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Molecular microbiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527800/from-pre-to-postweaning-transformation-of-the-young-calf-s-gastrointestinal-tract
#1
Sarah J Meale, Frederique Chaucheyras-Durand, Harma Berends, Le Luo Guan, Michael A Steele
The ruminant gastrointestinal tract (GIT) faces the challenge of protecting the host from luminal contents and pathogens, while supporting the absorption and metabolism of nutrients for growth and maintenance. The GIT of the calf in early life undergoes some of the most rapid microbial and structural changes documented in nature, and these adaptations in GIT function make the young calf susceptible to GIT diseases and disorders. Despite these challenges, the calf's GIT has a certain degree of plasticity and can sense nutrient supply and respond to bioactive ingredients...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525941/environmental-contamination-with-staphylococcus-aureus-at-a-large-midwestern-university-campus
#2
Dipendra Thapaliya, Mohammed Taha, Mark R Dalman, Jhalka Kadariya, Tara C Smith
BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus can cause minor to severe life-threatening infections. The changing epidemiology of S. aureus is of public health concern due to the emergence of multi-drug resistant (MDR) strains. Environmental surfaces play a crucial role in the transmission of S. aureus. The objective of this study was to examine environmental contamination and molecular characteristics of S. aureus in health professional-associated (HPA) and non-health professional-associated (NHPA) buildings at a large university...
May 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525299/early-diverging-fungi-diversity-and-impact-at-the-dawn-of-terrestrial-life
#3
Mary L Berbee, Timothy Y James, Christine Strullu-Derrien
As decomposers or plant pathogens, fungi deploy invasive growth and powerful carbohydrate active enzymes to reduce multicellular plant tissues to humus and simple sugars. Fungi are perhaps also the most important mutualistic symbionts in modern ecosystems, transporting poorly soluble mineral nutrients to plants and thus enhancing the growth of vegetation. However, at their origin over a billion years ago, fungus-like plants and animals were unicellular marine microbes. Like the other multicellular kingdoms, Fungi evolved increased size, complexity, and metabolic functioning...
May 19, 2017: Annual Review of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520995/new-molecular-diagnostic-tools-in-traveller-s-diarrhea
#4
Jordi Vila
Traveller's diarrhea can be caused by bacteria, protozoa, helminths and viruses. Globally, the most common causes of traveller's diarrhea are two pathotypes of Escherichia coli (enterotoxigenic and enteroaggregative) and Shigella, although there are significant variations according to the geographic area visited. While traveller's diarrhea is usually a mild, self-limiting disease, half of the travellers with traveller's diarrhea have some limitation in their activities during the journey and up to 10% present persistent diarrhea or other complications, making microbiological diagnosis necessary...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Travel Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520621/outbreaks-in-the-adult-icus
#5
Hasan M Al-Dorzi, Yaseen M Arabi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Infectious disease outbreaks in the critical care setting are common and serious consequence. This article reviews and summarizes recent outbreaks in the adult ICUs. RECENT FINDINGS: Outbreaks of multidrug-resistant bacteria, fungi, and emerging viruses in ICUs from different countries are common. Outbreak investigation relies on epidemiologic methods, microbiologic studies, and molecular typing methods. Overuse of antibiotics, gaps in implementing infection prevention measures, and contaminated environment are common causes of ICU outbreaks...
May 17, 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518194/detection-of-antibiotic-resistant-escherichia-coli-bacteria-using-infrared-microscopy-and-advanced-multivariate-analysis
#6
Ahmad Salman, Uraib Sharaha, Eladio Rodriguez-Diaz, Elad Shufan, Klaris Riesenberg, Irving J Bigio, Mahmoud Huleihel
Bacterial resistance to antibiotics is becoming a global health-care problem. Bacteria are involved in many diseases, and antibiotics have been the most effective treatment for them. It is essential to treat an infection with an antibiotic to which the infecting bacteria is sensitive; otherwise, the treatment is not effective and may lead to life-threatening progression of disease. Classical microbiology methods that are used for determination of bacterial susceptibility to antibiotics are time consuming, accounting for problematic delays in the administration of appropriate drugs...
May 18, 2017: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516055/antimicrobial-and-enzymatic-activity-of-actinomycetes-isolated-from-soils-of-coastal-islands
#7
Ivana Charousová, Juraj Medo, Eva Halenárová, Soňa Javoreková
Microbiological investigation of unexplored ecosystems is crucial for discovering of antibiotic producing actinomycetes. The present study was conducted to determine antimicrobial activity and identify the most active strains. Actinomycetes were isolated using the spread plate technique following by serial dilution of samples on starch casein agar. The screening method consists of primary and secondary testing. The most active isolates were identified based on molecular and cultural methods. 42 out of 66 isolates displayed antimicrobial potential...
April 2017: Journal of Advanced Pharmaceutical Technology & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514700/a-comparative-in-situ-decomposition-study-using-still-born-piglets-and-leaf-litter-from-a-deciduous-forest
#8
Ayodeji O Olakanye, Andrew Nelson, T Komang Ralebitso-Senior
A cadaver and dead plant organic matter, or litter, are rich energy sources that undergo a complex decomposition process, which impact the surrounding environmental microbiota. Advances in molecular microbiology techniques, with study of the 16S RNA genes, in particular, have highlighted the application of forensic ecogenomics in addressing key knowledge gaps. To investigate subsurface microbiome shifts as a novel tool to establish "postmortem microbial clock" and augment postmortem interval (PMI) and time-since-burial estimations, an in situ study with triplicate underground burials of piglets as human taphonomic proxies and Quercus robur leaf litter was monitored for 270 days...
May 6, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513096/is-the-oral-fungal-pathogen-candida-albicans-a-cariogen
#9
REVIEW
Daniel Freitas Alves Pereira, Chaminda Jayampath Seneviratne, Cristiane Yumi Koga-Ito, Lakshman Perera Samaranayake
Pathobiology of dental caries is complex. Data from recent molecular microbiologic studies have further redefined the role of the oral microbiome in the etiology of dental caries. This new information challenges the conventional view on the hegemony of classic cariogenic prokaryotes such as Streptococcus mutans in caries aetiology, and raises the intriguing possibility of the participation of the eukaryotic oral fungal pathogen Candida in the caries process. The virulence attributes of Candida species such as their acidogenicity and aciduric nature, the ability to develop profuse biofilms, ferment and assimilate dietary sugars, and produce collagenolytic proteinases are all indicative of their latent cariogenic potential...
May 17, 2017: Oral Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512556/pediatric-tuberculosis-in-northern-sardinia
#10
Maria Grazia Clemente, Elena Dore, Lidia Abis, Paola Molicotti, Stefania Zanetti, Paolina Olmeo, Roberto Antonucci
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Migration flux is an increasing phenomenon in Italy, and it raises several public health issues and concerns in pediatric infectious diseases. This study investigated the clinical characteristics and outcomes of a pediatric population at high-risk for tuberculosis (TB) and the potential role of immigration as a risk factor. DESIGN: We performed an observational retrospective study of children referred to the only Pediatric Infectious Diseases Unit for Northern Sardinia over a 6-year-period (2009-2014)...
2017: Mediterranean Journal of Hematology and Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512003/towards-a-sustainable-biobased-industry-highlighting-the-impact-of-extremophiles
#11
REVIEW
Anna Krüger, Christian Schäfers, Carola Schröder, Garabed Antranikian
The transition of the oil-based economy towards a sustainable economy completely relying on biomass as renewable feedstock requires the concerted action of academia, industry, politics and civil society. An interdisciplinary approach of various fields such as microbiology, molecular biology, chemistry, genetics, chemical engineering and agriculture in addition to cross-sectional technologies such as economy, logistics and digitalization is necessary to meet the future global challenges. The genomic era has contributed significantly to the exploitation of naturés biodiversity also from extreme habitats...
May 13, 2017: New Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501669/an-update-on-bacterial-brain-abscess-in-immunocompetent-patients
#12
REVIEW
R Sonneville, R Ruimy, N Benzonana, L Riffaud, A Carsin, J-M Tadié, C Piau, M Revest, P Tattevin
BACKGROUND: Brain abscess is a focal infection of the brain, that begins as a localized area of cerebritis. In immunocompetent patients, bacteria are responsible for >95% of brain abscess, and enter the brain either through contiguous spread following otitis, sinusitis, neurosurgery, or cranial trauma, or through hematogenous dissemination. AIMS: To identify recent advents in the field. Sources We searched Medline and Embase for articles published during years 2012-2016, with the keywords 'brain', and 'abscess'...
May 10, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497114/selectable-markers-for-use-in-genetic-manipulation-of-extensively-drug-resistant-xdr-acinetobacter-baumannii-humc1
#13
Brian M Luna, Amber Ulhaq, Jun Yan, Paul Pantapalangkoor, Travis B Nielsen, Bryan W Davies, Luis A Actis, Brad Spellberg
Acinetobacter baumannii is one of the most antibiotic-resistant pathogens in clinical medicine, and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) strains are commonly isolated from infected patients. Such XDR strains are already resistant to traditional selectable genetic markers, limiting the ability to conduct pathogenesis research by genetic disruption. Optimization of selectable markers is therefore critical for the advancement of fundamental molecular biology techniques to use in these strains. We screened 23 drugs that constitute a broad array of antibiotics spanning multiple drug classes against HUMC1, a highly virulent and XDR A...
March 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495072/reprint-of-application-of-next-generation-sequencing-in-clinical-microbiology-and-infection-prevention
#14
Ruud H Deurenberg, Erik Bathoorn, Monika A Chlebowicz, Natacha Couto, Mithila Ferdous, Silvia García-Cobos, Anna M D Kooistra-Smid, Erwin C Raangs, Sigrid Rosema, Alida C M Veloo, Kai Zhou, Alexander W Friedrich, John W A Rossen
Current molecular diagnostics of human pathogens provide limited information that is often not sufficient for outbreak and transmission investigation. Next generation sequencing (NGS) determines the DNA sequence of a complete bacterial genome in a single sequence run, and from these data, information on resistance and virulence, as well as information for typing is obtained, useful for outbreak investigation. The obtained genome data can be further used for the development of an outbreak-specific screening test...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492472/molecular-surveillance-of-cronobacter-spp-isolated-from-a-wide-variety-of-foods-from-44-different-countries-by-sequence-typing-of-16s-rrna-rpob-and-o-antigen-genes
#15
Nancy Miranda, Pratik Banerjee, Steven Simpson, Khalil Kerdahi, Irshad M Sulaiman
Cronobacter spp. are emerging infectious bacteria that can cause acute meningitis and necrotizing enterocolitis in neonatal and immunocompromised individuals. Although this opportunistic human-pathogenic microorganism has been isolated from a wide variety of food and environmental samples, it has been primarily linked to foodborne outbreaks associated with powdered infant formula. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration use the presence of these microbes as one of the criteria to assess food adulteration and to implement regulatory actions...
May 11, 2017: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491246/significance-of-coagulase-negative-staphylococcus-from-blood-cultures-persisting-problems-and-partial-progress-in-resource-constrained-settings
#16
Shailpreet K Sidhu, Sita Malhotra, Pushpa Devi, Arpandeep K Tuli
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Coagulase negative Staphylococcus (CoNS) is frequently isolated from blood cultures but their significance is difficult to interpret. CoNS bacteria which are often previously dismissed as culture contaminants are attracting greater importance as true pathogens in the past decades. Clinical evaluation of these isolates suggests that although there is a relative increase of CoNS associated bloodstream infections in recent years, the microorganisms still remain the most common contaminants in blood cultures...
December 2016: Iranian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490492/molecular-diagnosis-of-orthopaedic-device-infection-direct-from-sonication-fluid-by-metagenomic-sequencing
#17
Teresa L Street, Nicholas D Sanderson, Bridget L Atkins, Andrew J Brent, Kevin Cole, Dona Foster, Martin A McNally, Sarah Oakley, Leon Peto, Adrian Taylor, Tim E A Peto, Derrick W Crook, David W Eyre
Culture of multiple periprosthetic tissue samples is the current gold-standard for microbiological diagnosis of prosthetic joint infections (PJI). Additional diagnostic information may be obtained through sonication fluid culture of explants. However, current techniques can have relatively low sensitivity, with prior antimicrobial therapy and infection by fastidious organisms influencing results. We assessed if metagenomic sequencing of total DNA extracts obtained direct from sonication fluid can provide an alternative rapid and sensitive tool for diagnosis of PJI...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487186/mobilization-and-integration-of-bacterial-phenotypic-data-enabling-next-generation-biodiversity-analysis-through-the-bacdive-metadatabase
#18
Lorenz C Reimer, Carola Söhngen, Anna Vetcininova, Jörg Overmann
Microbial data and metadata are scattered throughout the scientific literature, databases and unpublished lab notes and thereby often are difficult to access. Hot spots of (meta)data are internal descriptions of culture collections and initial descriptions of novel taxa in primary literature. Here we describe three exemplary mobilization projects which yielded metadata published through the prokaryotic metadatabase BacDive. The Reichenbach collection of myxobacteria includes information on 12,535 typewritten index cards which were digitized...
May 6, 2017: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485988/doxycycline-hydrochloride-metronidazole-solid-lipid-microparticles-gels-for-treatment-of-periodontitis-development-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-clinical-evaluation
#19
Heba A Gad, Amany O Kamel, Ola M Ezzat, Hadir F El Dessouky, Omaima A Sammour
OBJECTIVE: To formulate solid lipid microparticles (SLMs) encapsulating doxycycline hydrochloride (DH) and metronidazole (MT) for the treatment of periodontal diseases. RESEARCH DESIGN & METHODS: SLMs were prepared applying hot homogenization method, using different types of lipids and stabilized with various types and concentrations of surfactants. The optimized formula was subjected to freeze-drying followed by incorporation into poloxamer gel. Microbiological and clinical evaluation of the selected SLMs on patients suffering from periodontal diseases was performed...
May 9, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485825/new-evidence-of-cutaneous-leishmaniasis-in-north-eastern-italy
#20
V Gaspari, M Ortalli, M P Foschini, C Baldovini, A Lanzoni, R Cagarelli, P Gaibani, G Rossini, C Vocale, R Tigani, G A Gentilomi, C Misciali, S Pesci, A Patrizi, M P Landini, S Varani
BACKGROUND: Human leishmaniasis is on increase the in Mediterranean Europe. However, the exact prevalence of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is largely unknown as underdiagnosis and underreporting are common. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate epidemiological, clinico-pathological and microbiological aspects of CL cases occurring in the Bologna province, north-eastern Italy. METHODS: We performed a retrospective, observational study on CL cases diagnosed in the Bologna province between January 2013 and December 2015...
May 9, 2017: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
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