Se-Young Choung
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is among the increasing number of diseases causing irreversible blindness in the elderly. Dry AMD is characterized by the accumulation of lipofuscin in retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells. N-Retinylidene-N-retinylethanolamine (A2E), a component of lipofuscin, is oxidized to oxo-A2E under blue light illumination, leading to retinal cell death. The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effect and mechanism of quercetin-3-O-α-l-arabinopyranoside (QA) against blue light (BL)-induced damage in both RPE cells and mice models...
March 15, 2018: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29534722/rpe-phagocytic-function-declines-in-age-related-macular-degeneration-and-is-rescued-by-human-umbilical-tissue-derived-cells
#18
George Inana, Christopher Murat, Weijun An, Xiang Yao, Ian R Harris, Jing Cao
BACKGROUND: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a leading cause of blindness among the elderly characterized by retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) degeneration with accumulation of abnormal intracellular deposits (lipofuscin) and photoreceptor death. RPE is vital for the retina and integrity of photoreceptors through its phagocytic function which is closely linked to formation of lipofuscin through daily phagocytosis of discarded photoreceptor outer segments (POS). Although phagocytosis has been implicated in AMD, it has not been directly shown to be altered in AMD...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29534560/longevity-and-stress-resistant-property-of-6-gingerol-from-zingiber-officinale-roscoe-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#19
Eun Byeol Lee, Jun Hyeong Kim, Chang Wan An, Yeong Jee Kim, Yun Jeong Noh, Su Jin Kim, Ju-Eun Kim, Abinash Chandra Shrestha, Ha-Neul Ham, Jae-Yoon Leem, Hyung-Kwon Jo, Dae-Sung Kim, Kwang Hyun Moon, Jeong Ho Lee, Kyung Ok Jeong, Dae Keun Kim
In order to discover lifespan-extending compounds made from natural resources, activity-guided fractionation of Zingiber officinale Roscoe (Zingiberaceae) ethanol extract was performed using the Caenorhabditis elegans ( C. elegans ) model system. The compound 6-gingerol was isolated from the most active ethyl acetate soluble fraction, and showed potent longevity-promoting activity. It also elevated the survival rate of worms against stressful environment including thermal, osmotic, and oxidative conditions...
March 14, 2018: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29516258/hepatotoxic-responses-of-4-nonylphenol-on-african-catfish-clarias-gariepinus-antixoidant-and-histochemical-biomarkers
#20
Mahmoud Abd-Elkareem, Nasser S Abou Khalil, Alaa H Sayed
4-Nonylphenol (NP) toxicity in fish attracts much attention due to its ability in targeting several organs; however, the researches regarding its potential hepatotoxicity are conflicting and still require further investigation. Therefore, the objective of this study is to focus on this issue from the histophysiological point of view using NP intoxicated African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) as a model of hepatotoxicity. Twelve adult fish (6 per group) were divided into two groups; the first was considered as a control and the second was exposed to NP dissolved in water at a dose of 0...
March 7, 2018: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
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