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Molecular microbiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345036/application-of-molecular-tools-to-elucidate-the-microbiota-of-seafood
#1
Paloma de Almeida Rodrigues, Rafaela Gomes Ferrari, Carlos Adam Conte Junior
The aim of this review is to present the methodologies currently applied to identify microbiota and pathogens transmitted to humans through seafood consumption, focusing on molecular techniques and pointing out their importance, advantages, disadvantages, and applicability. Knowledge of available techniques allows researchers to identify which technique best fits their expectations. With such discernment, it will be possible to infer which disadvantages will be present and, therefore, not interfering with the final result...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342973/biogenic-weathering-solubilization-of-iron-from-minerals-by-epilithic-freshwater-algae-and-cyanobacteria
#2
George E Mustoe
A sandstone outcrop exposed to freshwater seepage supports a diverse assemblage of photosynthetic microbes. Dominant taxa are two cyanophytes (Oscillatoria sp., Rivularia sp.) and a unicellular green alga (Palmellococcus sp.). Less abundant taxa include a filamentous green alga, Microspora, and the desmid Cosmarium. Biologic activity is evidenced by measured levels of chlorophyll and lipids. Bioassay methods confirm the ability of these microbes to dissolve and metabolize Fe from ferruginous minerals. Chromatographic analysis reveals citric acid as the likely chelating agent; this low molecular weight organic acid is detectable in interstitial fluid in the sandstone, measured as 0...
January 15, 2018: Microorganisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340983/18f-fdg-pet-ct-imaging-of-left-ventricular-assist-device-infection-a-retrospective-quantitative-intrapatient-analysis
#3
Philipp Kanapinn, Wolfgang Burchert, Hermann Körperich, Jan Körfer
BACKGROUND: Despite the use of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT), diagnosis of a driveline infection in ventricular assist device (LVAD) recipients remains challenging. Our aim was to evaluate the potential of a baseline 18F-FDG PET/CT (prior to an infection) for the diagnosis of an LVAD-related infection. METHODS: We retrospectively selected all LVAD recipients who had undergone two consecutive whole-body 18F-FDG PET/CT examinations between January 2010 and December 2016...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Nuclear Cardiology: Official Publication of the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340471/epididymo-orchitis-caused-by-histoplasma-capsulatumin-a-colombian-patient
#4
Carlos Andrés Botero-García, Álvaro Adolfo Faccini-Martínez, Erika Uribe, Omar-Javier Calixto, Carlos Eduardo Pérez-Díaz, Pedro Pablo Osejo-Diago, Pedro Gabriel Franco-Maz
Although histoplasmosis is generally a self-limited disease, disseminated infection can occur in patients lacking effective cell-mediated immunity, reaching virtually every organ, even the genitourinary tract in rare cases. We report a case of epididymo-orchitis in an immunocompetent 38-year-old bricklayer from the rural area of Villeta, Cundinamarca, Colombia. The patient presented with testicular pain and macroscopic scrotal changes requiring a left orchiectomy, with microbiological isolation and molecular confirmation of Histoplasma capsulatum...
November 2017: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337704/the-what-when-and-how-in-performing-and-interpreting-microbiological-diagnostic-tests-in-skin-and-soft-tissue-infections
#5
Carolina Navarro-San Francisco, Patricia Ruiz-Garbajosa, Rafael Cantón
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize and classify the most recent and relevant microbiological studies for each type of skin and soft tissue infection (SSTI). RECENT FINDINGS: Following Infectious Diseases Society of America and Food and Drug Administration classifications of SSTIs, we differentiate between two large groups, the superficial or uncomplicated infections and the complicated infections with deep involvement. It is not usually necessary to obtain microbiological samples in uncomplicated infections, except in cases of recurrences or for epidemiological control purposes...
January 11, 2018: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318136/pleural-tuberculosis-medical-thoracoscopy-greatly-increases-the-diagnostic-accuracy
#6
Angelo Gianni Casalini, Pier Anselmo Mori, Maria Majori, Miriam Anghinolfi, Enrico Maria Silini, Letizia Gnetti, Federica Motta, Sandra Larini, Sara Montecchini, Roberta Pisi, Adriana Calderaro
Our objective was to evaluate the efficacy of a standardised work-up in the diagnosis of pleural tuberculosis (TB) that included fibreoptic bronchoscopy and medical thoracoscopy. A consecutive series of 52 pleural TB patients observed during the period 2001-2015 was evaluated retrospectively. 20 females, mean (range) age 39.7 (18-74) years, and 32 males, mean (range) age 45.75 (21-83) years, were included (28 non-EU citizens (53.8%)). The diagnosis of TB infections was established by identification (using stains, culture or molecular tests) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the pleura, sputum and/or bronchial specimens, or by evidence of caseous granulomas on pleural biopsies...
January 2018: ERJ Open Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306845/determination-of-membrane-disruption-and-genomic-dna-binding-of-cinnamaldehyde-to-escherichia-coli-by-use-of-microbiological-and-spectroscopic-techniques
#7
Tian-Fu He, Zhi-Hong Zhang, Xin-An Zeng, Lang-Hong Wang, Charles S Brennan
This work was aimed to investigate the antibacterial action of cinnamaldehyde (CIN) against Escherichia coli ATCC 8735 (E. coli) based on membrane fatty acid composition analysis, alterations of permeability and cell morphology as well as interaction with genomic DNA. Analysis of membrane fatty acids using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) revealed that the proportion of unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) and saturated fatty acids (SFA) were the major fatty acids in plasmic membrane, and their levels were significantly changed after exposure of E...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301542/monitoring-of-poyang-lake-water-for-sewage-contamination-using-human-enteric-viruses-as-an-indicator
#8
Hui Zhu, Fang Yuan, Zhaokang Yuan, Rong Liu, Fei Xie, Ling Huang, Xiaojun Liu, Xiaoqing Jiang, Jian Wang, Qunying Xu, Zhiqiang Shen, Donghan Liu, Ronghao Zhang, Yuanan Lu
BACKGROUND: Recreational water contaminated with fecal pollution poses a great public health concern, as fecal waste may cause serious waterborne illnesses. Current recreational water standards using fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) have their limitations for human protection especially in developing countries such as China. METHODS: To explore the potential use of enteric viruses as a potential indicator of fecal contamination, four viruses: norovirus geno-groups I and II, enteroviruses, and adenoviruses were tested in this study using molecular detection methods and sensitive RT-PC developed in the University of Hawaii...
January 5, 2018: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295691/molecular-detection-of-tem-shv-and-ctx-m-genes-among-gram-negative-klebsiella-isolates
#9
Asma Naim, Asma Saeed, Taqdees Ara Malik
In the past few years, the use of antimicrobial drugs against a wide range of pathogens has increased significantly. This extensive use of drugs has increased the resistance rate in microbial community widely. Molecular techniques for the detection of resistance are more reliable as compared to the conventional phenotypic method. The family Enterobacteriaceae is considered to be an important cause of nosocomial infections due to its predominantly active species such as E. coli, Klebsiella and Pseudomonas. These organisms are mainly involved in causing pneumonia, sepsis, post-surgical and urinary tract infections...
January 1, 2018: Current Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288464/methods-for-the-characterization-of-plant-growth-promoting-rhizobacteria
#10
Md Motaher Hossain, Farjana Sultana
A detailed description of methods most frequently used for the identification and characterization of beneficial microbial strains is presented in this chapter. The methods include microbiological, biochemical, and molecular approaches. Microbiological and biochemical methods comprise a broad range of techniques that are based on the analysis of phosphate solubilization, nitrogenase activity, indole-3-acetic acid production, bacterial motility, presence of catalase and nitrate reductase enzyme, Gram's staining of the cell wall, siderophore production, and microbial chemotaxis...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286460/novel-diagnostics-in-revision-arthroplasty-implant-sonication-and-multiplex-polymerase-chain-reaction
#11
Gunnar T R Hischebeth, Sascha Gravius, Johanna K Buhr, Ernst Molitor, Matthias D Wimmer, Achim Hoerauf, Isabelle Bekeredjian-Ding, Thomas M Randau
In orthopedic patients, foreign body-associated infections, especially periprosthetic joint infections (PJIs), are a devastating complication of arthroplasty. Infection requires complex treatment, may result in long hospitalization and causes considerable costs. Multiple surgical revisions can be necessary in these patients, with a loss in function as well as in quality of life. The routine preoperative diagnostics include blood examination for C-reactive protein (CRP) and other biomarkers, as well as joint aspirate analysis for cell count, differentiation, and culture...
December 3, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286101/-corrigendum-insights-into-the-pathogenesis-of-mycoplasma-pneumoniae-review
#12
Jun He, Mihua Liu, Zhufeng Ye, Tianping Tan, Xinghui Liu, Xiaoxing You, Yanhua Zeng, Yimou Wu
Following the publication of this review, an interested reader alerted us to the fact that a couple of figures had been reproduced from a pair of previous publications without proper acknowledgement of the original source/authors. Figs. 2 and 3, as featured in our review, had originally appeared (with only minor modifications) as Figs. 2 and 4, respectively, in the following articles: Rottem S: Interaction of mycoplasmas with host cells. Physiol Rev 83: 417-32, 2003; and Pilo P, Vilei EM, Peterhans E, Bonvin-Klotz L, Stoffel MH, Dobbelaere D and Frey J: A metabolic enzyme as a primary virulence factor of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp...
December 20, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284316/profile-of-genmark-s-eplex%C3%A2-blood-culture-identification-fungal-pathogen-panel
#13
Danièle Maubon, Céline Dard, Cécile Garnaud, Muriel Cornet
Fungemia presents high morbi-mortality and thus rapid microbiological diagnosis may contribute to appropriate patient management. In the last decade, kits based on molecular technologies have become available and health care institutes are increasingly facing critical investment choices. Although all these tools aim to achieve rapid fungal detection and species identification, they display different inherent characteristics. Areas covered: Considering technologies allowing detection and identification of fungal species in a sepsis context, the market proposes either tests on positive blood culture or tests on patient's whole blood...
December 28, 2017: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248479/nanomaterials-and-molecular-transporters-to-overcome-the-bacterial-envelope-barrier-towards-advanced-delivery-of-antibiotics
#14
Rita S Santos, Céu Figueiredo, Nuno F Azevedo, Kevin Braeckmans, Stefaan C De Smedt
With the dramatic consequences of bacterial resistance to antibiotics, nanomaterials and molecular transporters have started to be investigated as alternative antibacterials or anti-infective carrier systems to improve the internalization of bactericidal drugs. However, the capability of nanomaterials/molecular transporters to overcome the bacterial cell envelope is poorly understood. It is critical to consider the sophisticated architecture of bacterial envelopes and reflect how nanomaterials/molecular transporters can interact with these envelopes, being the major aim of this review...
December 14, 2017: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241475/israeli-national-policy-for-carbapenem-resistant-enterobacteriaceae-screening-carrier-isolation-and-discontinuation-of-isolation
#15
Ester Solter, Amos Adler, Bina Rubinovitch, Elizabeth Temkin, David Schwartz, Debby Ben-David, Samira Masarwa, Yehuda Carmeli, Mitchell J Schwaber
Since 2006, Israel has been confronting an outbreak of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE), and in 2007 Israel implemented a national strategy to contain spread. The intervention was initially directed toward acute-care hospitals and later expanded to include an established reservoir of carriage in long-term-care hospitals. It included regular reporting of CRE cases to a central registry and daily oversight of management of the outbreak at the institutional level. Microbiological methodologies were standardized in clinical laboratories nationwide...
December 15, 2017: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240520/draft-whole-genome-sequence-analyses-on-pseudomonas-syringae-pv-actinidiae-hr-negative-strains-detected-from-kiwifruit-bleeding-sap-samples
#16
Enrico Biondi, Alan Zamorano, Ernesto Vega, Stefano Ardizzi, Davide Sitta, Roberto De Salvador, Reinaldo Campos-Vargas, Claudio Meneses, Set Pérez, Assunta Bertaccini, Nicola Fiore
Kiwifruit bleeding sap samples, collected in Italian and Chilean orchards from symptomatic and asymptomatic plants, were evaluated for the presence of Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae, the causal agent of bacterial canker. The saps were sampled during the spring of both hemispheres, before the bud sprouting, during the optimal time window for the collection of an adequate volume of sample for the early detection of the pathogen, preliminarily by molecular assays, and then, through its direct isolation and identification...
December 14, 2017: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238198/oral-microbiome-and-peri-implant-diseases-where-are-we-now
#17
REVIEW
Rafał Pokrowiecki, Agnieszka Mielczarek, Tomasz Zaręba, Stefan Tyski
Peri-implant infective diseases (PIIDs) in oral implantology are commonly known as peri-implant mucositis (PIM) and periimplantitis (PI). While PIM is restricted to the peri-implant mucosa and is reversible, PI also affects implant-supporting bone and, therefore, is very difficult to eradicate. PIIDs in clinical outcome may resemble gingivitis and periodontitis, as they share similar risk factors. However, recent study in the field of proteomics and other molecular studies indicate that PIIDs exhibit significant differences when compared to periodontal diseases...
2017: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233459/invasive-meningococcal-disease-due-to-ciprofloxacin-resistant-neisseria-meningitidis-sequence-type-4821-the-first-case-in-japan
#18
Yu Kawasaki, Kousaku Matsubara, Hideyuki Takahashi, Masatomo Morita, Makoto Ohnishi, Masayuki Hori, Kenichi Isome, Aya Iwata, Hiroyuki Nigami, Mami Ikemachi, Go Yamamoto, Kiyofumi Ohkusu
We present a 4-year-old girl who developed invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) caused by Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C sequence type (ST)-4821. She was hospitalized due to fever, vomiting, rash and altered consciousness. Serogroup C N. meningitidis was isolated from blood culture taken on admission and was confirmed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, a biochemical test, and molecular microbiological analysis. The patient was successfully treated with 50 mg/kg ceftriaxone every 12 hours for 7 days without any complications...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230200/from-genes-to-ecosystems-in-microbiology-modeling-approaches-and-the-importance-of-individuality
#19
REVIEW
Jan-Ulrich Kreft, Caroline M Plugge, Clara Prats, Johan H J Leveau, Weiwen Zhang, Ferdi L Hellweger
Models are important tools in microbial ecology. They can be used to advance understanding by helping to interpret observations and test hypotheses, and to predict the effects of ecosystem management actions or a different climate. Over the past decades, biological knowledge and ecosystem observations have advanced to the molecular and in particular gene level. However, microbial ecology models have changed less and a current challenge is to make them utilize the knowledge and observations at the genetic level...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229108/infection-control-genetic-assessment-of-drug-resistance-and-drug-susceptibility-testing-in-the-current-management-of-multidrug-extensively-resistant-tuberculosis-m-xdr-tb-in-europe-a-tuberculosis-network-european-trialsgroup-tbnet-study
#20
Graham H Bothamley, Christoph Lange
AIM: Europe has the highest documented caseload and greatest increase in multidrug and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (M/XDR-TB) of all World Health Organization (WHO) regions. This survey examines how recommendations for M/XDR-TB management are being implemented. METHODS: TBNET is a pan-European clinical research collaboration for tuberculosis. An email survey of TBNET members collected data in relation to infection control, access to molecular tests and basic microbiology with drug sensitivity testing...
November 2017: Respiratory Medicine
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