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Block Periodization

Ning Jia, Qinru Sun, Qian Su, Shaokang Dang, Guomin Chen
Substantial evidence has shown that the oxidative damage to hippocampal neurons is associated with the cognitive impairment induced by adverse stimuli during gestation named prenatal stress (PS). Taurine, a conditionally essential amino acid, possesses multiple roles in the brain as a neuromodulator or antioxidant. In this study, to explore the roles of taurine in PS-induced learning and memory impairment, prenatal restraint stress was set up and Morris water maze (MWM) was employed for testing the cognitive function in the one-month-old rat offspring...
October 13, 2016: Redox Biology
Meta N Eek, Kate Himmelmann
Spasticity and muscle weakness is common in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Spasticity can be treated with botulinum neurotoxin-A (BoNT-A), but this drug has also been reported to induce muscle weakness. Our purpose was to describe the effect on muscle strength in the lower extremities after BoNT-A injections in children with CP. A secondary aim was to relate the effect of BoNT-A to gait pattern and range of motion. Twenty children with spastic CP were included in the study, 8 girls and 12 boys (mean age 7...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Marlène Abadie, Laurent Waroquier, Patrice Terrier
Previous research showed that the unconscious-thought effect, which refers to an improvement in complex decision making following a distraction period, was moderated by the presentation format of pieces of information about different options. The aim of the current study was to replicate this finding and further examine the memory representations underlying decision making following a distraction or a deliberation period. Results showed that, when the information was presented blocked per option, participants were better able to differentiate the best option from the others after a distraction period than immediately after the information presentation or after a deliberation period...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
Abraham Speedie, Cinosh Mathew, Ramgopal S Shahi, Rajneesh Calton
INTRODUCTION: The development of implantable technology for cardiac rhythm management remains one of the seminal achievements of the second half of the 20th century. The development of artificial pacemakers for the electrical control of the cardiac rhythm has greatly enhanced the physician's ability to treat cardiac dysrhythmias. An ageing population and the extension of indications will in all probability result in an increasing number of cardiac device implantations. OBJECTIVE OF STUDY: To study mortality and morbidity in patients with permanent pacemaker implantation at a tertiary care hospital in North India...
September 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Faramarz Mosaffa, Seyed Amir Mohajerani, Reza Aminnejad, Ali Solhpour, Shideh Dabir, Gholam Reza Mohseni
BACKGROUND: Preemptive analgesia is the blocking of pain perception afferent pathways before noxious painful stimuli. Clonidine is an alpha agonist drug that is partially selective for α-2 adrenoreceptors. Clonidine is used as anti-anxiety medication and an, analgesic, and it prolongs the duration of the block in the brachial plexus block. OBJECTIVES: To compare the effect of preemptive clonidine with midazolam on intraoperative sedation, duration of block, and postoperative pain scores...
June 2016: Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine
Jaafar Juju Nakasha, Uma Rani Sinniah, Nurashikin Kemat, Kumara Swamy Mallappa
BACKGROUND: Chlorophytum borivilianum is an industrially valued medicinal crop. Propagation through seeds is not feasible because of low germination percentage and long dormancy period. Therefore, callus culture and plant regeneration can be an alternative to improve this crop production. Also, callus can serve as an alternative source of bioactive compounds. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of different phytohormones on callus induction, subculture cycle, and regeneration studies of callus in C...
July 2016: Pharmacognosy Magazine
Nathan D Crosby, John J Janik, Warren M Grill
Kilohertz-frequency spinal cord stimulation (KHF-SCS) is a potential paresthesia-free treatment for chronic pain. However, the effects of KHF-SCS on spinal dorsal column (DC) axons and its mechanisms of action remain unknown. The objectives of this study were to quantify activation and conduction block of DC axons by KHF-SCS across a range of kHz frequencies (1, 5, 10, or 20 kHz) and waveforms (biphasic pulses or sinusoids). Custom platinum electrodes delivered SCS to the T10/T11 DCs of anesthetized male Sprague-Dawley rats...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
Harriet Mortimer, Haytham Kubba
The National Confidential Enquiry into Patient Outcome and Death recently conducted a large, robust study investigating tracheostomy care for patients in England, Wales and Northern Ireland. They found up to 31% of tracheostomy patients experience a complication at some stage in their care, many of which were serious. This study aims to explore the nature of adverse events and complications affecting tracheostomy patients across the diverse hospitals of NHS Greater Glasgow and Clyde (NHSGGC) including both adult and paediatric populations over a 6-year period between 2008 and 2014...
October 19, 2016: Clinical Otolaryngology
Dipankar Sahoo, Mihai Peterca, Emad Aqad, Benjamin E Partridge, Paul A Heiney, Robert Graf, Hans W Spiess, Xiangbing Zeng, Virgil Percec
Perylene bisimide derivatives (PBIs) are known to form only columnar or lamellar assemblies. There is no known example of a PBI self-assembling into a supramolecular sphere. Therefore, periodic and quasiperiodic arrays generated from spherical assemblies produced from PBIs are also not known. Here, a PBI functionalized at its imide groups with a second generation self-assembling dendron is reported to self-assemble into supramolecular spheres. These spheres self-organize in a body-centered cubic (BCC) periodic array, rarely encountered for self-assembling dendrons but often encountered in block copolymers...
October 19, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Pedro Pallangyo, Isaac Mawenya, Paulina Nicholaus, Henry Mayala, Amida Kalombola, Godwin Sharau, Naiz Majani, Mohamed Janabi
BACKGROUND: Congenital complete heart block is a life-threatening condition which is highly associated with autoimmune and connective tissue disorders. Presence of maternal autoantibodies for associated conditions increases the risk of delivering a child with congenital complete heart block, however, less than a half of all women with such antibodies are symptomatic even after delivery. Mortality rate is highest during the neonatal period (45 %) and about two-thirds of all cases will require permanent pacing at some point in their lives...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Medical Case Reports
Neil C Ford, Mark L Baccei
Spinal lamina I projection neurons serve as a major conduit by which noxious stimuli detected in the periphery are transmitted to nociceptive circuits in the brain, including the parabrachial nucleus (PB) and the periaqueductal gray (PAG). While neonatal spino-PB neurons are more than twice as likely to exhibit spontaneous activity compared to spino-PAG neurons, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear since nothing is known about the voltage-independent (i.e. 'leak') ion channels expressed by these distinct populations during early life...
October 14, 2016: Neuroscience
Shahbaz R Arain, Julie K Freed, Jutta Novalija, Paul S Pagel, Thomas J Ebert
OBJECTIVE: The mechanism of perioperative hypotension in patients taking an angiotensin-receptor blocker up to the time of surgery remains unclear. This study tested the hypothesis that short-term angiotensin-receptor blocker treatment attenuated the sympathetic and vascular responses to autonomic stimuli in volunteers undergoing anesthesia. DESIGN: Randomized, crossover, blinded, pilot design. SETTING: Zablocki Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Milwaukee, WI...
August 11, 2016: Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
Richard A Gray, Pras Pathmanathan
Elucidating the underlying mechanisms of fatal cardiac arrhythmias requires a tight integration of electrophysiological experiments, models, and theory. Existing models of transmembrane action potential (AP) are complex (resulting in over parameterization) and varied (leading to dissimilar predictions). Thus, simpler models are needed to elucidate the "minimal physiological requirements" to reproduce significant observable phenomena using as few parameters as possible. Moreover, models have been derived from experimental studies from a variety of species under a range of environmental conditions (for example, all existing rabbit AP models incorporate a formulation of the rapid sodium current, INa, based on 30 year old data from chick embryo cell aggregates)...
October 2016: PLoS Computational Biology
Agnieszka Wsol, Wioletta Wydra, Marek Chmielewski, Andrzej Swiatowiec, Marek Kuch
BACKGROUND: A retrospective study was designed to investigate P-wave duration changes in exercise stress (EST) test for the prediction of angiographically documented substantial coronary artery disease (CAD). METHODS: We analyzed 265 cases of patients, who underwent EST and subsequently coronary angiography. Analysis of P-wave duration was performed in leads II, V5 at rest, and in the recovery period. RESULTS: The sensitivity and specificity for the isolated ST-segment depression were only 31% and 76%, respectively...
October 17, 2016: Cardiology Journal
Dirk Dressler, Fereshte Adib Saberi
The therapeutic efficacy of botulinum toxin (BT) can be completely blocked by formation of BT antibodies (BTAB), thus producing antibody-induced therapy failure (ABTF). One of the risk factors for this is the interval between two subsequent injection series. To prevent BTAB formation it is universally recommended not to use interinjection intervals of less than 12 weeks. However, BT's therapeutic efficacy may be considerably shorter than this interval, thus causing substantial reduction of quality of life...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Neural Transmission
Manuel Sánchez, Lorena Suárez, Begoña Cantabrana, Javier Bordallo
Estrogens facilitate prolactin (PRL) secretion acting on pituitary cells. In GH3 cells, estradiol induces acute action potentials and oscillations of intracellular Ca(2+) associated with the secretagogue function. Estradiol modulates several ion channels which may affect the action potential rate and the release of PRL in lactotroph cells, which might depend on its concentration. The aims were to characterize the acute effect of supraphysiological concentrations of estradiol on Ca(2+) and noninactivating K(+) currents and measure the effect on the spontaneous action potentials and PRL release in the somatolactotroph cell line, GH3...
October 17, 2016: Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
Umesh K Dash, S Kiran, Urvashi Tandon, Kavitha Jinjil
BACKGROUND: The synergism between local anesthetic agents such as bupivacaine with intrathecal adjuvants such as opioids and clonidine is well established. AIMS: This study evaluates the clinical efficacy of clonidine75 μg versus fentanyl 25 μg as adjuvants to bupivacaine for spinal anesthesia. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: A prospective, randomized, parallel arm study was conducted over a period of 12 months in a tertiary care hospital. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty patients were divided randomly into two groups, Group C and Group F...
September 2016: Anesthesia, Essays and Researches
Chandni Sinha, Bindey Kumar, Umesh Kumar Bhadani, Ajeet Kumar, Amarjeet Kumar, Alok Ranjan
BACKGROUND: Caudal block is a reliable regional analgesic technique for pediatric urogenital surgeries. Various adjuvants have been tried to enhance the duration of action of bupivicaine. Though clonidine is extensively used as an adjuvant in caudal anaesthesia, it can have troublesome adverse effects like bradycardia, hypotension and sedation. Lately dexamethasone has become popular as an adjuvant in paediatric caudals due to its safety profile. AIM: The aim of this study was to compare dexamethasone and clonidine coadministered with bupivicaine caudally in paediatric patients undergoing urogenital surgeries in terms of analgesia and adverse effects...
September 2016: Anesthesia, Essays and Researches
Ejas P Bava, Rashmi Ramachandran, Vimi Rewari, Chandralekha, Virinder Kumar Bansal, Anjan Trikha
BACKGROUND: Transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block has been used to provide intra- and post-operative analgesia with single incision laparoscopic (SIL) bariatric and gynecological surgery with mixed results. Its efficacy in providing analgesia for SIL cholecystectomy (SILC) via the same approach remains unexplored. AIMS: The primary objective of our study was to compare the efficacy of bilateral TAP block with local anesthetic infiltration for perioperative analgesia in patients undergoing SILC...
September 2016: Anesthesia, Essays and Researches
Luiz Eduardo Imbelloni, Geraldo Borges de Morais Filho
BACKGROUND: The fast-track concept refers to all phases of perioperative care: Preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative strategies. Although most research has focused on adherence to medication, adherence also encompasses numerous health-related behaviors. The aim of this prospective study was to determine the attitudes and awareness among health professionals involved in the treatment of elderly patients with fractures of the femur and the results of 400 patients. METHODS: The postoperative protocol acceleration was presented to various hospital departments through four seminars...
September 2016: Anesthesia, Essays and Researches
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