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Aluminium plant

K W T Goulding
Soil acidification is caused by a number of factors including acidic precipitation and the deposition from the atmosphere of acidifying gases or particles, such as sulphur dioxide, ammonia and nitric acid. The most important causes of soil acidification on agricultural land, however, are the application of ammonium-based fertilizers and urea, elemental S fertilizer and the growth of legumes. Acidification causes the loss of base cations, an increase in aluminium saturation and a decline in crop yields; severe acidification can cause nonreversible clay mineral dissolution and a reduction in cation exchange capacity, accompanied by structural deterioration...
September 2016: Soil Use Manag
Firoj A Tamboli, Harinath N More
BACKGROUND: Peptic ulcer is a digestive disorder most commonly found in clinical practice. Given the many side effects of modern medicine, the initial acquisition of fewer side effects, and medication of indigenous drugs, it should be considered as a better alternative for the treatment of peptic ulcer. OBJECTIVE: To assess antiulcer and antioxidant activity of ethanol extract of Barleria gibsoni (EBG) Dalz. leaves in ulcer-induced rats and in vitro antioxidants method, respectively...
October 2016: Pharmacognosy Research
Hugo F D Almeida, Mara G Freire, Isabel M Marrucho
In the past few years, the improvement of advanced analytical tools allowed to confirm the presence of trace amounts of metabolized and unchanged active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) as well as in freshwater surfaces. It is known that the continuous contact with APIs, even at very low concentrations (ng L(-1)-μg L(-1)), leads to serious human health problems. In this context, this work shows the feasibility of using ionic-liquid-based aqueous biphasic systems (IL-based ABS) in the extraction of quinolones present in aqueous media...
May 7, 2016: Green Chemistry: An International Journal and Green Chemistry Resource: GC
Tan Dang, Luke M Mosley, Rob Fitzpatrick, Petra Marschner
When previously oxidised acid sulphate soils are leached, they can release large amounts of protons and metals, which threaten the surrounding environment. To minimise the impact of the acidic leachate, protons and metals have to be retained before the drainage water reaches surrounding waterways. One possible amelioration strategy is to pass drainage water through permeable reactive barriers. The suitability of organic materials for such barriers was tested. Eight organic materials including two plant residues, compost and five biochars differing in feedstock and production temperature were finely ground and filled into PVC cores at 3...
September 10, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Marco Schmitt, Toshihiro Watanabe, Steven Jansen
Aluminium (Al) is a phytotoxic element affecting the growth and yield of many crop plants, especially in the tropics. Yet, some plants are able to accumulate high levels of Al. The monogeneric family Symplocaceae represents an Al accumulating family including many tropical and evergreen species with high Al levels in their above ground plant tissues. It is unclear, however, whether Al accumulation also characterises temperate species of Symplocos, and whether or not the uptake has a beneficial growth effect...
September 9, 2016: AoB Plants
X J Yang, Y Z Yuan, Q Niu
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between serum aluminium level and methylation of the promoter region of amyloid precursor protein (APP)gene in workers engaged in aluminium electrolysis. METHODS: In 2012, 366 electrolysis workers in an aluminium factory were enrolled as exposure group (working years >10 and age >40 years)and divided into low-exposure group and high-exposure group based on the median serum aluminium level. Meanwhile, 102 workers in a cement plant not exposed to aluminium were enrolled as control group...
April 20, 2016: Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases
Ping Wang, Wenqian Yu, Jiarong Zhang, Zed Rengel, Jin Xu, Qinqin Han, Limei Chen, Kunzhi Li, Yongxiong Yu, Qi Chen
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Aluminium (Al) toxicity is a limiting factor for plant growth and crop production in acidic soils. Citrate exudation and activation of the plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase are involved in soybean responses to Al stress. Auxin has crucial functions in plant growth and stress responses. However, little is known about possible interactions between auxin and citrate exudation under Al stress. In this study, we elucidated the regulatory roles of IAA in Al-induced citrate exudation in soybean roots...
July 29, 2016: Annals of Botany
Ahmed M Salem, Tarek F Mohammaden, Mohamed A M Ali, Enas A Mohamed, Hesham F Hassan
AIM: Ionizing radiation interacts with biological systems through the generation of free radicals, which induce oxidative stress. Aluminium (Al) can negatively impact human health by direct interaction with antioxidant enzymes. Ellagic acid (EA) and Ferulic acid (FA) are plant polyphenolic compounds, have gained attention due to their multiple biological activities. To date, no studies investigating the antioxidant effect of EA/FA in a model involving both γ radiation and aluminium chloride (AlCl3) have been reported...
September 1, 2016: Life Sciences
Shengyin Wang, Xiaoyan Ren, Bingru Huang, Ge Wang, Peng Zhou, Yuan An
The objective of this study was to investigate Al(3+)-induced IAA transport, distribution, and the relation of these two processes to Al(3+)-inhibition of root growth in alfalfa. Alfalfa seedlings with or without apical buds were exposed to 0 or 100 μM AlCl3 and were foliar sprayed with water or 6 mg L(-1) IAA. Aluminium stress resulted in disordered arrangement of cells, deformed cell shapes, altered cell structure, and a shorter length of the meristematic zone in root tips. Aluminium stress significantly decreased the IAA concentration in apical buds and root tips...
2016: Scientific Reports
Joseph Adusei Sarkodie, Sylvia Afriyie Squire, Emelia Oppong Bekoe E, Charles Yaw Fosu Domozoro, Irene Awo Kretchy, Mariesta Kurukulasuriya Jayaroshini Ahiagbe, Samuel Frimpong-Manso S, Nana Akua Oboba Kwakyi, Dominic Adotei Edoh, Maxwel Sakyiama M, Vida Korkor Lamptey, Seigfried Affedzi-Obresi S, John Lee Duncan, Philip Debrah, Benoit Banga N'guessa, Julius Isaac Asiedu-Gyekye, Alexander Kwadwo Nyarko
BACKGROUND: The leaves of Pergularia daemia Forsk (family Asclepidaceae) provide alternative plant-based treatments for the management of diabetes mellitus and diarrhoea in both humans and indigenous poultry species like the Guinea fowls (Numida meleagris). However, no scientific investigations to validate its usefulness in Ghana have been established. This study therefore sought to investigate the anti-hyperglycaemic activity of the 70 % ethanolic extract of P. daemia using streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic male Sprague-Dawley rats...
June 28, 2016: Journal of Complementary & Integrative Medicine
A Okem, M Moyo, W A Stirk, J F Finnie, J Van Staden
Hypoxis hemerocallidea is a highly utilized medicinal plant in South Africa. Its cultivation has received considerable attention in order to meet the high demand. High levels of cadmium (Cd) and aluminum (Al) in H. hemerocallidea plants sold in traditional medicinal markets was previously reported. The present study used an in vitro propagation model to investigate the uptake of Cd and Al by H. hemerocallidea and their effect on plant growth, elemental uptake and some stress-induced responses such as pigment, malondialdehyde (MDA), proline content and ultrastructural changes...
September 2016: Plant Biology
Peter M Kopittke, Neal W Menzies, Peng Wang, F Pax C Blamey
Acid soils with elevated levels of soluble aluminium (Al) comprise ~40% of the world's arable land, but there remains much uncertainty regarding the mechanisms by which Al is rhizotoxic. This review examines the kinetics of the toxic effects of Al on the root elongation rate (RER), its effects on root tissues, and its location at a subcellular level. Depending upon the concentration and plant species, soluble Al decreases the RER in a median time of 73min, but in as little as 5min in soybean. This is initially due to a decreased rate at which cells expand anisotropically in the elongation zone...
August 2016: Journal of Experimental Botany
Antony J Palmer, Alison Baker, Stephen P Muench
The ALMT (aluminium-activated malate transporter) family comprises a functionally diverse but structurally similar group of ion channels. They are found ubiquitously in plant species, expressed throughout different tissues, and located in either the plasma membrane or tonoplast. The first family member identified was TaALMT1, discovered in wheat root tips, which was found to be involved in aluminium resistance by means of malate exudation into the soil. However, since this discovery other family members have been shown to have many other functions such as roles in stomatal opening, general anionic homoeostasis, and in economically valuable traits such as fruit flavour...
June 15, 2016: Biochemical Society Transactions
Idupulapati M Rao, John W Miles, Stephen E Beebe, Walter J Horst
BACKGROUND: Plants depend on their root systems to acquire the water and nutrients necessary for their survival in nature, and for their yield and nutritional quality in agriculture. Root systems are complex and a variety of root phenes have been identified as contributors to adaptation to soils with low fertility and aluminium (Al) toxicity. Phenotypic characterization of root adaptations to infertile soils is enabling plant breeders to develop improved cultivars that not only yield more, but also contribute to yield stability and nutritional security in the face of climate variability...
June 1, 2016: Annals of Botany
L B Cordova, K Thammasiri
BACKGROUND: There are various methods for the cryopreservation of plant material, with each biological specimen potentially requiring protocol optimization to maximize success. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to compare droplet-vitrification, encapsulation-dehydration, and the cryo-plate method for cryopreservation of protocorms of the orchid Arundina graminifolia, using silica gel and drying beads as the desiccation materials. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The cryo-plate method included preculture of protocorms, developed from seeds, placed on aluminium cryo-plates and embedded in alginate gel...
March 2016: Cryo Letters
Brigid A McKenna, J Bernhard Wehr, Deirdre Mikkelsen, Frederick P C Blamey, Neal W Menzies
Aluminium (Al) toxicity adversely impacts plant productivity in acid soils by restricting root growth and although several mechanisms are involved the physiological basis of decreased root elongation remains unclear. Understanding the primary mechanisms of Al rhizotoxicity is hindered due to the rapid effects of soluble Al on root growth and the close proximity of many cellular components within the cell wall, plasma membrane, cytosol and nucleus with which Al may react. To overcome some of these difficulties, we report on a novel method for investigating Al interactions with Komagataeibacter xylinus bacterial cellulose (BC)-pectin composites as cell wall analogues...
May 23, 2016: Physiologia Plantarum
K C Bal Krishna, Ashok Aryal, Troy Jansen
Alum- and iron-based sludge obtained from water treatment plant produced during a unit treatment process (coagulation and flocculation) have been widely tested as a low-cost adsorbent to remove phosphorous (P) from wastewater. However, the effectiveness of iron-based sludge generated from the oxidation of iron which naturally occurs in the ground water has not been investigated. Moreover, influences of dominant metals ions comprised in the treatment plants sludges on P adsorption capacity and rate from wastewater are not yet known...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
Carl Clarke, Sophie Upson
In 2013/14, Risk & Policy Analysts Ltd undertook the first global study on the socio-economic value of Manganese (Mn). Based on a top-down analysis of the key supply chains for Mn, it outlined the economic importance of Mn ore and alloys in terms of their direct and indirect economic value, as well as their effects on employment (jobs and wages). In 2013, global production of Mn ore was worth an estimated US$ 10.2-11.1 billion. Taking into account multiplier effects in the supply chain, the total economic value of Mn ore production globally in 2013 is estimated at US$ 21-23 billion...
May 12, 2016: Neurotoxicology
A Maltseva, C Serra, M Kogevinas
BACKGROUND: Cancer risk in secondary aluminium production is not well described. Workers in this industry are exposed to potentially carcinogenic agents from secondary smelters that reprocess aluminium scrap. AIMS: To evaluate cancer risk in workers in a secondary aluminium plant in Spain. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study of male workers employed at an aluminium secondary smelter (1960-92). Exposure histories and vital status through 2011 were obtained through personal interviews and hospital records, respectively...
July 2016: Occupational Medicine
Francisca Valéria Soares de Araújo Pinho, Litiele Cezar da Cruz, Nathane Rosa Rodrigues, Emily Pansera Waczuk, Celestina Elba Sobral Souza, Henrique Douglas Melo Coutinho, José Galberto Martins da Costa, Margareth Linde Athayde, Aline Augusti Boligon, Jeferson Luis Franco, Thaís Posser, Irwin Rose Alencar de Menezes
UNLABELLED: Background. Duguetia furfuracea is popular plant used in popular medicine. Hypothesis/Purpose. This claim evaluated the phytochemical composition of the hydroethanolic extract (HEDF), fractions of Duguetia furfuracea, and antioxidant and antifungal activity. Methods. The chemical profile was carried out by HPLC-DAD. The total phenolic contents and flavonoid components were determined by Folin-Ciocalteu and aluminium chloride reaction. The antioxidant activity was measured by scavenging of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical and ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) methods...
2016: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
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