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Fatty acid synthase

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918556/effects-of-fatty-acid-synthase-inhibitors-on-lymphatic-vessels-an-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-study-in-a-melanoma-model
#1
Débora C Bastos, Jenny Paupert, Catherine Maillard, Fabiana Seguin, Marco A Carvalho, Michelle Agostini, Ricardo D Coletta, Agnès Noël, Edgard Graner
Fatty acid synthase (FASN) is responsible for the endogenous production of fatty acids from acetyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA. Its overexpression is associated with poor prognosis in human cancers including melanomas. Our group has previously shown that the inhibition of FASN with orlistat reduces spontaneous lymphatic metastasis in experimental B16-F10 melanomas, which is a consequence, at least in part, of the reduction of proliferation and induction of apoptosis. Here, we sought to investigate the effects of pharmacological FASN inhibition on lymphatic vessels by using cell culture and mouse models...
December 5, 2016: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913740/a-%C3%AE-ketoacyl-coa-synthase-is-involved-in-rice-leaf-cuticular-wax-synthesis-and-requires-a-cer2-like-protein-as-a-cofactor
#2
Xiaochen Wang, Yuanyuan Guan, Du Zhang, Xiangbai Dong, Lihong Tian, Le Qing Qu
Cuticular waxes are complex mixtures of very-long-chain fatty acids (VLCFAs) and their derivatives, forming a natural barrier on aerial surfaces of terrestrial plants against biotic and abiotic stresses. In VLCFA biosynthesis, β-ketoacyl-CoA synthase (KCS) is the key enzyme, catalyzing the first reaction in fatty acid elongation and determining substrate specificity. We isolated a rice (Oryza sativa L.) wax crystal-sparse leaf 4 (WSL4) gene using a map-based cloning strategy. WSL4 is predicted to encode a KCS, a homolog of Arabidopsis CER6...
December 2, 2016: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911258/clostridium-guangxiense-sp-nov-and-clostridium-neuense-sp-nov-two-phylogenetically-closely-related-hydrogen-producing-species-isolated-from-lake-sediment
#3
Xin Zhao, Danyang Li, Shuhong Xu, Zhanghao Guo, Yan Zhang, Lin Man, Binhui Jiang, Xiaomin Hu
Two novel anaerobic, mesophilic, bio-hydrogen producing bacteria, designated strains ZGM211T and G1T, were isolated from lake sediment. 16S rRNA and ATP synthase beta subunit (atpD) gene sequences phylogenetic analysis of strains ZGM211T and G1T revealed an affiliation to the genus Clostridium sensu stricto (cluster I of the clostridia), with Clostridium acetobutylicum as the closest characterized species, showing the same sequence similarity of 96.4% to the type strain (98.9% between the two isolates). Cells of the two strains were rod-shaped...
December 1, 2016: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910769/anti-inflammatory-activity-of-biomass-extracts-of-the-bay-mushroom-imleria-badia-agaricomycetes-in-raw-264-7-cells
#4
Agata Grzywacz, Joanna Gdula Argasinska, Katarzyna Kala, Wlodzimierz Opoka, Bozena Muszynska
The popular edible bay mushroom, Imleria badia, is rich in phenolic and indole compounds, unsaturated fatty acids, and elements that have anti-inflammatory activity, including zinc. The aim of this study was to evaluate the pro- or anti-inflammatory impact of I. badia biomass extracts on RAW 264.7 cells. We analyzed the influence of I. badia extracts and/or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) cotreatment on the fatty acid profile of cell membranes. We also analyzed cyclooxygenase-2, prostaglandin E synthase, glutathione S transferase Mul, and nuclear factor (NF)-κB p50 and p65 protein expression, as well as the activity of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ and NF-κB transcription factors...
2016: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907035/exendin-4-inhibits-hepatic-lipogenesis-by-increasing-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling
#5
Mi Hae Seo, Jinmi Lee, Seok-Woo Hong, Eun-Jung Rhee, Se Eun Park, Cheol Young Park, Ki Won Oh, Sung Woo Park, Won-Young Lee
The aim of this study is to investigate whether the beneficial effect of exendin-4 on hepatic steatosis is mediated by β-catenin signaling. After the HepG2 human hepatoma cells were treated with PA for 24 hours, total triglycerides levels were increased in a dose-dependent manner, and the expression levels of perilipin family members were upregulated in cells treated with 400 μM PA. For our in vitro model of hepatic steatosis, HepG2 cells were treated with 400 μM palmitic acid (PA) in the presence or absence of 100 nM exendin-4 for 24 hours...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906631/mitochondrial-purine-and-pyrimidine-metabolism-and-beyond
#6
Liya Wang
Carefully balanced deoxynucleoside triphosphate (dNTP) pools are essential for both nuclear and mitochondrial genome replication and repair. Two synthetic pathways operate in cells to produce dNTPs, e.g., the de novo and the salvage pathways. The key regulatory enzymes for de novo synthesis are ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) and thymidylate synthase (TS), and this process is considered to be cytosolic. The salvage pathway operates both in the cytosol (TK1 and dCK) and the mitochondria (TK2 and dGK). Mitochondrial dNTP pools are separated from the cytosolic ones owing to the double membrane structure of the mitochondria, and are formed by the salvage enzymes TK2 and dGK together with NMPKs and NDPK in postmitotic tissues, while in proliferating cells the mitochondrial dNTPs are mainly imported from the cytosol produced by the cytosolic pathways...
December 2016: Nucleosides, Nucleotides & Nucleic Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905606/a-qm-mm-study-of-the-reaction-mechanism-of-human-%C3%AE-ketoacyl-reductase
#7
Fabiola E Medina, Rui P P Neves, Maria J Ramos, Pedro A Fernandes
Human fatty acid synthase (hFAS) is a multifunctional enzyme involved in a wide diversity of biological functions. For instance, it is a precursor of phospholipids and other complex processes such as the de novo synthesis of long chain fatty acid. Human FAS is also a component of biological membranes and it is implicated in the overexpression of several types of cancers. In this work, we describe the catalytic mechanism of β-ketoreductase (KR), which is a catalytic domain of the hFAS enzyme that catalyzes the reduction of β-ketoacyl to β-hydroxyacyl with the concomitant oxidation of the NADPH cofactor...
December 1, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903831/dietary-mung-bean-protein-reduces-hepatic-steatosis-fibrosis-and-inflammation-in-male-mice-with-diet-induced-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#8
Hitoshi Watanabe, Yuka Inaba, Kumi Kimura, Shun-Ichiro Asahara, Yoshiaki Kido, Michihiro Matsumoto, Takayasu Motoyama, Nobuhiko Tachibana, Shuichi Kaneko, Mitsutaka Kohno, Hiroshi Inoue
BACKGROUND: As the prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), including steatosis and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, is increasing, novel dietary approaches are required for the prevention and treatment of NAFLD. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the potential of mung bean protein isolate (MuPI) to prevent NAFLD progression. METHODS: In Expts. 1 and 2, the hepatic triglyceride (TG) concentration was compared between 8-wk-old male mice fed a high-fat diet (61% of energy from fat) containing casein, MuPI, and soy protein isolate and an MuPI-constituent amino acid mixture as a source of amino acids (18% of energy) for 4 wk...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903451/fatty-acid-synthase-plays-a-positive-role-in-shrimp-immune-responses-against-vibrio-parahaemolyticus-infection
#9
Hongliang Zuo, Jiefeng Gao, Jia Yuan, Hengwei Deng, Linwei Yang, Shaoping Weng, Jianguo He, Xiaopeng Xu
Fatty acid synthase (FAS) is an important enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of fatty acids. In this study, the role of the FAS gene from pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (LvFAS) in immune responses against Vibrio parahaemolyticus infection was studied. The expression of LvFAS could be up-regulated upon infection of V. parahaemolyticus and stimulation of lipopolysaccharide and poly (I:C). The promoter of LvFAS was predicted to harbor a NF-κB binding site and dual-luciferase reporter assays demonstrated that the NF-κB family proteins Relish, sRelish and Dorsal could activate the transcription of LvFAS...
November 27, 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902927/antidiabetic-activity-of-ganoderma-lucidum-polysaccharides-f31-down-regulated-hepatic-glucose-regulatory-enzymes-in-diabetic-mice
#10
Chun Xiao, Qingping Wu, Jumei Zhang, Yizhen Xie, Wen Cai, Jianbin Tan
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Ganoderma lucidum (Lin Zhi) has been used to treat diabetes in Chinese folk for centuries. Our laboratory previously demonstrated that Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides (GLPs) had hypoglycemic effects in diabetic mice. Our aim was to identify the main bioactives in GLPs and corresponding mechanism of action. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Four polysaccharide-enriched fraction were isolated from GLPs and the antidiabetic activities were evaluated by type 2 diabetic mice...
November 27, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901292/differential-in-radiosensitizing-potency-of-enantiomers-of-the-fatty-acid-synthase-inhibitor-c75
#11
Colin Rae, John W Babich, Robert J Mairs
The elevated activity of fatty acid synthase has been reported in a number of cancer types. Inhibition of this enzyme has been demonstrated to induce cancer cell death and reduce tumor growth. In addition, the fatty acid synthase inhibitor drug C75 has been reported to synergistically enhance the cancer-killing ability of ionizing radiation. However, clinical use of C75 has been limited due to its producing weight loss, believed to be caused by alterations in the activity of carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1...
November 30, 2016: Chirality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899996/quantitative-label-free-mass-spectrometry-analysis-of-formalin-fixed-paraffin-embedded-tissue-representing-the-invasive-cutaneous-malignant-melanoma-proteome
#12
Paul Dowling, Benvon Moran, Edel McAuley, Paula Meleady, Michael Henry, Martin Clynes, Mairin McMenamin, Niamh Leonard, Mary Monks, Bairbre Wynne, Patrick Ormond, Annemarie Larkin
Understanding the events at a protein level that govern the progression from melanoma in situ to invasive melanoma are important areas of current research to be developed. Recent advances in the analysis of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue by proteomics, particularly using the filter-aided sample preparation protocol, has opened up the possibility of studying vast archives of clinical material and associated medical records. In the present study, quantitative protein profiling was performed using tandem mass spectrometry, and the proteome differences between melanoma in situ and invasive melanoma were compared...
November 2016: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889747/alisol-a-24-acetate-prevents-hepatic-steatosis-and-metabolic-disorders-in-hepg2-cells
#13
Lu Zeng, WaiJiao Tang, JinJin Yin, LiJuan Feng, Yabing Li, Xiaorui Yao, BenJie Zhou
BACKGROUND: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is closely associated with metabolic disorders including hepatic lipid accumulation and inflammation. Alisol A 24-acetate, a triterpene from Alismatis rhizome, has multiple biologic activities such as hypolipidemic, anti-inflammatory and anti-diabetic. Thus we hypothesized that Alisol A 24 -acetate would have effect on NAFLD. The present study was conducted to investigate the therapeutic effects and potential mechanisms of Alisol A 24-acetate against hepatic steatosis in a free fatty acids (FFAs) induced NAFLD cell model...
November 25, 2016: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887615/developing-a-set-of-strong-intronic-promoters-for-robust-metabolic-engineering-in-oleaginous-rhodotorula-rhodosporidium-yeast-species
#14
Yanbin Liu, Sihui Amy Yap, Chong Mei John Koh, Lianghui Ji
BACKGROUND: Red yeast species in the Rhodotorula/Rhodosporidium genus are outstanding producers of triacylglyceride and cell biomass. Metabolic engineering is expected to further enhance the productivity and versatility of these hosts for the production of biobased chemicals and fuels. Promoters with strong activity during oil-accumulation stage are critical tools for metabolic engineering of these oleaginous yeasts. RESULTS: The upstream DNA sequences of 6 genes involved in lipid biosynthesis or accumulation in Rhodotorula toruloides were studied by luciferase reporter assay...
November 25, 2016: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884752/quantitative-proteomic-analysis-reveals-that-proteins-required-for-fatty-acid-metabolism-may-serve-as-diagnostic-markers-for-gastric-cancer
#15
Zhen Jiang, Hongchun Shen, Bo Tang, Qin Yu, Xingli Ji, Li Wang
BACKGROUND: Gastric cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths worldwide. The sensitivities and specificities of current biomarkers for gastric cancer are insufficient for clinical detection, and new diagnostic tests are therefore urgently required. METHODS: A discovery set of gastric cancer and adjacent normal tissues were analyzed for differentially expressed proteins by labeling of peptide digests with isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) reagents followed by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry...
November 21, 2016: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881717/localization-of-1-deoxysphingolipids-to-mitochondria-induces-mitochondrial-dysfunction
#16
Irina Alecu, Andrea Tedeschi, Natascha Behler, Klaus Wunderling, Christian Lamberz, Mario A R Lauterbach, Anne Gaebler, Daniela Ernst, Paul P Van Veldhoven, Ashraf Al-Amoudi, Eicke Latz, Alaa Othman, Lars Kuerschner, Thorsten Hornemann, Frank Bradke, Christoph Thiele, Anke Penno
1-Deoxysphingolipids (deoxySLs) are atypical sphingolipids that are elevated in the plasma of patients with type 2 diabetes and hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type 1 (HSAN1). Clinically, diabetic neuropathy and HSAN1 are very similar, suggesting the involvement of deoxySLs in the pathology of both diseases. However, very little is known about the biology of these lipids and the underlying pathomechanism. We synthesized an alkyne analogue of 1-deoxysphinganine (doxSA), the metabolic precursor of all deoxySLs, to trace the metabolism and localization of deoxySLs...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868251/dietary-linseed-oil-in-the-maternal-diet-affects-immunoglobulins-tissue-fatty-acid-composition-and-expression-of-lipid-metabolism-related-genes-in-piglets
#17
X L Chen, N Wang, M L Tian, L Wang, T Liu, X W Zhang, B M Shi, A S Shan
This experiment investigated the effects of supplementing the maternal diet with linseed oil (LSO) and soya bean oil (SBO) on immunoglobulins, the fatty acid composition and hepatic expression of lipid metabolism-related genes in piglets. Multiparous sows (twenty-four per diet) were fed on diets containing a supplement of either SBO or LSO during last week of gestation and lactation. The results indicated that supplementation of maternal diet with LSO could improve the weaning weight of piglets and average daily gain (ADG) (p < 0...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867934/a-comparison-of-molecular-biology-mechanism-of-shewanella-putrefaciens-between-fresh-and-terrestrial-sewage-wastewater
#18
Jiajie Xu, Weina He, Zhonghua Wang, Dijun Zhang, Jing Sun, Jun Zhou, Yanyan Li, Xiurong Su
Municipal and industrial wastewater is often discharged into the environment without appropriate treatment, especially in developing countries. As a result, many rivers and oceans are contaminated. It is urgent to control and administer treatments to these contaminated rivers and oceans. However, most mechanisms of bacterial colonization in contaminated rivers and oceans were unknown, especially in sewage outlets. We found Shewanella putrefaciens to be the primary bacteria in the terrestrial sewage wastewater outlets around Ningbo City, China...
2016: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867269/platyphylloside-isolated-from-betula-platyphylla-inhibit-adipocyte-differentiation-and-induce-lipolysis-via-regulating-adipokines-including-ppar%C3%AE-in-3t3-l1-cells
#19
Mina Lee, Sang Hyun Sung
BACKGROUND: Obesity causes or aggravates many health problems, both independently and in association with several pathological disorders, including Type II diabetes, hypertension, atherosclerosis, and cancer. Therefore, we screened small compounds isolated from natural products for the development of anti-obesity drugs. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the anti-adipogenic activities of platyphylloside, diarylheptanoid isolated from Betula platyphylla, which was selected based on the screening using 3T3-L1 cells...
October 2016: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865350/the-fruit-of-acanthopanax-senticosus-rupr-et-maxim-harms-improves-insulin-resistance-and-hepatic-lipid-accumulation-by-modulation-of-liver-adenosine-monophosphate-activated-protein-kinase-activity-and-lipogenic-gene-expression-in-high-fat-diet-fed-obese-mice
#20
Tetsuo Saito, Miyako Nishida, Masafumi Saito, Akari Tanabe, Takahiro Eitsuka, Shi-Hua Yuan, Nobuo Ikekawa, Hiroshi Nishida
Obesity-associated insulin resistance is a major risk factor for most metabolic diseases, including dyslipidemia and type 2 diabetes. Acanthopanax senticosus (Rupr. et Maxim.) Harms (Goka) root has been used in traditional Chinese medicine for treatment of diabetes and other conditions; however, little is known about the effects of Goka fruit (GF). Goka fruit is rich in anthocyanin, which has beneficial effects on obesity and insulin resistance via activation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK)...
October 2016: Nutrition Research
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