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Aorta artery disease

Clément Cochain, Ehsan Vafadarnejad, Panagiota Arampatzi, Pelisek Jaroslav, Holger Winkels, Klaus Ley, Dennis Wolf, Antoine-Emmanuel Saliba, Alma Zernecke
<u>Rationale:</u> It is assumed that atherosclerotic arteries contain several macrophage subsets endowed with specific functions. The precise identity of these subsets is poorly characterized as they ha ve been defined by the expression of a restricted number of markers. <u>Objective:</u> We have applied single-cell RNA-seq as an unbiased profiling strategy to interrogate and classify aortic macrophage heterogeneity at the single-cell level in atherosclerosis. <u>Methods and Results:</u> We performed single-cell RNA sequencing of total aortic CD45+ cells extracted from the non-diseased (chow fed) and atherosclerotic (11 weeks of high fat diet) aorta of Ldlr-/- mice...
March 15, 2018: Circulation Research
D J Murphy, A Aghayev, M L Steigner
Non-invasive cross-sectional imaging techniques play a crucial role in the assessment of the varied manifestations of vascular disease. Vascular imaging encompasses a wide variety of pathology. Designing vascular imaging protocols can be challenging owing to the non-uniform velocity of blood in the aorta, differences in cardiac output between patients, and the effect of different disease states on blood flow. In this review, we provide the rationale behind-and a practical guide to-designing and implementing straightforward vascular computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) protocols...
March 14, 2018: Insights Into Imaging
Lidija Kocbek, Mateja Rakuša
PURPOSE: A common trunk of the posterior intercostal arteries originating from the descending thoracic aorta is normally an anatomical variation. A search through the literature disclosed the frequencies of common trunks variations among population, but no information relates to particular topic of simultaneous multiple common trunks of the PIA present in individuals. METHODS: A total of 396 intercostal spaces were dissected in 44 cadavers from the vertebral body to the mid-axillary line to observe a common trunk of the paired posterior intercostal artery at the level from T2 to T11 intercostal space...
March 12, 2018: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
Shuang Dou, Chunyan Zheng, Xiuli Ji, Wei Wang, Mengshuang Xie, Liwei Cui, Wei Xiao
Background: Pulmonary vascular disease, especially pulmonary hypertension, is an important complication of COPD. Bronchiectasis is considered not only a comorbidity of COPD, but also a risk factor for vascular diseases. The main pulmonary artery to aorta diameter ratio (PA:A ratio) has been found to be a reliable indicator of pulmonary vascular disease. It is hypothesized that the co-existence of COPD and bronchiectasis may be associated with relative pulmonary artery enlargement (PA:A ratio >1)...
2018: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Dafne Braga Diamante Leiderman, Nelson Wolosker, Marcos Vieira de Melo Oliveira, Heitor Andrei Miranda de Carvalho, Felipe Trajano de Freitas Barão, Antonio Eduardo Zerati, Nelson De Luccia, Pedro Puech-Leão
BACKGROUND: Transient paraplegia of the lower limbs is a rare condition and when has a vascular etiology is usually associated with thromboembolic events, aortic dissection, aortic aneurysms, or as a complication of the surgical correction of those deseases. There is no case reported of acute paraplegia caused by a segmental thrombotic subocclusion of the descending thoracic aorta. CASE REPORT: We report a not yet described clinical situation of a young patient (51 years) admitted to the emergency care department for treatment of systemic arterial hypertension of difficult control with 4 antihypertensive medication classes...
March 5, 2018: Annals of Vascular Surgery
Richard A Gray, Pras Pathmanathan
Patient-specific computer models have been developed representing a variety of aspects of the cardiovascular system spanning the disciplines of electrophysiology, electromechanics, solid mechanics, and fluid dynamics. These physiological mechanistic models predict macroscopic phenomena such as electrical impulse propagation and contraction throughout the entire heart as well as flow and pressure dynamics occurring in the ventricular chambers, aorta, and coronary arteries during each heartbeat. Such models have been used to study a variety of clinical scenarios including aortic aneurysms, coronary stenosis, cardiac valvular disease, left ventricular assist devices, cardiac resynchronization therapy, ablation therapy, and risk stratification...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research
David F Pinal-Garcia, Carlos M Nuno-Guzman, Maria E Gonzalez-Gonzalez, Tomas R Ibarra-Hurtado
Background: The celiac artery, celiac axis or celiac trunk is the first major abdominal branch of the aorta. Anatomic variations and accessory vessels have been reported with variable percentages. The purpose of this study was to report the pattern of the celiac trunk and its anatomic variations in a sample of Mexican population. Methods: Celiac trunk dissection was performed in 140 fresh cadavers. Cadavers of Mexican subjects aged 18 years and older were included...
April 2018: Journal of Clinical Medicine Research
Andrzej Grzybowski, Waldemar Elikowski, Magdalena Gaca-Wysocka
RATIONALE: To analyze cardiovascular risk factors and comorbidity of acute unilateral visual loss due to combined central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) and cilioretinal artery occlusion (CLRAO). PATIENT CONCERNS: Among patients with retinal vein or artery occlusion hospitalized at the Department of Ophthalmology between January 2011 and August 2017, subjects with combined CRVO/CLRAO were selected. All of them underwent ophthalmologic and cardiologic examination, including fluorescein angiography, optical coherence tomography, 12-lead electrocardiogram, transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiography, carotid Doppler sonography, cerebral magnetic resonance imaging, and a panel of laboratory tests...
January 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Ji Young Rho, David A Lynch, Young Ju Suh, Jeung Weon Nah, Jordan A Zach, Joyce D Schroeder, Christian W Cox, Russell P Bowler, Brett E Fenster, Mark T Dransfield, James M Wells, John E Hokanson, Douglas Curran-Everett, Andre Williams, MeiLan K Han, James D Crapo, Edwin K Silverman
To identify a predictive value for the exacerbation status of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) subjects, we evaluated the relationship between pulmonary vascular measurements on chest CT and severe COPD exacerbation.Six hundred three subjects enrolled in the COPDGene population were included and divided into nonexacerbator (n = 313) and severe exacerbator (n = 290) groups, based on whether they had an emergency room visit and/or hospitalization for COPD exacerbation. We measured the diameter of the main pulmonary artery (MPA) and ascending aorta (AA) at 2 different sites of the MPA (the tubular midportion and bifurcation) on both axial images and multiplanar reconstructions...
January 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Jaykrishna Singh, Gerd Brunner, Joel D Morrisett, Christie M Ballantyne, Alan B Lumsden, Dipan J Shah, Paolo Decuzzi
Background and Aims: MRI-based hemodynamics have been applied to study the relationship between time-averaged wall shear stresses (TAWSS), oscillatory shear index (OSI) and atherosclerotic lesions in the coronary arteries, carotid artery, and human aorta. However, the role of TAWSS and OSI are poorly understood in lower extremity arteries. The aim of this work was to investigate the feasibility of hemodynamic assessment of the superficial femoral artery (SFA) in patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD) and we hypothesized that there is an association between TAWSS and OSI, respectively, and atherosclerotic burden expressed as the normalized wall index (NWI)...
2018: Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering. Imaging & Visualization
Ibra S Fancher, Sang Joon Ahn, Crystal Adamos, Catherine Osborn, Myung-Jin Oh, Yun Fang, Catherine A Reardon, Godfrey S Getz, Shane A Phillips, Irena Levitan
BACKGROUND: Hypercholesterolemia-induced decreased availability of nitric oxide (NO) is a major factor in cardiovascular disease. We previously established that cholesterol suppresses endothelial inwardly rectifying K+ (Kir) channels and that Kir2.1 is an upstream mediator of flow-induced NO production. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that suppression of Kir2.1 is responsible for hypercholesterolemia-induced inhibition of flow-induced NO production and flow-induced vasodilation (FIV)...
March 3, 2018: Journal of the American Heart Association
Keisuke Miyake, Toshihiro Funatsu, Haruhiko Kondoh, Kazuhiro Taniguchi
INTRODUCTION: Despite the technical improvements, redo surgery on the aortic root and arch is still associated with high morbidity and mortality due to the trauma of repeat open-heart surgery and technical complexity. We present the case of extended chronic type A dissecting aneurysm that developed after a Bentall operation, which was successfully treated by applying a modified long elephant trunk technique and surgical aortic fenestration. CASE PRESENTATION: A 77-year-old man, who had previously undergone a Bentall procedure and an abdominal surgery, developed a type A aortic dissection...
December 12, 2017: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
Roosevelt Bryant, David Morales
Transplantation for adult patients with congenital heart disease (ACHD) is a growing clinical endeavor in the transplant community. Understanding the results and defining potential high-risk patient subsets will allow optimization of patient outcomes. This review summarizes the scope of ACHD transplantation, the mechanisms of late ventricular dysfunction, the ACHD population at risk of developing heart failure, the indications and potential contraindications for transplant, surgical considerations, and post-transplant outcomes...
January 2018: Annals of Cardiothoracic Surgery
Ling Luo, Huanling Wang, Hongwei Fan, Jing Xie, Zhifeng Qiu, Taisheng Li
Chronic active Epstein-Barr virus (CAEBV) infection is a rare disease with high mortality. Most of CAEBV patients have been reported from Japan and are pediatric cases.The goal was to describe the clinical characteristics and the immunophenotypic features of peripheral lymphocytes in adult onset CAEBV patients.We retrospectively reviewed and analyzed all adult onset CAEBV cases admitted to Peking Union Medical College Hospital (PUMCH) between 2012 and 2016. Demographic, clinical, laboratory data, and the immunophentyping data of peripheral lymphocytes were collected...
March 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Andrés Reyes Valdivia, Africa Duque Santos, Julia Ocaña Guaita, Claudio Gandarias
Background  To report a case of a high-risk patient treated with hypogastric chimney and aortic endograft for a native infrarenal aorta aneurysmal degeneration, 20 years after an aortobifemoral bypass procedure for severe iliac occlusive disease. Methods  A two-stage procedure was planned. The first stage was right internal iliac artery (IIA) embolization and simple angioplasty of left IIA. The second stage consisted of aortouniiliac endograft with femoral crossover and left IIA chimney. Results  Femoral crossover complicated with early thrombosis, but a decision on conservative medical treatment with anticoagulation was made based on no rest pain or severe claudication...
March 2018: International Journal of Angiology: Official Publication of the International College of Angiology, Inc
Gerard M London
Accelerated ageing is observed in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD)/end-stage renal disease. Premature vascular aging and arterial stiffening are the most characteristic features of this "progeria" that is already observed in those with the early stages of CKD. Aortic stiffening is associated with high characteristic impedance, left ventricular hypertrophy, decreased coronary perfusion, and is a strong prognostic marker of mortality and cardiovascular morbidity. With aging, the arterial stiffening is more pronounced in the aorta and central arteries than in peripheral conduit arteries...
January 26, 2018: Blood Purification
Yujun Cai, Xue-Lin Wang, Alyssa M Flores, Tonghui Lin, Raul J Guzman
Vascular calcification is a pathologic response to mineral imbalances and is prevalent in atherosclerosis, diabetes mellitus, and chronic kidney disease. When located in the media, it is highly associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, particularly in patients on dialysis. Vascular calcification is tightly regulated and controlled by a series of endogenous factors. In the present study, we assess the effects of lysosomal and endosomal inhibition on calcification in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and aortic rings...
February 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
Toshifumi Hiraoka, Tatsuhiko Komiya, Hiroshi Tsuneyoshi, Takeshi Shimamoto
OBJECTIVES: Spinal cord ischaemia (SCI) is a serious complication of thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR). The purpose of this study was to assess the incidence, risk factors, clinical manifestations of SCI after TEVAR and which type of patients could benefit from cerebrospinal fluid drainage. METHODS: A retrospective review was conducted for 175 patients who underwent TEVAR from January 2008 to July 2014. All patients were divided into groups with and without SCI, and they were compared to identify significant risk factors for SCI...
February 16, 2018: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
Xiaoli Luo, Weibin Shi, Xiaoqun Zhang, Xiaoli Yang, Wei Wang, Chunyu Zeng, Hongyong Wang
An elderly male patient with coronary heart disease underwent coronary angiography, which revealed bilateral severe coronary artery stenosis. Four stents were implanted, and at 5 h post-surgery, typical hemorrhagic shock appeared. Echocardiography verified heavy bleeding in the right thoracic cavity. Emergency angiography excluded injury or perforation of the coronary artery, aorta, right subclavian artery and brachiocephalic artery. Considering the patient's history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and severe cough during the operation, it was suspected that hemothorax was induced by a blood vessel rupture in the pleura...
March 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Mohammad Jamshed Siddiqui, Mohamad Fadly Bin Kamarudin, Abdul Kareem Mohammed Al-Shami, Siti Zaiton Mat So'ad, Shazia Qasim Jamshed
Hypertension is a pathological condition in which the blood pressure is higher than under normal physiological conditions, i.e., 140/90 mmHg or higher. Blood pressure is measured as the force exerted by the blood pumped by the heart against the walls of arteries (aorta) and distributed throughout the body. Use of complementary and alternative medicine as a cure for hypertension is a common phenomenon because of the high risk of cardiovascular complications and kidney diseases caused by conventional Western medicine...
October 2017: Journal of Pharmacy & Bioallied Sciences
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