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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534762/aiding-the-eye-watching-the-brain-james-weiland-ieee-fellow-explores-the-unique-challenges-of-retinal-prostheses
#1
Kristina Grifantini
The retina is a sophisticated neural network that provides humans with high-resolution vision. And for those who suffer from retinal disease or deterioration, particularly age-related macular degeneration (the leading cause of blindness among people over the age of 50 in the United States), a better understanding of how to stimulate the retina or completely override its path to the area of the brain that processes vision may offer hope to restore sight.
May 2017: IEEE Pulse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532161/modelling-of-phytoextraction-efficiency-of-microbially-stimulated-salix-dasyclados-l-in-the-soils-with-different-speciation-of-heavy-metals
#2
Michał Złoch, Tomasz Kowalkowski, Jarosław Tyburski, Katarzyna Hrynkiewicz
Bioaugmentation of soils with selected microorganisms during phytoextraction can be the key solution, but the actual efficacy of this technology should be confirmed for different physicochemical soil parameters and heavy metal availability to guarantee the universality of this method. Equally important is development of the accurate prediction tool to manage phytoremediation process.The main objective of this study was to evaluate the role of three metalotolerant siderophore-producing Streptomyces sp. B1-B3 strains in the phytoremediation of heavy metals with the use of S...
May 22, 2017: International Journal of Phytoremediation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529870/symptom-specific-amygdala-hyperactivity-modulates-motor-control-network-in-conversion-disorder
#3
Thomas Hassa, Alexandra Sebastian, Joachim Liepert, Cornelius Weiller, Roger Schmidt, Oliver Tüscher
Initial historical accounts as well as recent data suggest that emotion processing is dysfunctional in conversion disorder patients and that this alteration may be the pathomechanistic neurocognitive basis for symptoms in conversion disorder. However, to date evidence of direct interaction of altered negative emotion processing with motor control networks in conversion disorder is still lacking. To specifically study the neural correlates of emotion processing interacting with motor networks we used a task combining emotional and sensorimotor stimuli both separately as well as simultaneously during functional magnetic resonance imaging in a well characterized group of 13 conversion disorder patients with functional hemiparesis and 19 demographically matched healthy controls...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528965/probing-the-timing-network-a-continuous-theta-burst-stimulation-study-of-temporal-categorization
#4
Juan Carlos Méndez, Lorenzo Rocchi, Marjan Jahanshahi, John Rothwell, Hugo Merchant
Time perception in the milliseconds and seconds ranges is thought to be processed by different neural mechanisms. However, whether there is a sharp boundary between these ranges and whether they are implemented in the same, overlapped or separate brain areas is still not certain. To probe the role of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC), the right supplementary motor area (SMA), and the cerebellum on time perception, we temporarily altered their activity on healthy volunteers on separate sessions using transcranial magnetic stimulation with the continuous Theta Burst Stimulation (cTBS) protocol...
May 18, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528848/temporal-expectancies-driven-by-self-and-externally-generated-rhythms
#5
Alexander Jones, Yi-Fang Hsu, Lionel Granjon, Florian Waszak
The dynamic attending theory proposes that rhythms entrain periodic fluctuations of attention which modulate the gain of sensory input. However, temporal expectancies can also be driven by the mere passage of time (foreperiod effect). It is currently unknown how these two types of temporal expectancy relate to each other, i.e. whether they work in parallel and have distinguishable neural signatures. The current research addresses this issue. Participants either tapped a 1Hz rhythm (active task) or were passively presented with the same rhythm using tactile stimulators (passive task)...
May 18, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527682/analyzing-the-experiences-of-adolescent-control-rats-effects-of-the-absence-of-physical-or-social-stimulation-on-anxiety-like-behaviour-are-dependent-on-the-test
#6
Namrata Joshi, Ronald A Leslie, Tara S Perrot
The present study was designed to systematically assess the control experience routinely used in our laboratory as part of studies on predator odour stress. Specifically, we examined effects of the physical and social components of this control experience on measures of anxiety-like behaviour in adolescent rats. Adolescent animals are at increased susceptibility to environmental perturbations and have been used for such studies much less often. Male and female Long-Evans rats were subjected to physical stimulation (Exposed or Unexposed) and social stimulation (Single Housed or Pair Housed), resulting in four groups...
May 17, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526877/magnetospinography-visualizes-electrophysiological-activity-in-the-cervical-spinal-cord
#7
Satoshi Sumiya, Shigenori Kawabata, Yuko Hoshino, Yoshiaki Adachi, Kensuke Sekihara, Shoji Tomizawa, Masaki Tomori, Senichi Ishii, Kyohei Sakaki, Dai Ukegawa, Shuta Ushio, Taishi Watanabe, Atsushi Okawa
Diagnosis of nervous system disease is greatly aided by functional assessments and imaging techniques that localize neural activity abnormalities. Electrophysiological methods are helpful but often insufficient to locate neural lesions precisely. One proposed noninvasive alternative is magnetoneurography (MNG); we have developed MNG of the spinal cord (magnetospinography, MSG). Using a 120-channel superconducting quantum interference device biomagnetometer system in a magnetically shielded room, cervical spinal cord evoked magnetic fields (SCEFs) were recorded after stimulation of the lower thoracic cord in healthy subjects and a patient with cervical spondylotic myelopathy and after median nerve stimulation in healthy subjects...
May 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526871/electro-tactile-stimulation-enhances-cochlear-implant-speech-recognition-in-noise
#8
Juan Huang, Benjamin Sheffield, Payton Lin, Fan-Gang Zeng
For cochlear implant users, combined electro-acoustic stimulation (EAS) significantly improves the performance. However, there are many more users who do not have any functional residual acoustic hearing at low frequencies. Because tactile sensation also operates in the same low frequencies (<500 Hz) as the acoustic hearing in EAS, we propose electro-tactile stimulation (ETS) to improve cochlear implant performance. In ten cochlear implant users, a tactile aid was applied to the index finger that converted voice fundamental frequency into tactile vibrations...
May 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525839/discovery-of-efficient-stimulators-for-adult-hippocampal-neurogenesis-based-on-scaffolds-in-dragon-s-blood
#9
Jian-Hua Liang, Liang Yang, Si Wu, Si-Si Liu, Mark Cushman, Jing Tian, Nuo-Min Li, Qing-Hu Yang, He-Ao Zhang, Yun-Jie Qiu, Lin Xiang, Cong-Xuan Ma, Xue-Meng Li, Hong Qing
Reduction of hippocampal neurogenesis caused by aging and neurological disorders would impair neural circuits and result in memory loss. A new lead compound (N-trans-3',4'-methylenedioxystilben-4-yl acetamide 27) has been discovered to efficiently stimulate adult rats' neurogenesis. In-depth structure-activity relationship studies proved the necessity of a stilbene scaffold that is absent in highly cytotoxic analogs such as chalcones and heteroaryl rings and inactive analogs such as diphenyl acetylene and diphenyl ethane, and validated the importance of an NH in the carboxamide and a methylenedioxy substituent on the benzene ring...
May 10, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524074/neurotrauma-the-crosstalk-between-neurotrophins-and-inflammation-in-the-acutely-injured-brain
#10
REVIEW
Lindolfo da Silva Meirelles, Daniel Simon, Andrea Regner
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality among young individuals worldwide. Understanding the pathophysiology of neurotrauma is crucial for the development of more effective therapeutic strategies. After the trauma occurs, immediate neurologic damage is produced by the traumatic forces; this primary injury triggers a secondary wave of biochemical cascades together with metabolic and cellular changes, called secondary neural injury. In the scenario of the acutely injured brain, the ongoing secondary injury results in ischemia and edema culminating in an uncontrollable increase in intracranial pressure...
May 18, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524068/detection-of-magnetic-field-properties-using-distributed-sensing-a-computational-neuroscience-approach
#11
Brian K Taylor, Sönke Johnsen, Kenneth J Lohmann
Diverse taxa use Earth's magnetic field to aid both short- and long-distance navigation. Study of these behaviors has led to a variety of postulated sensory and processing mechanisms that remain unconfirmed. Although several models have been proposed to explain and understand these mechanisms' underpinnings, they have not necessarily connected a putative sensory signal to the nervous system. Using mathematical software simulation, hardware testing and the computational neuroscience tool of dynamic neural fields, the present work implements a previously developed conceptual model for processing magnetite-based magnetosensory data...
May 19, 2017: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524001/brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-promotes-growth-of-neurons-and-neural-stem-cells-possibly-by-triggering-the-phosphoinositide-3-kinase-akt-glycogen-synthase-kinase-3%C3%AE-%C3%AE-catenin-pathway
#12
Jin-Wei Yang, Zhang Liang, Shi-Kang Deng Deng, Wei Ma, Xian-Bin Wang, Xing-Tong Li, Tong-Tong Wang, Yun-Fei Dai, Jian-Hui Guo, Li-Yan Li
BACKGROUND: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a crucial role in promoting survival and differentiation of neurons and neural stem cells (NSCs), but the downstream regulating mechanisms remain poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether BDNF exerts its effect by triggering the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), protein kinase B, PKB (AKT), glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) and β-catenin signaling pathway in cultured neurons and NSCs derived from the rat embryonic spinal cord...
May 18, 2017: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522835/reactivity-in-the-human-retinal-microvasculature-measured-during-acute-gas-breathing-provocations
#13
Angelina Duan, Phillip A Bedggood, Andrew B Metha, Bang V Bui
Although changes in vessel diameter following gas perturbation have been documented in retinal arterioles and venules, these responses have yet to be quantified in the smallest vessels of the human retina. Here, using in vivo adaptive optics, we imaged 3-25 µm diameter vessels of the human inner retinal circulation and monitored the effects of altered gas-breathing conditions. During isocapnic hyperoxia, definite constrictions were seen in 51% of vessel segments (mean ± SD for pre-capillary arterioles -9...
May 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522527/lineage-dependent-spatial-and-functional-organization-of-the-mammalian-enteric-nervous-system
#14
Reena Lasrado, Werend Boesmans, Jens Kleinjung, Carmen Pin, Donald Bell, Leena Bhaw, Sarah McCallum, Hui Zong, Liqun Luo, Hans Clevers, Pieter Vanden Berghe, Vassilis Pachnis
The enteric nervous system (ENS) is essential for digestive function and gut homeostasis. Here we show that the amorphous neuroglia networks of the mouse ENS are composed of overlapping clonal units founded by postmigratory neural crest-derived progenitors. The spatial configuration of ENS clones depends on proliferation-driven local interactions of ENS progenitors with lineally unrelated neuroectodermal cells, the ordered colonization of the serosa-mucosa axis by clonal descendants, and gut expansion. Single-cell transcriptomics and mutagenesis analysis delineated dynamic molecular states of ENS progenitors and identified RET as a regulator of neurogenic commitment...
May 19, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522119/neural-changes-in-alzheimer-s-disease-from-circuit-to-molecule-perspective-of-optogenetics
#15
REVIEW
Qinghu Yang, Da Song, Hong Qing
Alzheimer's disease (AD), as a crucial neurodegenerative disorder, affects neural activities at many levels. Synaptic plasticity and neural circuits are most susceptible in AD, but the detailed mechanism is unclear. Optogenetic tools provide unprecedented spatio-temporal specificity to stimulate specific neural circuits or synaptic molecules to reveal the precise function of normal brain and mechanism of deficits in AD models. Furthermore, using optogenetics to stimulate neurons can rescue learning and memory loss caused by AD...
May 15, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521611/sgpl1-sphingosine-phosphate-lyase-1-modulates-neuronal-autophagy-via-phosphatidylethanolamine-production
#16
Daniel N Mitroi, Indulekha Karunakaran, Markus Gräler, Julie D Saba, Dan Ehninger, María Dolores Ledesma, Gerhild van Echten-Deckert
Macroautophagy/autophagy defects have been identified as critical factors underlying the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. The roles of the bioactive signaling lipid sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) and its catabolic enzyme SGPL1/SPL (sphingosine phosphate lyase 1) in autophagy are increasingly recognized. Here we provide in vitro and in vivo evidence for a previously unidentified route through which SGPL1 modulates autophagy in neurons. SGPL1 cleaves S1P into ethanolamine phosphate, which is directed toward the synthesis of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) that anchors LC3-I to phagophore membranes in the form of LC3-II...
May 4, 2017: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518107/a-large-lateral-craniotomy-procedure-for-mesoscale-wide-field-optical-imaging-of-brain-activity
#17
Michael Kyweriga, Jianjun Sun, Sunny Wang, Richard Kline, Majid H Mohajerani
The craniotomy is a commonly performed procedure to expose the brain for in vivo experiments. In mouse research, most labs utilize a small craniotomy, typically 3 mm x 3 mm. This protocol introduces a method for creating a substantially larger 7 mm x 6 mm cranial window exposing most of a cerebral hemisphere over the mouse temporal and parietal cortices (e.g., bregma 2.5 - 4.5 mm, lateral 0 - 6 mm). To perform this surgery, the head must be tilted approximately 30° and much of the temporal muscle must be retracted...
May 7, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513186/initially-intact-neural-responses-to-pain-in-autism-are-diminished-during-sustained-pain
#18
Michelle D Failla, Estephan J Moana-Filho, Greg K Essick, Grace T Baranek, Baxter P Rogers, Carissa J Cascio
Pain assessments typically depend on self-report of the pain experience. Yet, in individuals with autism spectrum disorders, this can be an unreliable due to communication difficulties. Importantly, observations of behavioral hypo- and hyperresponsivity to pain suggest altered pain sensitivity in autism spectrum disorder. Neuroimaging may provide insight into mechanisms underlying pain behaviors. The neural pain signature reliably responds to painful stimulation and is modulated by other outside regions, affecting the pain experience...
May 1, 2017: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512154/glucose-autoregulation-is-the-dominant-component-of-the-hormone-independent-counterregulatory-response-to-hypoglycemia-in-the-conscious-dog
#19
Justin M Gregory, Noelia Rivera, Guillaume Kraft, Jason J Winnick, Ben Farmer, Eric J Allen, E Patrick Donahue, Marta S Smith, Dale S Edgerton, Phillip E Williams, Alan D Cherrington
The contribution of hormone-independent counterregulatory signals in defense of insulin-induced hypoglycemia were determined in adrenalectomized, overnight-fasted conscious dogs receiving hepatic portal vein insulin infusions at a rate 20-fold basal. Either euglycemia was maintained (group 1) or hypoglycemia (≈45 mg/dL) was allowed to occur. There were 3 hypoglycemic groups: one in which hepatic autoregulation against hypoglycemia occurred in the absence of sympathetic nervous system input (group 2), autoregulation in the presence of norepinephrine (NE) signaling to fat and muscle (group 3), and autoregulation in the presence of NE signaling to fat, muscle, and liver (group 4)...
May 16, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511992/rna-seq-analyses-reveal-that-cervical-spinal-cords-and-anterior-motor-neurons-from-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-subjects-show-reduced-expression-of-mitochondrial-dna-encoded-respiratory-genes-and-rhtfam-may-correct-this-respiratory-deficiency
#20
Amy C Ladd, David G Brohawn, Ravindar R Thomas, Paula M Keeney, Stuart S Berr, Shaharyar M Khan, Francisco R Portell, Meiram Zh Shakenov, Patrick F Antkowiak, Bijoy Kundu, Nicholas Tustison, James P Bennett
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a generally fatal neurodegenerative disease of adults that produces weakness and atrophy due to dysfunction and death of upper and lower motor neurons. We used RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) to analyze expression of all mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)-encoded respiratory genes in ALS and CTL human cervical spinal cords (hCSC) and isolated motor neurons. We analyzed with RNA-seq mtDNA gene expression in human neural stem cells (hNSC) exposed to recombinant human mitochondrial transcription factor A (rhTFAM), visualized in 3-dimensions clustered gene networks activated by rhTFAM, quantitated their interactions with other genes and determined their gene ontology (GO) families...
May 13, 2017: Brain Research
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