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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645867/psychophysical-and-electrophysiological-evidence-for-enhanced-pain-facilitation-and-unaltered-pain-inhibition-in-acute-low-back-pain-patients
#1
Pascal Henri Vuilleumier, Federico Gabriel Arguissain, José Alberto Biurrun Manresa, Alban Ymer Neziri, Arto Christian Nirkko, Ole Kæseler Andersen, Lars Arendt-Nielsen, Michele Curatolo
The aim of this case-control study was to examine differences in neural correlates of pain facilitatory and inhibitory mechanisms between acute low back pain patients and healthy individuals. Pressure pain tolerance (PPT), electrical pain detection thresholds (EDT), pain ratings to repetitive suprathreshold electrical stimulation (SES) and conditioned pain modulation (CPM) were assessed in 18 patients with acute low back pain (LBP) and 18 healthy controls (CTRL). Furthermore, event-related potentials (ERPs) in response to repetitive SES were obtained from high-density electroencephalography...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645841/how-do-self-interest-and-other-need-interact-in-the-brain-to-determine-altruistic-behavior
#2
Jie Hu, Yue Li, Yunlu Yin, Philip R Blue, Hongbo Yu, Xiaolin Zhou
Altruistic behavior, i.e., promoting the welfare of others at a cost to oneself, is subserved by the integration of various social, affective, and economic factors represented in extensive brain regions. However, it is unclear how different regions interact to process/integrate information regarding the helper's interest and recipient's need when deciding whether to behave altruistically. Here we combined an interactive game with functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to characterize the neural network underlying the processing/integration of self-interest and other-need...
June 20, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644975/a-neural-blood-pressure-marker-for-bioelectronic-medicines-for-treatment-of-hypertension
#3
Cristian Sevcencu, Thomas N Nielsen, Johannes J Struijk
A novel therapeutic approach for treating resistant hypertension could be the use of bioelectronic medicines to achieve blood pressure (BP) control in implanted patients by closed-loop stimulation of the left vagus nerve (LVN). However, such a technology would require an implantable BP marker, which is not available yet. As it is known that the LVN conducts afferent BP-related signals, this study aimed to investigate if such signals could be recorded with implantable means and used to derive BP markers. The present experiments were performed in anesthetized pigs subjected to a transient or stable BP increase induced by adrenaline administration...
June 17, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644567/reliability-of-surface-emg-measurements-from-the-suprahyoid-muscle-complex
#4
Mohit Kothari, Peter William Stubbs, Asger Roer Pedersen, Jim Jensen, Jørgen Feldbaek Nielsen
BACKGROUND: Assessment of swallowing musculature using motor evoked potentials (MEPs) can be used to evaluate neural pathways. However, recording of the swallowing musculature is often invasive, uncomfortable and unrealistic in normal clinical practise. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the possibility of using the suprahyoid muscle complex (SMC) using surface electromyography (sEMG) to assess changes to neural pathways by determining the reliability of measurements in healthy participants over days...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Oral Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643802/optogenetic-rewiring-of-thalamocortical-circuits-to-restore-function-in-the-stroke-injured-brain
#5
Kelly A Tennant, Stephanie L Taylor, Emily R White, Craig E Brown
To regain sensorimotor functions after stroke, surviving neural circuits must reorganize and form new connections. Although the thalamus is critical for processing and relaying sensory information to the cortex, little is known about how stroke affects the structure and function of these connections, or whether a therapeutic approach targeting these circuits can improve recovery. Here we reveal with in vivo calcium imaging that stroke in somatosensory cortex dampens the excitability of surviving thalamocortical circuits...
June 23, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643190/mitochondrial-biogenesis-and-neural-differentiation-of-human-ipsc-is-modulated-by-idebenone-in-a-developmental-stage-dependent-manner
#6
J Augustyniak, J Lenart, M Zychowicz, P P Stepien, L Buzanska
Idebenone, the synthetic analog of coenzyme Q10 can improve electron transport in mitochondria. Therefore, it is used in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease and other cognitive impairments. However, the mechanism of its action on neurodevelopment is still to be elucidated. Here we demonstrate that the cellular response of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC) to idebenone depends on the stage of neural differentiation. When: neural stem cells (NSC), early neural progenitors (eNP) and advanced neural progenitors (NP) have been studied a significant stimulation of mitochondrial biogenesis was observed only at the eNP stage of development...
June 22, 2017: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643050/application-of-transoral-continuous-intraoperative-neuromonitoring-in-natural-orifice-transluminal-endoscopic-surgery-for-thyroid-disease-a-preliminary-study
#7
Han-Kun Chen, Chun-Liang Chen, Kuo-Shan Wen, Yi-Feng Lin, Kai-Yuan Lin, Yih-Huei Uen
BACKGROUND: The novel concept of continuous intraoperative neuromonitoring (Cont-IONM) through stimulation of the vagal nerve has been used in thyroidectomies to prevent imminent injury of the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN). This article reports on this technology and the results of using transoral Cont-IONM in natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery for thyroid disease. METHODS: Cont-IONM of the RLN was achieved through automatic cyclical stimulation of the vagal nerve using a C2 monitor and delta stimulating electrode...
June 22, 2017: Surgical Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642690/autonomy-in-depressive-patients-undergoing-dbs-treatment-informed-consent-freedom-of-will-and-dbs-potential-to-restore-it
#8
Timo Beeker, Thomas E Schlaepfer, Volker A Coenen
According to the World Health Organization, depression is one of the most common and most disabling psychiatric disorders, affecting at any given time approximately 325 million people worldwide. As there is strong evidence that depressive disorders are associated with a dynamic dysregulation of neural circuits involved in emotional processing, recently several attempts have been made to intervene directly in these circuits via deep brain stimulation (DBS) in patients with treatment-resistant major depressive disorder (MDD)...
2017: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642686/transcranial-random-noise-stimulation-trns-shapes-the-processing-of-rapidly-changing-auditory-information
#9
Katharina S Rufener, Philipp Ruhnau, Hans-Jochen Heinze, Tino Zaehle
Neural oscillations in the gamma range are the dominant rhythmic activation pattern in the human auditory cortex. These gamma oscillations are functionally relevant for the processing of rapidly changing acoustic information in both speech and non-speech sounds. Accordingly, there is a tight link between the temporal resolution ability of the auditory system and inherent neural gamma oscillations. Transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS) has been demonstrated to specifically increase gamma oscillation in the human auditory cortex...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642682/neuritin-inhibits-notch-signaling-through-interacted-with-neuralized-to-promote-the-neurite-growth
#10
Pan Zhang, Xing Luo, Zheng Guo, Anying Xiong, Hongchang Dong, Qiao Zhang, Chunyan Liu, Jingling Zhu, Haiyan Wang, Na Yu, Jinli Zhang, Yu Hong, Lei Yang, Jin Huang
Neuritin plays a key role in neural development and regeneration by promoting neurite outgrowth and synapse maturation. However, the mechanism of neuritin in modulating neurite growth has not been elucidated. Here, using yeast two-hybrid we screened and discovered the interaction of neuritin and neuralized (NEURL1), which is an important regulator that can activate Notch signaling through promoting endocytosis of Notch ligand. And then we identified the interaction of neuritin and neuralized by co-immunoprecipitation (IP) assays, and clarified that neuritin and NEURL1 were co-localized on the cell membrane of SH-SY5Y cells...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642679/assessment-of-ipsilateral-efferent-effects-in-human-via-ecochg
#11
Eric Verschooten, Elizabeth A Strickland, Nicolas Verhaert, Philip X Joris
Development of electrophysiological means to assess the medial olivocochlear (MOC) system in humans is important to further our understanding of the function of that system and for the refinement and validation of psychoacoustical and otoacoustic emission methods which are thought to probe the MOC. Based on measurements in anesthetized animals it has been hypothesized that the MOC-reflex (MOCR) can enhance the response to signals in noise, and several lines of evidence support such a role in humans. A difficulty in these studies is the isolation of efferent effects...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642578/human-endothelial-cells-secrete-neurotropic-factors-to-direct-axonal-growth-of-peripheral-nerves
#12
Jonathan M Grasman, David L Kaplan
Understanding how nerves spontaneously innervate tissues or regenerate small injuries is critical to enhance material-based interventions to regenerate large scale, traumatic injuries. During embryogenesis, neural and vascular tissues form interconnected, complex networks as a result of signaling between these tissue types. Here, we report that human endothelial cells (HUVECs) secrete brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which significantly stimulated axonal growth from chicken or rat dorsal root ganglia (DRGs)...
June 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642339/establishment-of-a-novel-three-dimensional-primary-culture-model-for-hippocampal-neurogenesis
#13
Tatsuya Usui, Masashi Sakurai, Hideyoshi Kawasaki, Takashi Ohama, Hideyuki Yamawaki, Koichi Sato
New neurons are generated in the adult hippocampus throughout life and contribute to the functions of learning and memory. Nevertheless, the mechanisms by which disrupted neurogenesis regulates central nervous system (CNS) disorders are not fully understood. Here, we established a novel 3D culture system of hippocampal neurogenesis using air liquid interface (ALI) culture and Matrigel culture from mouse hippocampus tissues. After isolated mouse hippocampus tissue fragments were seeded into ALI wells and cultured in stemness-stimulated media containing Wnt, EGF, Noggin and R-spondin for 7 days, small spheres gradually appeared in the tissues...
June 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642285/state-dependent-tms-reveals-representation-of-affective-body-movements-in-the-anterior-intraparietal-cortex
#14
Noemi Mazzoni, Christianne Jacobs, Paola Venuti, Juha Silvanto, Luigi Cattaneo
In humans, recognition of others' actions involves a cortical network that comprises, among other cortical regions, the posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS), where biological motion is coded and the anterior intraparietal suclus (aIPS), where movement information is elaborated in terms of meaningful goal-directed actions. This action observation system (AOS) is thought to encode neutral voluntary actions, and possibly some aspects of affective motor repertoire, but the role of the AOS' areas in processing affective kinematic information has never been examined...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640989/stimulant-treatment-trajectories-are-associated-with-neural-reward-processing-in-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#15
Lizanne J S Schweren, Annabeth Groenman, Daniel von Rhein, Wouter Weeda, Stephen F Faraone, Marjolein Luman, Hanneke van Ewijk, Dirk J Heslenfeld, Barbara Franke, Jan K Buitelaar, Jaap Oosterlaan, Pieter J Hoekstra, Catharina A Hartman
OBJECTIVE: The past decades have seen a surge in stimulant prescriptions for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Stimulants acutely alleviate symptoms and cognitive deficits associated with ADHD by modulating striatal dopamine neurotransmission and induce therapeutic changes in brain activation patterns. Long-term functional changes after treatment are unknown, as long-term studies are scarce and have focused on brain structure. In this observational study (2009-2012), we investigated associations between lifetime stimulant treatment history and neural activity during reward processing...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640440/frequency-dependent-inhibition-of-bladder-function-by-saphenous-nerve-stimulation-in-anesthetized-rats
#16
Zainab Moazzam, Paul B Yoo
AIMS: Percutaneous tibial nerve stimulation (PTNS) is an effective neuromodulation therapy for treating overactive bladder (OAB). The therapeutic effects are achieved by repeatedly applying electrical stimulation through a percutaneous needle electrode that is used to target the tibial nerve (TN). Anatomical studies indicate there can be multiple saphenous nerve (SAFN) branches located near the site of electrical stimulation, and therefore we investigated the possibility of evoking a bladder-inhibitory reflex by electrically activating the SAFN...
June 22, 2017: Neurourology and Urodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637240/tfeb-activation-restores-migration-ability-to-tsc1-deficient-adult-neural-stem-progenitor-cells
#17
Alessandro Magini, Alice Polchi, Danila Di Meo, Giuseppina Mariucci, Krizia Sagini, Federico De Marco, Tommaso Cassano, Stefano Giovagnoli, Diego Dolcetta, Carla Emiliani
Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is an autosomal dominant genetic disorder caused by mutations in either of two genes, TSC1 or TSC2, resulting in the constitutive activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1). mTOR inhibitors are now considered the treatment of choice for TSC disease. A major pathological feature of TSC is the development of subependymal giant cell astrocytomas (SEGAs) in the brain. Nowadays, it is thought that SEGAs could be a consequence of aberrant aggregation and migration of neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs)...
June 14, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636960/mechanisms-and-therapeutic-relevance-of-neuro-immune-communication
#18
REVIEW
Sangeeta S Chavan, Valentin A Pavlov, Kevin J Tracey
Active research at the frontiers of immunology and neuroscience has identified multiple points of interaction and communication between the immune system and the nervous system. Immune cell activation stimulates neuronal circuits that regulate innate and adaptive immunity. Molecular mechanistic insights into the inflammatory reflex and other neuro-immune interactions have greatly advanced our understanding of immunity and identified new therapeutic possibilities in inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Recent successful clinical trials using bioelectronic devices that modulate the inflammatory reflex to significantly ameliorate rheumatoid arthritis and inflammatory bowel disease provide a path for using electrons as a therapeutic modality for targeting molecular mechanisms of immunity...
June 20, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636141/binocular-facilitation-of-cone-specific-visual-evoked-potentials-in-colour-deficiency
#19
Jeff Rabin, Andrew Kryder, Dan Lam
BACKGROUND: Neural compensatory mechanisms have been proposed, which preserve the binocular visual field in glaucoma, as well as cognition in Alzheimer's disease and motor function in Parkinson's disease. It is conceivable that comparable mechanisms operate to preserve function in congenital and/or dystrophic disease. In hereditary colour vision deficiency (CVD), we observed significant facilitation in the amplitude of the binocular cone-specific visual evoked potential (VEP) compared to the monocular amplitude for the cone type corresponding to the CVD...
June 21, 2017: Clinical & Experimental Optometry: Journal of the Australian Optometrical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635523/long-term-paired-associative-stimulation-enhances-motor-output-of-the-tetraplegic-hand
#20
Aleksandra Tolmacheva, Sarianna Savolainen, Erika Kirveskari, Pantelis Lioumis, Linda Kuusela, Nina Maria Brandstack, Aarne Ylinen, Jyrki Mäkelä, Anastasia Shulga
A large proportion of spinal cord injuries are incomplete. Even in clinically complete injuries, silent nonfunctional connections can be present. Therapeutic approaches that can strengthen transmission in weak neural connections to improve motor performance are needed. Our aim was to determine whether long-term delivery of paired associative stimulation (PAS, a combination of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) with peripheral nerve stimulation (PNS)) can enhance motor output in the hands of patients with chronic traumatic tetraplegia, and to compare this technique with long-term PNS...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
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