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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905696/the-curative-effect-of-early-use-of-enteral-immunonutrition-in-postoperative-gastric-cancer-a-meta-analysis
#1
Hu Qiang, Lu Hang, Sun Y Shui
INTRODUCTION: It's uncertain about the clinical efficacy which early enteral immunonutrition in postoperative gastric cancer patients,and this study attempts to assess its clinical efficacy. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: Use the search engine database incuding the Pubmed,the Cochrane library, Web of Science, Medline,and Embase,which there are comparative studies of early efficacy of enteral immune nutrition and standard enteral nutrition after gastric cancer operation.According to the studies,we use the RevMan 5...
December 1, 2016: Minerva Gastroenterologica e Dietologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904768/combined-vegfr-and-ctla-4-blockade-increases-the-antigen-presenting-function-of-intratumoral-dcs-and-reduces-the-suppressive-capacity-of-intratumoral-mdscs
#2
Stephanie Du Four, Sarah K Maenhout, Simone P Niclou, Kris Thielemans, Bart Neyns, Joeri L Aerts
Melanoma brain metastases (MBM) occur in 10% to 50% of melanoma patients. They are often associated with a high morbidity and despite the improvements in the treatment of advanced melanoma, including immunotherapy, patients with MBM still have a poor prognosis. Antiangiogenic treatment was shown to reduce the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment. Therefore we investigated the effect of the combination of VEGFR- and CTLA-4 blockade on the immune cells within the tumor microenvironment. In this study we investigated the effect of the combination of axitinib, a TKI against VEGFR-1, -2 and -3, with therapeutic inhibition of CTLA-4 in subcutaneous and intracranial mouse melanoma models...
2016: American Journal of Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903271/differential-humoral-and-cellular-immunity-induced-by-vaccination-using-plasmid-dna-and-protein-recombinant-expressing-the-ns3-protein-of-dengue-virus-type-3
#3
M L Hurtado-Melgoza, A Ramos-Ligonio, L M Álvarez-Rodríguez, T Meza-Menchaca, A López-Monteon
BACKGROUND: The dengue non-structural 3 (NS3) is a multifunctional protein, containing a serine-protease domain, located at the N-terminal portion, and helicase, NTPase and RTPase domains present in the C-terminal region. This protein is considered the main target for CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses during dengue infection, which may be involved in protection. However, few studies have been undertaken evaluating the use of this protein as a protective antigen against dengue, as well as other flavivirus...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903079/preclinical-evaluation-of-a-replication-deficient-recombinant-adenovirus-serotype-5-vaccine-expressing-guanylate-cyclase-c-and-the-padre-t-helper-epitope
#4
Adam Eugene Snook, Trevor R Baybutt, Terry Hyslop, Scott Arthur Waldman
There is an unmet need for improved therapeutics for colorectal cancer, the second leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide. Adjuvant chemotherapy only marginally improves survival in some patients, and has no benefit in others, underscoring the clinical opportunity for novel immunotherapeutic approaches to improve survival in colorectal cancer. In that context, guanylate cyclase C (GUCY2C) is an established biomarker and therapeutic target for metastatic colorectal cancer with immunological characteristics that promote durable antitumor efficacy without autoimmunity...
November 30, 2016: Human Gene Therapy Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902485/impacts-of-cigarette-smoking-on-immune-responsiveness-up-and-down-or-upside-down
#5
REVIEW
Feifei Qiu, Chun-Ling Liang, Huazhen Liu, Yu-Qun Zeng, Shaozhen Hou, Song Huang, Xiaoping Lai, Zhenhua Dai
Cigarette smoking is associated with numerous diseases and poses a serious challenge to the current healthcare system worldwide. Smoking impacts both innate and adaptive immunity and plays dual roles in regulating immunity by either exacerbation of pathogenic immune responses or attenuation of defensive immunity. Adaptive immune cells affected by smoking mainly include T helper cells (Th1/Th2/Th17), CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells, CD8+ T cells, B cells and memory T/B lymphocytes while innate immune cells impacted by smoking are mostly DCs, macrophages and NK cells...
November 25, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902371/mapping-b-lymphocytes-as-major-reservoirs-of-naturally-occurring-latent-equine-herpesvirus-5-infection
#6
Zelalem Mekuria, Charles El Hage, Nino P Ficorilli, Elizabeth A Washington, James R Gilkerson, Carol Hartley
Equine herpesvirus 5 (EHV5) is a commonly detected gammaherpesvirus which, along with the closely related EHV2, constitute the only two known Percaviruses that infect horses. Apart from detection in horse populations worldwide and the recent publication of the whole genome, there is little known about the biology and pathogenesis of this virus, with many assumptions made by parallels with EHV2. The long-term survival of gammaherpesviruses within infected hosts involves the establishment and maintenance of latency in selected cell and tissues types, particularly lymphocytes...
November 30, 2016: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902344/pre-infection-transcript-levels-of-fam26f-in-pbmcs-inform-about-overall-plasma-viral-load-in-acute-and-postacute-phase-after-siv-infection
#7
Aneela Javed, Nicole Leuchte, Gabriela Salinas, Lennart Opitz, Christiane Stahl-Hennig, Sieghart Sopper, Ulrike Sauermann
CD8+ cells from simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected long-term non-progressors and some uninfected macaques can suppress viral replication in vitro without killing the infected cells. The aim of the study was to identify factors responsible for non-cytolytic viral suppression by transcriptional profiling and to investigate their potential impact on SIV-replication. Results of microarray experiments and further validation with cells from infected and uninfected macaques revealed that FAM26F RNA levels distinguished CD8+ cells of controllers and non-controllers (p=0...
October 18, 2016: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900586/role-of-prolactin-in-promotion-of-immune-cell-migration-into-the-mammary-gland
#8
Riva Dill, Ameae M Walker
Immune cells in the mammary gland play a number of important roles, including protection against infection during lactation and, after passing into milk, modulation of offspring immunity. However, little is known about the mechanism of recruitment of immune cells to the lactating gland in the absence of infection. Given the importance of prolactin to other aspects of lactation, we hypothesized it would also play a role in immune cell recruitment. Prolactin treatment of adult female mice for a period equivalent to pregnancy and the first week of lactation increased immune cell flux through the mammary gland, as reflected in the number of immune cells in mammary gland-draining, but not other lymph nodes...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899981/the-effect-and-clinical-efficacy-of-lienal-polypeptide-injection-combined-with-folfox-chemotherapy-regimen-in-colon-cancer-patients
#9
Juan Zhou, Guoping Niu, Yunfeng Pei, Chunping Cao, Chen Ding, Guangming Sun, Jing Guo, Yong Liu, Yang Yu
The aim was to investigate the clinical efficacy and immunomodulatory effect of lienal polypeptide injection combined with postoperative FOLFOX chemotherapy regimen in colon cancer patients. A total of 84 colon cancer patients were selected between January, 2014 and December, 2015. The selected patients were randomly divided into the observation (42 patients) and control (42 patients) groups. The observation group patients were treated with FOLFOX chemotherapy regimen combined with lienal polypeptide, whereas, the control group patients were treated with FOLFOX chemotherapeutic regimen only...
November 2016: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899739/impact-of-immune-deficiency-on-remodeling-of-maternal-resistance-vasculature-4-weeks-postpartum-in-mice
#10
Elizabeth A Bonney, Ann Howard, Kendall Krebs, Kelly Begin, Kelsey Veilleux, Natalia I Gokina
Pregnancy manifests changes in the vascular and immune systems that persist postpartum (PP), have important implications for future pregnancies, and may modify responses to cardiovascular stress in late life. The association between immune and vascular function and the generation or progression of cardiovascular disease beg the question of whether altered immunity modifies pregnancy-induced changes in the vasculature. Our objective was to compare changes in the function and remodeling of systemic resistance vessels 4 weeks PP in normal C57BL/6 (B6), and immunodeficient mice recombinase 1-deficient/B6 (Rag1(-/-))...
November 28, 2016: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899225/humoral-and-cellular-response-after-varicella-vaccination-in-vzv-igg-seronegative-kidney-transplant-candidates
#11
Marcia M L Kho, Joke M Zuijderwijk, Annemiek A van der Eijk, Ronella de Kuiper, Marieken J Boer-Verschragen, Willem Weimar, Nicole M van Besouw
BACKGROUND: In immunocompromised patients, primary infection with VZV may have a disastrous clinical course. Vaccination of VZV-seronegative patients on the waiting list for renal transplantation may prevent severe disease. However, the immunologic response of end-stage renal disease patients to peptide vaccines is far from optimal. Our question was whether end-stage renal disease patients with undetectable VZV-IgG levels were able to mount an adequate humoral and cellular response to a live attenuated varicella vaccine...
November 26, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898686/gut-homing-cd4-and-cd8-t-cell-frequencies-in-hiv-infected-individuals-on-antiretroviral-treatment
#12
Olivia Briceño, Sandra Pinto-Cardoso, Nataly Rodríguez-Bernabe, Akio Murakami-Ogasawara, Gustavo Reyes-Terán
The depletion of mucosal CD4+ T-cells occurs early in HIV infection and despite years on antiretroviral treatment (ART), this population never reconstitutes to pre-HIV infection levels. In an effort to understand the effect of ART initiation and different ART regimens on the reconstitution of mucosal T cells within the gut associated lymphoid tissue (GALT), we quantified the frequency of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells expressing the gut homing receptors CCR9 and β7 in peripheral blood (PB) of HIV infected individuals naive to ART and treated individuals on both short-term (less than a year) and long-term ART (more than 2 years)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898336/a-homolog-of-the-variola-virus-b22-membrane-protein-contributes-to-ectromelia-virus-pathogenicity-in-the-mouse-footpad-model
#13
Sara E Reynolds, Patricia L Earl, Mahnaz Minai, Ian Moore, Bernard Moss
Most poxviruses encode a homolog of a ~200,000-kDa membrane protein originally identified in variola virus. We investigated the importance of the ectromelia virus (ECTV) homolog C15 in a natural infection model. In cultured mouse cells, the replication of a mutant virus with stop codons near the N-terminus (ECTV-C15Stop) was indistinguishable from a control virus (ECTV-C15Rev). However, for a range of doses injected into the footpads of BALB/c mice there was less mortality with the mutant. Similar virus loads were present at the site of infection with mutant or control virus whereas there was less ECTV-C15Stop in popliteal and inguinal lymph nodes, spleen and liver indicating decreased virus spread and replication...
November 26, 2016: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897162/batf3-selectively-determines-acquisition-of-cd8-dendritic-cell-phenotype-and-function
#14
Janin Chandra, Paula T Y Kuo, Anne M Hahn, Gabrielle T Belz, Ian H Frazer
Batf3 is a transcription factor that impacts the development of CD103(+) tissue-resident dendritic cells (DCs). However, whether Batf3 is absolutely required for the development of CD8(+) DCs remains controversial. Id2 is required for CD8(+) DC development. Here we show that bone marrow chimeric mice with a deletion of Id2 in the CD11c compartment lose the ability to reject a skin graft expressing a non-self protein antigen or mount a delayed hypersensitivity response. In contrast, Batf3((-/-)) mice remained competent for skin graft rejection and delayed hypersensitivity, and retained a CD8(+) DC population with markers characteristic of the CD11b(+) DC lineage, including CD11b, CD4 and CD172α, as well as the key regulator transcription factor IRF4, but lacked IRF8 expression...
November 29, 2016: Immunology and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897109/effect-of-the-modification-of-p24-peptide-antigen-on-dendritic-cell-uptake-and-t-cell-activation
#15
P L Smith, K J Norgate, E Hegarty, N Grageda, E Heelas, M Sommerfelt, T Lange, Arnt-Ove Hovden, B Sørenson, A Dalgleish, M Bodman-Smith
BACKGROUND: Vacc-4x is a candidate therapeutic vaccine consisting of 4 modified peptides based on conserved regions of HIV-1 p24Gag. Vacc4x has been shown to induce long term cellular immunity in immunized infected individuals resulting a reduction in viral load on treatment interruption. OBJECTIVE: Vacc-4x peptides are modified. In this study the effect of modification on uptake of the peptides into PBMC, their subsequent presentation and antigenicity was tested...
November 29, 2016: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896022/pdia3-gene-induces-visceral-hypersensitivity-in-rats-with-irritable-bowel-syndrome-through-the-dendritic-cell-mediated-activation-of-t-cells
#16
Zhaomeng Zhuang, Lu Zhang, Xiaoteng Wang, Liyuan Tao, Bin Lv
This study investigated the mechanism of protein disulfide-isomerase A3 (PDIA3)-induced visceral hypersensitivity in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Rats were treated with saline (control), acetic acid and restraint stress (IBS model), empty vector (RNAi control) and PDIA3-RNAi vector (PDIA3-RNAi). Mesenteric lymph node DCs (MLNDCs) and splenic CD4+/CD8+ T cells were isolated for co-cultivation. Compared with control, MLNDCs co-cultured with CD4+ or CD8+ T cells showed an increased ability to promote T cell proliferation and produced more IL-4 or IL-9 secretion...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895777/cryptotanshinone-inhibits-lung-tumor-growth-by-increasing-cd4-t-cell-cytotoxicity-through-activation-of-the-jak2-stat4-pathway
#17
Yonghong Man, Le Yang, Dongxian Zhang, Yongyi Bi
Cryptotanshinone is one of the fat-soluble phenanthrene quinone components. In vitro studies have shown that tanshinone compounds can inhibit the proliferation of various tumor cells and affect cell cycle distribution. The aim of the present study was to better understand the effect of cryptotanshinone on the inhibition of small cell lung cancer by cytotoxic cluster of differentiation (CD)4(+) T cells through activation of the Janus kinase 2/signal transducer and activator of transcription 4 (JAK2/STAT4) pathway...
November 2016: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895776/establishment-of-specific-cytotoxic-t-lymphocyte-culture-system-and-its-inhibitory-effect-on-ovarian-cancer
#18
Mingxing Sui, Lihui Si, Tianmin Xu, Manhua Cui
The present study aimed to establish a novel method for efficiently inducing cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) in vitro, in order to develop an immune-based therapy for suppressing and killing ovarian cancer cells with a high safety and efficacy. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were stimulated with CpG oligodeoxynucleotide (CpGODN) and ginsenoside Rg1, which were united as an immune adjuvant, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2/neu) antigen peptide, in order to establish a specific CTL culture system in vitro...
November 2016: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895178/conserved-region-c-functions-to-regulate-pd-1-expression-and-subsequent-cd8-t-cell-memory
#19
Alexander P R Bally, Yan Tang, Joshua T Lee, Benjamin G Barwick, Ryan Martinez, Brian D Evavold, Jeremy M Boss
Expression of programmed death 1 (PD-1) on CD8 T cells promotes T cell exhaustion during chronic Ag exposure. During acute infections, PD-1 is transiently expressed and has the potential to modulate CD8 T cell memory formation. Conserved region C (CR-C), a promoter proximal cis-regulatory element that is critical to PD-1 expression in vitro, responds to NFATc1, FoxO1, and/or NF-κB signaling pathways. Here, a CR-C knockout mouse was established to determine its role on PD-1 expression and the corresponding effects on T cell function in vivo...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895173/human-regulatory-t-cells-mediate-transcriptional-modulation-of-dendritic-cell-function
#20
Emily Mavin, Lindsay Nicholson, Syed Rafez Ahmed, Fei Gao, Anne Dickinson, Xiao-Nong Wang
Regulatory T cells (Treg) attenuate dendritic cell (DC) maturation and stimulatory function. Current knowledge on the functional impact of semimature DC is limited to CD4(+) T cell proliferation and cytokine production. Little is known about the molecular basis underpinning the functional effects of Treg-treated DC (Treg-DC). We present novel evidence that Treg-DC skewed CD4(+) naive T cell polarization toward a regulatory phenotype and impaired CD8(+) T cell allo-reactive responses, including their ability to induce target tissue damage in a unique in vitro human graft-versus-host disease skin explant model...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
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