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Fatty acid synthase

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098516/germacrone-attenuates-hyperlipidemia-and-improves-lipid-metabolism-in-high-fat-diet-induced-obese-c57bl-6j-mice
#1
Yuan-Ri Guo, Se-Young Choung
We previously showed that Aster spathulifolius Maxim extract (ASE) reduced body weight gain and serum and liver lipid levels and significantly suppressed serum insulin and leptin concentrations in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese rats. Germacrone (GM) was identified as a potent bioactive constituent of ASE. In this study, we hypothesized that GM can attenuate hyperlipidemia by alleviating fatty acid (FA) synthesis/uptake and improve lipid metabolism by stimulating FA β-oxidation in HFD-induced obese C57BL/6J mice...
January 2017: Journal of Medicinal Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088781/mir-30c-5p-ameliorates-hepatic-steatosis-in-leptin-receptor-deficient-db-db-mice-via-down-regulating-fasn
#2
Jiahui Fan, Huaping Li, Xiang Nie, Zhongwei Yin, Yanru Zhao, Chen Chen, Dao Wen Wang
Approximately 15-40% of the general adult population suffers from non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) worldwide. However, no drug is currently licensed for its treatment. In this study, we observed a significant reduction of miR-30c-5p in the liver of leptin receptor-deficient (db/db) mice. Remarkably, recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV)-mediated delivery of miR-30c-5p was sufficient to attenuate triglyceride accumulation and hepatic steatosis in db/db mice. Through computational prediction, KEGG analysis and Ago2 co-immunoprecipitation, we identified that miR-30c-5p directly targeted fatty acid synthase, a key enzyme in fatty acid biosynthesis...
January 9, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088385/flavonoid-derivative-fla-cn-inhibited-adipocyte-differentiation-via-activating-ampk-and-up-regulating-microrna-27-in-3t3-l1-cells
#3
Chun-Chun Gan, Tian-Wen Ni, Yang Yu, Nan Qin, Ying Chen, Mei-Na Jin, Hong-Quan Duan
Fla-CN (3-O-[(E)-4-(4-cyanophenyl)-2-oxobut-3-en-1-yl] kaempferol) is a semi-synthesized flavonoid derivative of tiliroside which exhibited anti-diabetic effect in vivo. Our previous study revealed the role of Fla-CN in anti-obesity and anti-diabetes in vivo, but the underlying mechanism remained to be addressed. The present study aimed to investigate the mechanism of anti-adipogenesis in vitro. Fla-CN markedly inhibited intracellular lipid accumulation in a dose-dependent manner, and the inhibitory effect was mainly limited to the early stage of adipocyte differentiation in vitro...
January 11, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088260/korean-chungtaejeon-tea-extract-attenuates-body-weight-gain-in-c57bl-6j-lep-ob-ob-mice-and-regulates-adipogenesis-and-lipolysis-in-3t3-l1-adipocytes
#4
Bhesh Raj Sharma, Dong Wook Kim, Dong Young Rhyu
OBJECTIVE: Traditional Korean Chungtaejeon (CTJ) tea is a type of fermented tea, which has received increasing attention in recent years because of its purported health benefits. The present study was designed to investigate the effect and mechanism of CTJ tea extract on body weight gain using C57BL/6J-Lep ob/ob mice and 3T3-L1 adipocytes, respectively. METHODS: The effects of CTJ on cell viability, lipid accumulation, and expression of protein and mRNA were measured in 3T3-L1 adipocytes by using 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide, oil red O staining, Western blotting, and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analyses...
January 2017: Journal of Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087695/novel-interconnections-in-lipid-metabolism-revealed-by-overexpression-of-sphingomyelin-synthase-1
#5
Gergana M Deevska, Patrick P Dotson, Alexander A Karakashian, Giorgis Isaac, Mark Wrona, Samuel B Kelly, Alfred H Merrill, Mariana N Nikolova-Karakashian
This study investigates the consequences of elevating sphingomyelin synthase 1 (SMS1) activity, which generates the main mammalian sphingolipid, sphingomyelin. HepG2 cells stably transfected with SMS1 (HepG2-SMS1), exhibit elevated enzyme activity in vitro and increased sphingomyelin content (mainly C22:0- and C24:0-sphingomyelin), but lower hexosylceramide (Hex-Cer) levels. HepG2-SMS1 cells have less triacylglycerols than controls but similar diacylglycerol acyltransferase activity, triacylglycerol secretion, and mitochondrial function...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081221/dietary-lipid-sources-influence-fatty-acid-composition-in-tissue-of-large-yellow-croaker-larmichthys-crocea-by-regulating-triacylglycerol-synthesis-and-catabolism-at-the-transcriptional-level
#6
Hong Qiu, Min Jin, Yi Li, You Lu, Yingmei Hou, Qicun Zhou
An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary lipid sources on growth performance, fatty acid composition, rate-limiting enzyme activities and gene expression related to lipid metabolism in large yellow croaker (Larmichthys crocea). Five iso-nitrogenous and iso-lipidic experimental diets were formulated to contain different lipid sources, such as fish oil (FO), soybean oil (SO), linseed oil (LO), rapeseed oil (RO) and peanut oil (PO), respectively. Triplicate groups of 50 fish (initial weight 13...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081181/aronia-melanocarpa-extract-ameliorates-hepatic-lipid-metabolism-through-ppar%C3%AE-2-downregulation
#7
Chung-Hwa Park, Jung-Hee Kim, Eun Byul Lee, Wonhee Hur, Oh-Joo Kwon, Hyoung-Jin Park, Seung Kew Yoon
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome. Studies have demonstrated that anthocyanin-rich foods may improve hyperlipidemia and ameliorate hepatic steatosis. Here, effects of Aronia melanocarpa (AM), known to be rich of anthocyanins, on hepatic lipid metabolism and adipogenic genes were determined. AM was treated to C57BL/6N mice fed with high fat diet (HFD) or to FL83B cells treated with free fatty acid (FFA). Changes in levels of lipids, enzymes and hormones were observed, and expressions of adipogenic genes involved in hepatic lipid metabolism were detected by PCR, Western blotting and luciferase assay...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074608/aged-garlic-extract-suppresses-the-increase-of-plasma-glycated-albumin-level-and-enhances-the-amp-activated-protein-kinase-in-adipose-tissue-in-tsod-mice
#8
Satomi Miki, Ken-Ichi Inokuma, Miyuki Takashima, Mitsuho Nishida, Yoko Sasaki, Mitsuyasu Ushijima, Jun-Ichiro Suzuki, Naoaki Morihara
SCOPE: In this study, we investigated the effect of aged garlic extract (AGE) on the high level of blood glucose in Tsumura Suzuki Obese-Diabetes (TSOD) mice. METHODS AND RESULTS: TSOD mice were fed standard diet with or without 2% AGE for 19 weeks. AGE treatment lowered the blood glucose level and significantly reduced the plasma level of glycated albumin in TSOD mice as compared with those without AGE treatment. In addition, AGE treatment increased the level of phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in the adipose tissue, liver and muscle that played an important role in the maintenance of insulin sensitivity...
January 11, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071706/fatty-acid-synthase-2-contributes-to-diapause-preparation-in-a-beetle-by-regulating-lipid-accumulation-and-stress-tolerance-genes-expression
#9
Qian-Qian Tan, Wen Liu, Fen Zhu, Chao-Liang Lei, Xiao-Ping Wang
Diapause, also known as dormancy, is a state of arrested development that allows insects to survive unfavorable environmental conditions. Diapause-destined insects store large amounts of fat when preparing for diapause. However, the extent to which these accumulated fat reserves influence diapause remains unclear. To address this question, we investigated the function of fatty acid synthase (FAS), which plays a central role in lipid synthesis, in stress tolerance, the duration of diapause preparation, and whether insects enter diapause or not...
January 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070532/evaluation-of-scd-and-fasn-gene-expression-in-baluchi-iran-black-and-arman-sheep
#10
Salmani Izadi Mohammad, Naserian Abbas Ali, Nasiri Mohammad Reza, Majidzadeh Heravi Reza, Valizadeh Reza
BACKGROUND: With the increasing concern for health and nutrition, dietary fat has attracted considerable attention. The composition of fatty acids in the diet is important because they are associated with major diseases including cancers, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. The fatty acid synthase (FASN) and stearoyl-CoA desaturase (delta-9-desaturase) (SCD) genes affect fatty acid composition (1). The expression of SCD and FASN genes is related to an increase in conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in dairy products, which benefits human health...
October 2016: Reports of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061399/transcriptome-sequencing-and-metabolic-pathways-of-astaxanthin-accumulated-in-haematococcus-pluvialis-mutant-under-15-co2
#11
Jun Cheng, Ke Li, Yanxia Zhu, Weijuan Yang, Junhu Zhou, Kefa Cen
Transcriptome sequencing and annotation was performed on Haematococcus pluvialis mutant red cells induced with high light under 15% CO2 to demonstrate why astaxanthin yield of the mutant was 1.7 times higher than that of a wild strain. It was found that 56% of 1947 differentially expressed genes were upregulated in mutant cells. Most significant differences were found in unigenes related to photosynthesis, carotenoid biosynthesis and fatty acid biosynthesis pathways. The pyruvate kinase increased by 3.5-fold in mutant cells...
December 24, 2016: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060484/a-highly-promiscuous-%C3%A3-ketoacyl-acp-synthase-kas-iii-like-protein-is-involved-in-pactamycin-biosynthesis
#12
Mostafa E Abugrain, Corey J Brumsted, Andrew R Osborn, Benjamin Philmus, Taifo Mahmud
β-Ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein (β-Ketoacyl-ACP) synthase (KAS) III catalyzes the first step in fatty acid biosynthesis, involving a Claisen condensation of the acetyl-CoA starter unit with the first extender unit, malonyl-ACP, to form acetoacetyl-ACP. KAS III-like proteins have also been reported to catalyze acyltransferase reactions using coenzyme A esters or discrete ACP-bound substrates. Here, we report the in vivo and in vitro characterizations of a KAS III-like protein (PtmR), which directly transfers a 6-methylsalicylyl moiety from an iterative type I polyketide synthase to an aminocyclopentitol unit in pactamycin biosynthesis...
January 12, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045971/anti-diabetic-effects-of-jiang-tang-xiao-ke-granule-via-pi3k-akt-signalling-pathway-in-type-2-diabetes-kkay-mice
#13
Na Yu, Xin Fang, Dandan Zhao, Qianqian Mu, Jiacheng Zuo, Yue Ma, Yi Zhang, Fangfang Mo, Dongwei Zhang, Guangjian Jiang, Rui Wu, Sihua Gao
Jiang Tang Xiao Ke (JTXK) granule, a Chinese herbal formula, has been used clinically to treat type 2 diabetes (T2DM) for decades. Our previous studies showed that JTXK granule exhibited anti-diabetic and anti-oxidative functions in experimental diabetic rats induced by a high fat diet and streptozotocin. However, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Herein, we aimed to investigate the therapeutic effect of JTXK granule on T2DM KKAy mice and the possible associations with skeletal muscle in the current study...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045125/metabolic-heterogeneity-of-activated-beige-brite-adipocytes-in-inguinal-adipose-tissue
#14
Yun-Hee Lee, Sang-Nam Kim, Hyun-Jung Kwon, James G Granneman
Sustained β3 adrenergic receptor (ADRB3) activation simultaneously upregulates fatty acid synthesis and oxidation in mouse brown, beige, and white adipose tissues; however, the cellular basis of this dual regulation is not known. Treatment of mice with the ADRB3 agonist CL316,243 (CL) increased expression of fatty acid synthase (FASN) and medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) protein within the same cells in classic brown and white adipose tissues. Surprisingly, in inguinal adipose tissue, CL-upregulated FASN and MCAD in distinct cell populations: high MCAD expression occurred in multilocular adipocytes that co-expressed UCP1+, whereas high FASN expression occurred in paucilocular adipocytes lacking detectable UCP1...
January 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045020/structural-characterisation-of-the-fatty-acid-biosynthesis-enzyme-fabf-from-the-pathogen-listeria-monocytogenes
#15
Tatiana P Soares da Costa, Jeffrey D Nanson, Jade K Forwood
Development of new antimicrobial agents is required against the causative agent for listeriosis, Listeria monocytogenes, as the number of drug resistant strains continues to increase. A promising target is the β-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein synthase FabF, which participates in the catalysis of fatty acid synthesis and elongation, and is required for the production of phospholipid membranes, lipoproteins, and lipopolysaccharides. In this study, we report the 1.35 Å crystal structure of FabF from L. monocytogenes, providing an excellent platform for the rational design of novel inhibitors...
January 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044276/antimicrobial-potential-and-taxonomic-investigation-of-piezotolerant-streptomyces-sp-niot-ch-40-isolated-from-deep-sea-sediment
#16
Vishnu Priya Padmanaban, Pankaj Verma, Srividhyalakshmi Venkatabaskaran, Thirupathi Keppayan, Dharani Gopal, Ashok Kumar Sekar, Kirubagaran Ramalingam
Microbial-derived natural products from extreme niches such as deepsea are known to possess structural and functional novelty. With this background, the present study was designed to investigate the bioprospecting potential and systematics of a deep-sea derived piezotolerant bacterial strain NIOT-Ch-40, showing affiliation to the genus Streptomyces based on 16S RNA gene similarity. Preliminary screening for the presence of biosynthetic genes like polyketide synthase I, polyketide synthase II, non ribosomal peptide synthase, 3-amino-5-hydroxybenzoic acid synthase and spiroindimicin followed by antibacterial activity testing confirmed the presence of potent bioactivity...
February 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035926/pleiotropic-effect-of-human-apoe4-on-cerebral-ceramide-and-saturated-fatty-acid-levels
#17
Sandra den Hoedt, Carola I F Janssen, Guiseppe Astarita, Daniele Piomelli, Frank P J Leijten, Simone M Crivelli, Adrie J M Verhoeven, Helga E de Vries, Jochen Walter, Pilar Martinez-Martinez, Eric J G Sijbrands, Amanda J Kiliaan, Monique T Mulder
BACKGROUND: Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) is known for its role in lipid trafficking and the ɛ4 allele is a risk factor for late onset Alzheimer's disease (AD). Recently, aberrant ceramide and fatty acid (FA) levels have been implicated in AD. OBJECTIVE: To determine the specific effects of human ApoE4 (hE4) on cerebral ceramide and FA content during chow or a high fat/high cholesterol (HFHC) diet. METHODS: Cerebral ceramide and FA profiles were determined by LC-MSMS in 15-month-old female wild-type (WT), ApoE-knockout (E0), and hE4-knockin mice fed chow or a HFHC diet for 3 months...
December 30, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027934/histone-modifications-in-fasn-modulated-by-sterol-regulatory-element-binding-protein-1c-and-carbohydrate-responsive-element-binding-protein-under-insulin-stimulation-are-related-to-nafld
#18
Wei Shen, Xuan Du, Can Cai, Jialing Yao, Youping Zhou, Huihong Yu
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and its causal factors of hepatic insulin resistance (IR) and type 2 diabetes are rapidly growing worldwide. Developing new therapeutic methods for these conditions requires a comprehensive understanding between hepatic lipid metabolism and IR. Sterol regulatory element-binding transcription factor 1c (SREBP-1c) and carbohydrate responsive-element binding protein (ChREBP) are the major regulators of fatty acid synthase (FASN), a key enzyme of de novo fatty acid synthesis...
December 24, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012026/role-of-cyclooxygenase-mediated-metabolites-in-lipid-metabolism-and-expression-of-some-immune-related-genes-in-juvenile-grass-carp-ctenopharyngodon-idellus-fed-arachidonic-acid
#19
Jing-Jing Tian, Cai-Xia Lei, Hong Ji, Ai Jin
Cyclooxygenase (COX) catalyzes the conversion of arachidonic acid (ARA) to prostaglandins, and COX-mediated metabolites play important roles in the regulation of lipid metabolism and immunity in mammals. However, such roles of COX in fish remain largely unknown. In this study, we designed three semi-purified diets, namely ARA-free (control), ARA, and ARA + acetylsalicylic acid (ASA; a COX inhibitor), and used them to feed grass carp (27.65 ± 3.05 g) for 8 weeks. The results showed that dietary ARA significantly increased the amount of ARA in the hepatopancreas, muscle, and kidney (P < 0...
December 23, 2016: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007957/molecular-portrait-of-metastasis-competent-circulating-tumor-cells-in-colon-cancer-reveals-the-crucial-role-of-genes-regulating-energy-metabolism-and-dna-repair
#20
Catherine Alix-Panabières, Laure Cayrefourcq, Thibault Mazard, Thierry Maudelonde, Eric Assenat, Said Assou
BACKGROUND: Unraveling the molecular mechanisms that regulate the biology of metastasis-competent circulating tumor cells (CTCs) is urgently needed to understand metastasis formation and tumor relapse. Our group previously established the first cell line (CTC-MCC-41) derived from metastasis-competent CTCs of a patient with colon cancer. METHODS: In this study, we analyzed the transcriptome of CTC-MCC-41 cells using Human Genome U133 Plus 2.0 microarrays with the aim of unraveling the molecular basis of their special features (stem cell properties and ability to initiate and support metastasis formation)...
December 22, 2016: Clinical Chemistry
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