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Fatty acid synthase

Qiang Wang, Xia Du, Bingjie Zhou, Jing Li, Wenlong Lu, Qiuyun Chen, Jing Gao
Targeting cellular metabolism is becoming a hallmark to overcome drug resistance in breast cancer treatment. Activation of fatty acid synthase (FASN) has been shown to promote breast cancer cell growth. However, there is no concrete report underlying the mechanism associated with mitochondrial dysfunction in relation to fatty acid synthase inhibition-induced apoptosis in breast cancer cells. The current study is aimed at exploring the effect of the novel manganese (Mn) complex, labeled as PdpaMn, on lipid metabolism and mitochondrial function in breast cancer cells...
October 11, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Gustavo M Calderón-Fernández, Débora E Moriconi, Andrea B Dulbecco, M Patricia Juárez
The insect integument, formed by the cuticle and the underlying epidermis, is essential for insect fitness, regulation of lipid biosynthesis and storage, insect growth and feeding, together with development progress. Its participation in insecticide resistance has also been outlined. Triatoma infestans Klug (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) is one of the major vectors of Chagas disease in South America; however, genomic data are scarce. In this study, we performed a transcriptome analysis of the nymph integument in order to identify which genes are expressed and their putative role...
September 27, 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
X P Wan, P Xie, Z Bu, X T Zou
This study aimed to evaluate the hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism-related parameters of adult male and female White King pigeons (Columba livia) during incubation and chick rearing. At day 4 (I4), 10 (I10) and 17 (I17) of incubation and day 1 (R1), 7 (R7), 15 (R15) and 25 (R25) of chick rearing, livers were sampled from six pigeons for each sex. Glycogen and fat contents, activities of glycolytic enzymes (hexokinase, HK; 6-phosphofructokinase, 6-PFK), and genes expressions of key enzymes involved in glycolysis (pyruvate kinase, PK; glucokinase, GK), gluconeogenesis (phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase cytosolic, PCK1; fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase, FBP1; glucose-6-phosphatase, G6Pase), fatty acid synthesis (fatty acid synthase, FAS; acetyl-CoA carboxylase, ACC) and fatty acid β-oxidation (carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1, CPT1; acyl-CoA 1, ACO) were measured...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
Friederike M C Benning, Yusuke Sakiyama, Adam Mazur, Habib S T Bukhari, Roderick Y H Lim, Timm Maier
Multienzymes, such as the protein metazoan fatty acid synthase (FAS), are giant and highly dynamic molecular machines for critical biosynthetic processes. The molecular architecture of FAS was elucidated by static high-resolution crystallographic analysis, while electron microscopy revealed large-scale conformational variability in FAS with some correlation to functional states in catalysis. However, little is known about time scales of conformational dynamics, the trajectory of motions in individual FAS molecules and the extent of coupling between catalysis and structural changes...
October 12, 2017: ACS Nano
Renata A C Silva, Andréa F Gonçalves, Priscila P Dos Santos, Bruna Rafacho, Renan F T Claro, Marcos F Minicucci, Paula S Azevedo, Bertha F Polegato, Silméia G Zanati, Ana Angélica Fernandes, Sergio A R Paiva, Leonardo A M Zornoff
BACKGROUND/AIMS: This study aimed to discern whether the cardiac alterations caused by retinoic acid (RA) in normal adult rats are physiologic or pathologic. METHODS AND RESULTS: Wistar rats were assigned into four groups: control animals (C, n = 20) received a standard rat chow; animals fed a diet supplemented with 0.3 mg/kg/day all-trans-RA (AR1, n = 20); animals fed a diet supplemented with 5 mg/kg/day all-trans-RA (AR2, n = 20); and animals fed a diet supplemented with 10 mg/kg/day all-trans-RA (AR3, n = 20)...
October 11, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Min Wang, Yanming Chen, Zhaojun Xiong, Shujie Yu, Bin Zhou, Yesheng Ling, Zhenda Zheng, Guangyao Shi, Yongxiang Wu, Xiaoxian Qian
Free fatty acids (FFAs) increase in visceral fat and are inferred to be one of the underlying inducers of adipose tissue inflammation. In our previous study, it was demonstrated that ginsenoside Rb1 stimulates endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and Sirtuin 1 to protect against endothelial cell senescence. In the present study, 3T3‑L1 adipocytes were exposed to 0.5 mM FFAs with or without Rb1 (10‑40 µM). Monocyte chemotactic protein‑1 (MCP‑1) and interleukin‑6 (IL‑6) secretion was measured using ELISA...
October 4, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
Gabriel Nasri Marzuca-Nassr, Gilson Masahiro Murata, Amanda Roque Martins, Kaio Fernando Vitzel, Amanda Rabello Crisma, Rosângela Pavan Torres, Jorge Mancini-Filho, Jing Xuan Kang, Rui Curi
The consequences of two-week hindlimb suspension (HS) on skeletal muscle atrophy were investigated in balanced diet-fed Fat-1 transgenic and C57BL/6 wild-type mice. Body composition and gastrocnemius fatty acid composition were measured. Skeletal muscle force, cross-sectional area (CSA), and signaling pathways associated with protein synthesis (protein kinase B, Akt; ribosomal protein S6, S6, eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1, 4EBP1; glycogen synthase kinase3-beta, GSK3-beta; and extracellular-signal-regulated kinases 1/2, ERK 1/2) and protein degradation (atrophy gene-1/muscle atrophy F-box, atrogin-1/MAFbx and muscle RING finger 1, MuRF1) were evaluated in the soleus muscle...
October 6, 2017: Nutrients
Jia-Jen Chang, Dai-Jung Chung, Yi-Ju Li, Bo-Han Wen, Chau-Jong Wang
Patients with diabetes, obesity, and hyperlipidemia are all high-risk groups for fatty liver; however, the mechanism of fatty liver formation is not completely understood. Studies have indicated that abnormal fat metabolism, oxidative stress, and insulin resistance are positively correlated with peroxidation and abnormal cytokine production. Recent studies have revealed that Solanum nigrum extracts (SNEs) possess anti-inflammatory, antioxidation, antihyperlipidemia, and liver protection abilities. Therefore, the present study investigated the in vivo and in vitro effects of an SNE on nonalcoholic fatty liver (NAFL)-induced hepatitis...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Jing-Jing Tian, Cai-Xia Lei, Hong Ji, Gen Kaneko, Ji-Shu Zhou, Hai-Bo Yu, Yang Li, Er-Meng Yu, Jun Xie
Four isonitrogenous and isoenergetic purified diets containing free arachidonic acid (ARA) or EPA (control group), 0·30 % ARA, 0·30 % EPA and 0·30 % ARA+EPA (equivalent) were designed to feed juvenile grass carp (10·21 (sd 0·10) g) for 10 weeks. Only the EPA group presented better growth performance compared with the control group (P<0·05). Dietary ARA and EPA were incorporated into polar lipids more than non-polar lipids in hepatopancreas but not intraperitoneal fat (IPF) tissue. Fish fed ARA and EPA showed an increase of serum superoxide dismutase and catalase activities, and decrease of glutathione peroxidase activity and malondialdehyde contents (P<0·05)...
September 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
Neetu Singh, Himalaya Singh, Kumaravelu Jagavelu, M Wahajuddin, Kashif Hanif
Endothelial dysfunction plays an important role in structural remodeling occurring in the pulmonary vasculature during pulmonary hypertension (PH). Endothelial injury causes apoptosis and activation of endothelial cells. However, some endothelial cells show apoptosis-resistance and later proliferate extensively leading to vascular oculopathy and formation of plexiform lesions in PH. Studies have shown that rapidly proliferating cells exhibit increased expression of Fatty acid synthase (FAS), a regulatory enzyme responsible for the production of fatty acids...
September 30, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
Miriam Gil-Monreal, Ana Zabalza, Tagnon D Missihoun, Peter Dörmann, Dorothea Bartels, Mercedes Royuela
Imazamox and glyphosate represent two classes of herbicides that inhibit the activity of acetohydroxyacid synthase in the branched-chain amino acid biosynthesis pathway and the activity of 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase in the aromatic amino acid biosynthesis pathway, respectively. However, it is still unclear how imazamox and glyphosate lead to plant death. Both herbicides inhibit amino-acid biosynthesis and were found to induce ethanol fermentation in plants, but an Arabidopsis mutant deficient in alcohol dehydrogenase 1 was neither more susceptible nor more resistant than the wild-type to the herbicides...
November 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
Hugo F Olivares-Rubio, Lucía Salazar-Coria, Minerva Nájera-Martínez, José Luis Godínez-Ortega, Armando Vega-López
Diatoms play key roles in primary production and carbon fixation at a global scale and in some cases these species live on marine ecosystems impacted by crude oil (CO) spills. Halamphora oceanica, a new diatom species from the Southwest of the Gulf of Mexico was isolated and cultured in the laboratory and was exposed to water accommodated fraction (WAF) of different Maya CO loads at 0.01, 0.1, 1 and 10g/L by 96h. A battery of biomarkers involved in oxidative stress (O2•, H2O2, TBARS, ROOH, RC=O, SOD, CAT, GPx), biotransformation and conjugation (total CYP450 activity and GST) moreover fatty acid (FA) metabolism (FA levels, fatty-acid synthase and acyl-CoA oxidase) were measured...
September 27, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Jean-Jacques Yao Adjoumani, Kaizhou Wang, Man Zhou, Wenbin Liu, Dingdong Zhang
An 8-week feeding experiment was conducted to determine the effect of dietary betaine levels on the growth performance, antioxidant capacity, and lipid metabolism in high-fat diet-fed blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala) with initial body weight 4.3 ± 0.1 g [mean ± SEM]. Five practical diets were formulated to contain normal-fat diet (NFD), high-fat diet (HFD), and high-fat diet with betaine addition (HFB) at difference levels (0.6, 1.2, 1.8%), respectively. The results showed that the highest final body weight (FBW), weight gain ratio (WGR), specific growth rate (SGR), condition factor (CF), and feed intake (FI) (P < 0...
September 30, 2017: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
Manjusha M Kulkarni, Annette N Ratcliff, Menakshi Bhat, Yazan Alwarawrah, Philip Hughes, Jesus Arcos, David Loiselle, Jordi B Torrelles, Nicholas T Funderburg, Timothy A Haystead, Jesse J Kwiek
BACKGROUND: Like all viruses, HIV-1 relies on host systems to replicate. The human purinome consists of approximately two thousand proteins that bind and use purines such as ATP, NADH, and NADPH. By virtue of their purine binding pockets, purinome proteins are highly druggable, and many existing drugs target purine-using enzymes. Leveraging a protein affinity media that uses the purine-binding pocket to capture the entire purinome, we sought to define purine-binding proteins regulated by HIV-1 infection...
September 29, 2017: Retrovirology
Ruben Fernandez-Moya, Nancy A Da Silva
Fatty acids and fatty acid derivatives are important biorenewable products, as well as precursors for further transformation via chemical catalysis. This minireview focuses on recent advances in increasing the production of fatty acids and derived products in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The engineering of upstream pathways to increase levels of the required precursors, fatty acid synthase systems to increase expression and to modify chain length, and downstream pathways to produce free fatty acids, fatty acid ethyl esters, fatty alcohols, and alkanes are highlighted, and current challenges are discussed...
September 11, 2017: FEMS Yeast Research
Sixue Ren, Antonella Caforio, Qin Yang, Bo Sun, Feng Yu, Xiaofeng Zhu, Jinjing Wang, Chao Dou, Qiuyu Fu, Niu Huang, Qiu Sun, Chunlai Nie, Shiqian Qi, Xinqi Gong, Jianhua He, Yuquan Wei, Arnold Jm Driessen, Wei Cheng
The divergence of archaea, bacteria and eukaryotes was a fundamental step in evolution. One marker of this event is a major difference in membrane lipid chemistry between these kingdoms. Whereas the membranes of bacteria and eukaryotes primarily consist of straight fatty acids ester-bonded to glycerol-3-phosphate, archaeal phospholipids consist of isoprenoid chains ether-bonded to glycerol-1-phosphate. Notably, the mechanisms underlying the biosynthesis of these lipids remain elusive. Here, we report the structure of the CDP-archaeol synthase (CarS) of Aeropyrum pernix (ApCarS) in the CTP- and Mg(2+)-bound state at a resolution of 2...
September 29, 2017: Cell Research
Rosalba Senese, Federica Cioffi, Pieter de Lange, Cristina Leanza, Liliana F Iannucci, Elena Silvestri, Maria Moreno, Assunta Lombardi, Fernando Goglia, Antonia Lanni
3,3',5-triiodo-L-thyronine (T3) improves hepatic lipid accumulation by increasing lipid catabolism but it also increases lipogenesis, which at first glance appears contradictory. Recent studies have shown that 3,5-diiodothyronine (T2), a natural thyroid hormone derivative, also has the capacity to stimulate hepatic lipid catabolism, however, little is known about its possible effects on lipogenic gene expression. Because genes classically involved in hepatic lipogenesis such as SPOT14, acetyl-CoA-carboxylase (ACC), and fatty acid synthase (FAS) contain thyroid hormone response elements (TREs), we studied their transcriptional regulation, focusing on TRE-mediated effects of T3 compared to T2 in rats receiving high-fat diet (HFD) for 1 week...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
Patricia Pereira Nunes, Sandra Andreotti, Flaviane de Fátima Silva, Rogério Antonio Laurato Sertié, Rennan de Oliveira Caminhotto, Ayumi Cristina Medeiros Komino, Gabriela Boltes Reis, Fabio Bessa Lima
AIM: Most studies developed to investigate the effects of glucocorticoids chronic treatment on white adipose tissue uses high doses of these hormones. This study analyzes some effects of a chronic, continuous and steady infusion of low-dose hydrocortisone and the relationship with lipid accumulation in white adipose depots in rats. MAIN METHODS: Nineteen male Wistar rats were divided into control (CON) and cortisol (CORT) groups. Along six weeks CORT group received continuous infusion of 0...
September 25, 2017: Life Sciences
Jason J Reddick, Sherona Sirkisoon, Rejwi Acharya Dahal, Grant Hardesty, Natalie E Hage, William T Booth, Amy L Quattlebaum, Suzette N Mills, Victoria G Meadows, Sydney L H Adams, Jennifer S Doyle, Brittany E Kiel
The genome of Bacillus subtilis strain 168 contains the mother cell metabolic gene (mmg) operon that encodes homologues from the methylcitric acid cycle. We showed that the three genes, mmgDE and yqiQ(mmgF), provide three of the five steps of the methylcitric acid cycle. We also showed that the fourth step can be supplied by citB (aconitase), and we suggest that the fifth missing step, the propionyl-CoA synthetase, is probably skipped because the β-oxidation of methyl-branched fatty acids by the enzymes encoded by mmgABC should produce propionyl-CoA...
October 6, 2017: Biochemistry
Masato Tanaka, Tomomi Kita, Shojiro Yamasaki, Tae Kawahara, Yukako Ueno, Mai Yamada, Yuuka Mukai, Shin Sato, Masaaki Kurasaki, Takeshi Saito
Resveratrol (3,5,4-trihydroxystilbene) is a natural polyphenolic compound found in grapes and red wine and has been shown to exert protective effects on the liver preventing lipid accumulation induced by a high-fat diet. However, no studies have shown that the nutritional resveratrol intake by the parental generation has modified lipogenesis in an adult offspring. The aim of this study was to investigate whether maternal resveratrol intake during lactation affects lipogenesis in adult male rat offspring, and if it does, what is the molecular mechanistic basis...
March 2017: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
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