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Fatty acid synthase

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672634/effect-of-dietary-fat-type-on-intestinal-digestibility-of-fatty-acids-fatty-acid-profiles-of-breast-meat-and-abdominal-fat-and-mrna-expression-of-lipid-related-genes-in-broiler-chickens
#1
Miloš Skřivan, Milan Marounek, Michaela Englmaierová, Ladislav Čermák, Jana Vlčková, Eva Skřivanová
A group of 240-day-old Ross cockerels were used in a 4-week experiment to assess the effect of the fat type on the intestinal digestibility of fatty acids (FAs), the FA profiles of breast meat and abdominal fat, and the mRNA expression of six hepatic lipid-related genes. Experimental diets were supplemented with rapeseed oil, pork lard or palm oil at 60 g/kg. In the control diet, wheat starch was substituted for the fat source. The highest ileal digestibility of the fat and all FAs (except stearic acid) was observed in chickens fed lard...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671937/quercetin-improves-postpartum-hypogalactia-in-milk-deficient-mice-via-stimulating-prolactin-production-in-pituitary-gland
#2
Man Lin, Na Wang, Bei Yao, Yao Zhong, Yan Lin, Tianhui You
Postpartum dysgalactia is a common clinical problem for lactating women. Seeking out the safe and efficient phytoestrogens will be a promising strategy for postpartum dysgalactia therapy. In this study, the postpartum mice within four groups, including control group, the model group, and the treatment groups intragastrically administrated with normal saline, bromocriptine, bromocriptine plus 17α-ethinyl estradiol, and bromocriptine plus quercetin, respectively, were used. The results showed that quercetin, a kind of natural phytoestrogen, could efficiently promote lactation yield and mammary gland development in the agalactosis mice produced by bromocriptine administration...
April 19, 2018: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670594/cellular-and-molecular-responses-of-dunaliella-tertiolecta-by-expression-of-a-plant-medium-chain-length-fatty-acid-specific-acyl-acp-thioesterase
#3
Huixin Lin, Hui Shen, Yuan K Lee
Metabolic engineering of microalgae to accumulate high levels of medium chain length fatty acids (MCFAs) has met with limited success. Traditional approaches employ single introduction of MCFA specific acyl-ACP thioesterases (TEs), but our current research in transgenic Dunaliella tertiolecta line has highlighted that, there is no single rate-limiting approach that can effectively increase MCFA levels. Here, we explore the accumulation of MCFAs in D. tertiolecta after transgenic expression of myristic acid biased TE (C14TE)...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668854/prostate-cancer-chemoprevention-by-sulforaphane-in-a-preclinical-mouse-model-is-associated-with-inhibition-of-fatty-acid-metabolism
#4
Krishna B Singh, Su-Hyeong Kim, Eun-Ryeong Hahm, Subrata K Pore, Bruce L Jacobs, Shivendra V Singh
Increased de novo synthesis of fatty acids is a rather unique and targetable mechanism of human prostate cancer. We have shown previously that oral administration of sulforaphane (SFN) significantly inhibits the incidence and/or burden of prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia and well-differentiated adenocarcinoma in TRansgenic Adenocarcinoma of Mouse Prostate (TRAMP) mice. The present study used cellular models of prostate cancer and archived plasma/adenocarcinoma tissues and sections from the TRAMP study to demonstrate inhibition of fatty acid synthesis by SFN treatment in vitro and in vivo...
April 13, 2018: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668081/lipocalin-type-prostaglandin-d-synthase-is-a-novel-phytocannabinoid-binding-protein
#5
Matthew W Elmes, Anthony D Volpe, Simon d'Oelsnitz, Joseph M Sweeney, Martin Kaczocha
Lipocalin-type prostaglandin D synthase (L-PGDS; EC:5.3.99.2) is an enzyme with dual functional roles as a prostaglandin D2 -synthesizing enzyme and as an extracellular transporter for diverse lipophilic compounds in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Transport of hydrophobic endocannabinoids is mediated by serum albumin in the blood and intracellularly by the fatty acid binding proteins, but no analogous transport mechanism has yet been described in CSF. L-PGDS has been reported to promiscuously bind a wide variety of lipophilic ligands and is among the most abundant proteins found in the CSF...
April 18, 2018: Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662082/hadd-a-novel-fatty-acid-synthase-type-ii-protein-is-essential-for-alpha-and-epoxy-mycolic-acid-biosynthesis-and-mycobacterial-fitness
#6
Cyril Lefebvre, Richard Boulon, Manuelle Ducoux, Sabine Gavalda, Françoise Laval, Stevie Jamet, Nathalie Eynard, Anne Lemassu, Kaymeuang Cam, Marie-Pierre Bousquet, Fabienne Bardou, Odile Burlet-Schiltz, Mamadou Daffé, Annaïk Quémard
Mycolic acids (MAs) have a strategic location within the mycobacterial envelope, deeply influencing its architecture and permeability, and play a determinant role in the pathogenicity of mycobacteria. The fatty acid synthase type II (FAS-II) multienzyme system is involved in their biosynthesis. A combination of pull-downs and proteomics analyses led to the discovery of a mycobacterial protein, HadD, displaying highly specific interactions with the dehydratase HadAB of FAS-II. In vitro activity assays and homology modeling showed that HadD is, like HadAB, a hot dog folded (R)-specific hydratase/dehydratase...
April 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656363/2-pentadecyl-2-oxazoline-reduces-neuroinflammatory-environment-in-the-mptp-model-of-parkinson-disease
#7
Marika Cordaro, Rosalba Siracusa, Rosalia Crupi, Daniela Impellizzeri, Alessio Filippo Peritore, Ramona D'Amico, Enrico Gugliandolo, Rosanna Di Paola, Salvatore Cuzzocrea
Current pharmacological management of Parkinson disease (PD) does not provide for disease modification, but addresses only symptomatic features. Here, we explore a new approach to neuroprotection based on the use of 2-pentadecyl-2-oxazoline (PEA-OXA), the oxazoline derivative of the fatty acid amide signaling molecule palmitoylethanolamide (PEA), in an experimental model of PD. Daily oral treatment with PEA-OXA (10 mg/kg) significantly reduced behavioral impairments and neuronal cell degeneration of the dopaminergic tract induced by four intraperitoneal injections of the dopaminergic neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) on 8-week-old male C57 mice...
April 14, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653099/herbacetin-a-flaxseed-flavonoid-ameliorates-high-percent-dietary-fat-induced-insulin-resistance-and-lipid-accumulation-through-the-regulation-of-hepatic-lipid-metabolizing-and-lipid-regulating-enzymes
#8
Chinnadurai Veeramani, Mohammed A Alsaif, Khalid S Al-Numair
Healthy plants and their constituents have been considered as a safe remedy for the treatment of obesity and obesity associated diseases. Herbacetin is a dietary flavonoid that has been explored for many pharmacological activities; but, the anti-hyperglycaemic and anti-hyperlipidemic properties of herbacetin have not yet been explored. The present study was performed to evaluate the ameliorative effect of herbacetin on high-fat diet-induced hyperglycaemia and hyperlipidemia in 57BL/6 J mice. Obesity associated insulin resistance was induced by continuously feeding the mice with high-fat diet for 10 weeks...
April 10, 2018: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644441/-11-c-acetate-pet-as-a-tool-for-diagnosis-of-liver-steatosis
#9
Marzieh Nejabat, Asha Leisser, Georgios Karanikas, Wolfgang Wadsak, Markus Mitterhauser, Marius Mayerhöfer, Christian Kienbacher, Michael Trauner, Marcus Hacker, Alexander R Haug
PURPOSE: To investigate [11 C]acetate PET-surrogate parameter of fatty acid synthase activity-as suitable tool for diagnosis and monitoring of liver steatosis. METHODS: In this retrospective study, data were obtained from 83 prostatic carcinoma patients from 1/2008 to 1/2014. Mean HU was calculated from unenhanced CT of all patients from liver with liver HU less than 40 as threshold for liver steatosis. SUVmax of the liver and of the blood pool in thoracic aorta (as background for calculation of a liver/background ratio [SUVl/b ]) was measured...
April 11, 2018: Abdominal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642531/a-possible-trifunctional-%C3%AE-carotene-synthase-gene-identified-in-the-draft-genome-of-aurantiochytrium-sp-strain-kh105
#10
Hiroaki Iwasaka, Ryo Koyanagi, Ryota Satoh, Akiko Nagano, Kenshi Watanabe, Kanako Hisata, Noriyuki Satoh, Tsunehiro Aki
Labyrinthulomycetes have been regarded as a promising industrial source of xanthophylls, including astaxanthin and canthaxanthin, polyunsaturated fatty acids such as docosahexaenoic acid and docosapentaenoic acid, ω-3 oils, and terpenic hydrocarbons, such as sterols and squalene. A Thraustochytrid, Aurantiochytrium sp. KH105 produces carotenoids, including astaxanthin, with strong antioxidant activity. To gain genomic insights into this capacity, we decoded its 97-Mbp genome and characterized genes for enzymes involved in carotenoid biosynthesis...
April 9, 2018: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629027/ethanol-extract-of-allium-fistulosum-inhibits-development-of-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#11
Jin-Taek Hwang, Eun Ju Shin, Min-Yu Chung, Jae Ho Park, Sangwon Chung, Hyo-Kyoung Choi
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a leading cause of chronic liver disease and is closely associated with metabolic syndrome. In the present study, we observed the effect of ethanol extract of Allium fistulosum (EAF) on NAFLD and have suggested the possibility of using EAF as a natural product for application in the development of a treatment for NAFLD. MATERIALS/METHODS: The preventive effect on hepatic lipid accumulation was estimated by using an oleic acid (OA)-induced NAFLD model in vitro and a Western diet (high-fat high-sucrose; WD)-induced obese mouse model...
April 2018: Nutrition Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628813/metabolic-profiling-of-isolated-mitochondria-and-cytoplasm-reveals-compartment-specific-metabolic-responses
#12
Daqiang Pan, Caroline Lindau, Simon Lagies, Nils Wiedemann, Bernd Kammerer
Introduction: Subcellular compartmentalization enables eukaryotic cells to carry out different reactions at the same time, resulting in different metabolite pools in the subcellular compartments. Thus, mutations affecting the mitochondrial energy metabolism could cause different metabolic alterations in mitochondria compared to the cytoplasm. Given that the metabolite pool in the cytosol is larger than that of other subcellular compartments, metabolic profiling of total cells could miss these compartment-specific metabolic alterations...
2018: Metabolomics: Official Journal of the Metabolomic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625407/enhancement-of-antioxidative-activity-and-cardiovascular-protection-in-hamsters-by-camellia-oil-and-soybean-camellia-blended-oil
#13
Ting-Yi Chou, Yi-Fa Lu, Baskaran Stephen Inbaraj, Bing-Huei Chen
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to examine the effects of several vegetable oils and blended oil composed of soybean and camellia oils on blood lipid reduction and antioxidative activity. METHODS: Forty male hamsters were fed an AIN-93 G diet for 1 wk, followed by dividing into five groups: control group-1 was fed a low-fat diet containing 5% oil for 6 wk, and the other four groups were fed high-fat diets with group-2 containing 14% palm oil, group-3 containing 14% camellia oil, group-4 containing 14% soybean oil, and group-5 containing 14% blended oil (8...
February 7, 2018: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621540/tgf-beta-inhibits-expression-of-sp-a-sp-b-sp-c-but-not-sp-d-in-human-alveolar-type-ii-cells
#14
Kelly A Correll, Karen E Edeen, Rachel L Zemans, Elizabeth F Redente, Amanda Mikels-Vigdal, Robert J Mason
TGF beta is a multifunctional cytokine that regulates alveolar epithelial cells as well as immune cells and fibroblasts. TGF beta inhibits surfactant protein A, B and C expression in fetal human lung and can inhibit type II cell proliferation induced by FGF7 (KGF). However, little is known about direct effects of TGF beta on adult human type II cells. We cultured alveolar type II cells under air/liquid interface conditions to maintain their state of differentiation with or without TGF beta. TGF beta markedly decreased expression of SP-A, SP-B, SP-C, fatty acid synthase, and the phospholipid transporter ABCA3...
April 2, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620215/integrated-analysis-of-the-gene-expression-profile-and-dna-methylation-profile-of-obese-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#15
Juan Shen, Bin Zhu
In order to better understand the etiology of obese type 2 diabetes (T2D) at the molecular level, the present study investigated the gene expression and DNA methylation profiles associated with T2D via systemic analysis. Gene expression (GSE64998) and DNA methylation profiles (GSE65057) from liver tissues of healthy controls and obese patients with T2D were downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. Differentially‑expressed genes (DEGs) and differentially‑methylated genes (DMGs) were identified using the Limma package, and their overlapping genes were additionally determined...
March 28, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619185/examining-the-role-of-protein-structural-dynamics-in-drug-resistance-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#16
Daniel J Shaw, Rachel E Hill, Niall Simpson, Fouad S Husseini, Kirsty Robb, Gregory M Greetham, Michael Towrie, Anthony W Parker, David Robinson, Jonathan D Hirst, Paul A Hoskisson, Neil T Hunt
Antimicrobial resistance represents a growing global health problem. The emergence of novel resistance mechanisms necessitates the development of alternative approaches to investigate the molecular fundamentals of resistance, leading ultimately to new strategies for counteracting them. To gain deeper insight into antibiotic-target interactions, the binding of the frontline anti-tuberculosis drug isoniazid (INH) to a target enzyme, InhA, from Mycobacterium tuberculosis was studied using ultrafast two-dimensional infrared (2D-IR) spectroscopy and molecular simulations...
December 1, 2017: Chemical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616011/lipid-bodies-as-sites-of-prostaglandin-e2-synthesis-during-chagas-disease-impact-in-the-parasite-escape-mechanism
#17
REVIEW
Patrícia E de Almeida, Daniel A M Toledo, Gabriel S C Rodrigues, Heloisa D'Avila
During Chagas disease, the Trypanosoma cruzi can induce some changes in the host cells in order to escape or manipulate the host immune response. The modulation of the lipid metabolism in the host phagocytes or in the parasite itself is one feature that has been observed. The goal of this mini review is to discuss the mechanisms that regulate intracellular lipid body (LB) biogenesis in the course of this parasite infection and their meaning to the pathophysiology of the disease. The interaction host-parasite induces LB (or lipid droplet) formation in a Toll-like receptor 2-dependent mechanism in macrophages and is enhanced by apoptotic cell uptake...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605868/6-gingerol-ameliorates-behavioral-changes-and-atherosclerotic-lesions-in-apoe-mice-exposed-to-chronic-mild-stress
#18
Shuai Wang, Miao Tian, Ronglai Yang, Yating Jing, Wei Chen, Jinliang Wang, Xian Zheng, Fengrong Wang
Chronic mild stress (CMS) has been demonstrated to contribute to atherosclerosis. 6-gingerol (6-Gin), a phenolic component of ginger (Zingiber officinale), has been shown to exert numerous pharmacological properties, such as anti-inflammatory and cardioprotective effects. Here we investigated the role of CMS in the development of atherosclerosis in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed ApoE-/- mice and evaluated the potential therapeutic effects of 6-Gin. Mice were exposed to CMS for 20 weeks, at week 5, they were fed with a high-fat diet (HFD), then received 6-Gin (20 mg/kg/day, intragastrically) treatment...
March 31, 2018: Cardiovascular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605320/symposium-review-amino-acid-uptake-by-the-mammary-glands-where-does-the-control-lie
#19
John P Cant, Julie J M Kim, Scott R L Cieslar, John Doelman
Milk protein yield responses to changes in the profile of essential amino acids absorbed by the gastrointestinal tract or circulating in blood plasma do not follow the classic limiting amino acid response, in part because of an ability of the mammary glands to modify their blood flow rate and net clearance of amino acids out of plasma. The hypothesis that mammary blood flow is locally regulated to maintain ATP balance accounts for observed changes in flow due to postruminal glucose, insulin, and essential amino acid (EAA) infusions...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604498/oxidative-stress-and-mitochondrial-dysfunction-mediated-cd-induced-hepatic-lipid-accumulation-in-zebrafish-danio-rerio
#20
Ya-Xiong Pan, Zhi Luo, Mei-Qing Zhuo, Chuan-Chuan Wei, Guang-Hui Chen, Yu-Feng Song
The present study was performed to determine the effect of waterborne CdCl2 exposure influencing lipid deposition and metabolism, oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction, and explore the underlying molecular mechanism of cadmium (Cd)-induced disorder of hepatic lipid metabolism in fish. To this end, adult zebrafish were exposed to three waterborne CdCl2 concentrations (0(control), 5 and 25 μg Cd/l, respectively) for 30 days. Lipid accumulation, the activities of enzymes related to lipid metabolism and oxidative stress, as well as the expression level of genes involved in lipid metabolism and mitophagy were determined in the liver of zebrafish...
March 17, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
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