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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735348/analysis-of-the-cd8-t-cell-anti-hiv-activity-in-heterologous-cell-co-cultures-reveals-the-benefit-of-multiple-hla-class-i-matches
#1
M Scott Killian, Fernando Teque, Ramu Sudhagoni
CD8(+) T lymphocytes can reduce the production of human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) by CD4(+) T cells by cytotoxic and non-cytotoxic mechanisms. To investigate the involvement of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I compatibility in anti-HIV responses, we co-cultured primary CD8(+) T cells, isolated from the peripheral blood of HIV-1-infected individuals, with panels of autologous and heterologous acutely HIV-1-infected primary CD4(+) T cells. Altogether, CD8(+) T cell anti-HIV activity was evaluated in more than 200 co-cultures...
July 22, 2017: Immunogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734174/old-and-new-adjuvants
#2
REVIEW
Amy S McKee, Philippa Marrack
Adjuvants have been deliberately added to vaccines since the 1920's when alum was discovered to boost antibody responses, leading to better protection. The first adjuvants were discovered by accident and were used in the safer but less immunogenic subunit vaccines, supposedly by providing an antigen depot to extend antigen presentation. Since that time, much has been discovered about how these adjuvants impact cells at the tissue site to activate innate immune responses, mobilize dendritic cells and drive adaptive immunity...
July 19, 2017: Current Opinion in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733484/cutting-edge-cd3-itam-diversity-is-required-for-optimal-tcr-signaling-and-thymocyte-development
#3
Matthew L Bettini, Po-Chein Chou, Clifford S Guy, Thomas Lee, Kate M Vignali, Dario A A Vignali
For the αβ or γδTCR chains to integrate extracellular stimuli into the appropriate intracellular cellular response, they must use the 10 ITAMs found within the CD3 subunits (CD3γε, CD3δε, and ζζ) of the TCR signaling complex. However, it remains unclear whether each specific ITAM sequence of the individual subunit (γεδζ) is required for thymocyte development or whether any particular CD3 ITAM motif is sufficient. In this article, we show that mice utilizing a single ITAM sequence (γ, ε, δ, ζa, ζb, or ζc) at each of the 10 ITAM locations exhibit a substantial reduction in thymic cellularity and limited CD4(-)CD8(-) (double-negative) to CD4(+)CD8(+) (double-positive) maturation because of low TCR expression and signaling...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732434/effects-of-intraperitoneal-injection-of-allogeneic-bone-marrow-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-on-bronchiolitis-obliterans-in-mice-model
#4
Sakine Işık, Nevin Uzuner, Meral Karaman, Özkan Karaman, Müge Kıray, İlknur Kozanoğlu, Hüsnü Alper Bağrıyanık, Zeynep Arıkan-Ayyıldız, Melis Kartal Yandım, Yusuf Baran
Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) can ameliorate a variety of lung diseases such as asthma, lung fibrosis, and acute lung injury by its anti-inflammatory and immunmodulatory effects. In this study, we developed a mouse model of bronchiolitis obliterans (BO) and evaluated the effects of the intraperitoneal administration of BMSCs on lung histopathology and cytokine levels. 25 BALB/c mice were divided into four groups; control group (Group I), BO developed and 1x106 BMSCs-injected group (Group II), non-BO, 1x106 BMSCs-injected group (Group III), and BO developed and saline-injected group (Group IV)...
June 2017: Iranian Journal of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732145/evaluation-of-primary-mediastinal-large-b-cell-lymphoma-by-flow-cytometry
#5
Sindhu Cherian, Jonathan R Fromm
BACKGROUND: Primary mediastinal large B cell lymphoma (PMLBCL) is a B cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (B-NHL) that shows morphologic, immunophenotypic, and genetic similarities to classical Hodgkin lymphoma (CHL). We evaluated the neoplastic and reactive infiltrate of PMLBCL by flow cytometry (FC). METHODS: 24 cases of PMLBCL were retrospectively characterized using FC combinations for B-NHL, T-NHL, and CHL. RESULTS: The CHL assay identified the neoplastic population (NP) in all cases, while the B-NHL assay identified the NP in 18 of 24 cases...
July 21, 2017: Cytometry. Part B, Clinical Cytometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732135/synovial-immunophenotype-and-anti-citrullinated-protein-antibodies-in-ra-patients-relationship-to-treatment-response-and-radiological-prognosis
#6
Carl Orr, Aurelie Najm, Monika Biniecka, Trudy McGarry, Chin-Teck Ng, Francis Young, Ursula Fearon, Douglas J Veale
OBJECTIVE: Serum anti-citrullinated peptide antibodies (ACPA) may be present before development of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and may predict more severe, erosive disease. This study examines synovial tissue immunophenotype according to ACPA status in RA patients, response to treatment and erosive status. METHODS: Consecutive RA patients were prospectively recruited and underwent clinical and serological assessment before and after treatment. Radiological assessment was performed at the time of clinical follow up...
July 21, 2017: Arthritis & Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730377/influence-of-vitamin-d-and-cotinine-on-t-regulatory-cells-and-asthma-severity-in-children
#7
Bolesław Kalicki, Agata Wawrzyniak, Agnieszka Lipińska-Opałka, Sławomir Lewicki, Robert Zdanowski
Asthma is a common chronic respiratory diseases in children. Understanding the immune mechanisms of epigenetic factors may contribute to a better control of asthma. This study seeks to determine the effects of serum vitamin D and urine cotinine on asthma severity and on T regulatory cells (Tregs) and other immune-related factors such as CD3, CD4, CD8, CD19, CD16/56, and anti-CD3 HLA-DR3. The study involved 34 children with asthma. Disease severity was assessed with the Asthma Control Test, spirometry, and the fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO)...
July 21, 2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727933/genotype-specific-acquisition-evolution-and-adaptation-of-characteristic-mutations-in-hepatitis-e-virus
#8
Aqsa Ikram, Mohamad S Hakim, Jian-Hua Zhou, Wenshi Wang, Maikel P Peppelenbosch, Qiuwei Pan
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is a major cause of acute hepatitis but also provokes chronic infection in immunocompromised patients. Although the pathogenesis and treatment outcome involve complex interplay between the virus and host, the nature of adaptive responses of HEV to the host immune system remain obscure at best. In this study, we employed large-scale proteomic bioinformatics to profile characteristic mutations in human HEV isolates associated to ribavirin treatment failure, chronic hepatitis, hepatic failure or altered immunoreactivity...
July 20, 2017: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726600/age-and-sex-associated-differences-in-phenotypic-and-functional-characteristics-of-peripheral-blood-lymphocytes-in-chimpanzees-pan-troglodytes
#9
Pramod Nehete, Elizabeth Magden, Bharti Nehete, Lawrence Williams, Christian Abee, K Sastry
Chimpanzees are the closest phylogenetic relatives to humans, sharing more than 98% genetic sequence identity. Thesegenetic similarities prompted the belief that chimpanzees can serve as an ideal model for human disease conditions andvaccine development. However, in light of the recent NIH decision to phase out biomedical research in chimpanzees and retire NIH-supported chimpanzees, data from the present study will continue to provide value for the care of aged and sick chimpanzees located in zoos, sanctuaries, and primate centers...
July 19, 2017: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725427/progressive-hypoventilation-due-to-mixed-cd8-and-cd4-lymphocytic-polymyositis-following-tremelimumab-durvalumab-treatment
#10
Sooraj John, Scott J Antonia, Trevor A Rose, Robert P Seifert, Barbara A Centeno, Aaron S Wagner, Ben C Creelan
BACKGROUND: The combination of CTLA-4 and PD-L1 inhibitors has a manageable adverse effect profile, although rare immune-related adverse events (irAE) can occur. CASE PRESENTATION: We describe an autoimmune polymyositis following a partial response to combination tremelimumab and durvalumab for the treatment of recurrent lung adenocarcinoma. Radiography revealed significant reduction in all metastases; however, the patient developed progressive neuromuscular hypoventilation due to lymphocytic destruction of the diaphragmatic musculature...
2017: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724920/interleukin-36%C3%AE-provides-protection-against-hsv-1-infection-but-does-not-modulate-initiation-of-adaptive-immune-responses
#11
Katelynn A Milora, Siva R Uppalapati, Julio C Sanmiguel, Wei Zou, Liselotte E Jensen
Interleukin-36 (IL-36) represents three cytokines, IL-36α, IL-36β and IL-36γ, which bind to the same receptor, IL-1RL2; however, their physiological function(s) remain poorly understood. Here, the role of IL-36 in immunity against HSV-1 was examined using the flank skin infection mouse model. Expression analyses revealed increased levels of IL-36α and IL-36β mRNA in infected skin, while constitutive IL-36γ levels remained largely unchanged. In human keratinocytes, IL-36α mRNA was induced by HSV-1, while IL-1β and TNFα increased all three IL-36 mRNAs...
July 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724616/marburg-virus-survivor-immune-responses-are-th1-skewed-with-limited-neutralizing-antibody-responses
#12
Spencer W Stonier, Andrew S Herbert, Ana I Kuehne, Ariel Sobarzo, Polina Habibulin, Chen V Abramovitch Dahan, Rebekah M James, Moses Egesa, Stephen Cose, Julius Julian Lutwama, Leslie Lobel, John M Dye
Until recently, immune responses in filovirus survivors remained poorly understood. Early studies revealed IgM and IgG responses to infection with various filoviruses, but recent outbreaks have greatly expanded our understanding of filovirus immune responses. Immune responses in survivors of Ebola virus (EBOV) and Sudan virus (SUDV) infections have provided the most insight, with T cell responses as well as detailed antibody responses having been characterized. Immune responses to Marburg virus (MARV), however, remain almost entirely uncharacterized...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723951/cd8-t-cells-provide-immune-protection-against-murine-disseminated-endotheliotropic-orientia-tsutsugamushi-infection
#13
Guang Xu, Nicole L Mendell, Yuejin Liang, Thomas R Shelite, Yenny Goez-Rivillas, Lynn Soong, Donald H Bouyer, David H Walker
Scrub typhus, caused by a Gram-negative obligately intracellular coccobacillus, Orientia tsutsugamushi, is a long neglected but important tropical disease. Orientia tsutsugamushi causes illness in one million people each year, and 1 billion people are at risk. Without appropriate diagnosis and treatment, the disease can cause severe multiorgan failure with a case fatality rate of 7-15%. The current gaps in knowledge of immunity include the unknown mechanisms of host immunity to O. tsutsugamushi. Using an intravenous (i...
July 19, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723925/immunologic-response-to-vaccine-challenge-in-pregnant-ptpn22-r620w-carriers-and-non-carriers
#14
Shelly H Tien, Juliet N Crabtree, Heather L Gray, Erik J Peterson
OBJECTIVES: Influenza infection is a significant cause of respiratory morbidity among pregnant women. Seasonal influenza vaccination engages innate immune receptors to promote protective immunity. A coding polymorphism (R620W) in PTPN22 imparts elevated risk for human infection and autoimmune disease, predisposes to diminished innate immune responses, and associates with reduced immunization responses. We sought to quantify the effects of PTPN22-R620W on humoral and cell-mediated immune responses to the inactivated influenza vaccine among healthy pregnant women...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723629/stat3-mutation-impacts-biological-and-clinical-features-of-t-lgl-leukemia
#15
Antonella Teramo, Gregorio Barilà, Giulia Calabretto, Chiara Ercolin, Thierry Lamy, Aline Moignet, Mikael Roussel, Cédric Pastoret, Matteo Leoncin, Cristina Gattazzo, Anna Cabrelle, Elisa Boscaro, Sara Teolato, Elisa Pagnin, Tamara Berno, Elena De March, Monica Facco, Francesco Piazza, Livio Trentin, Gianpietro Semenzato, Renato Zambello
STAT3 mutations have been described in 30-40% of T-large granular lymphocyte (T-LGL) leukemia patients, leading to STAT3 pathway activation. Considering the heterogeneity of the disease and the several immunophenotypes that LGL clone may express, the aim of this work was to evaluate whether STAT3 mutations might be associated with a distinctive LGL immunophenotype and/or might be indicative for specific clinical features.Our series of cases included a pilot cohort of 101 T-LGL leukemia patients (68 CD8+/CD4- and 33 CD4+/CD8±) from Padua Hematology Unit (Italy) and a validation cohort of additional 20 patients from Rennes Hematology Unit (France)...
June 27, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723549/interleukin-7-availability-is-maintained-by-a-hematopoietic-cytokine-sink-comprising-innate-lymphoid-cells-and-t%C3%A2-cells
#16
Christopher E Martin, Darina S Spasova, Kwesi Frimpong-Boateng, Hee-Ok Kim, Minji Lee, Kwang Soon Kim, Charles D Surh
Interleukin-7 (IL-7) availability determines the size and proliferative state of the resting T cell pool. However, the mechanisms that regulate steady-state IL-7 amounts are unclear. Using experimental lymphopenic mouse models and IL-7-induced homeostatic proliferation to measure IL-7 availability in vivo, we found that radioresistant cells were the source of IL-7 for both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells. Hematopoietic lineage cells, although irrelevant as a source of IL-7, were primarily responsible for limiting IL-7 availability via their expression of IL-7R...
July 18, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723478/low-t-cell-receptor-diversity-high-somatic-mutation-burden-and-high-neoantigen-load-as-predictors-of-clinical-outcome-in-muscle-invasive-bladder-cancer
#17
Noura J Choudhury, Kazuma Kiyotani, Kai Lee Yap, Alexa Campanile, Tatjana Antic, Poh Yin Yew, Gary Steinberg, Jae Hyun Park, Yusuke Nakamura, Peter H O'Donnell
BACKGROUND: The success of cancer immunotherapies has highlighted the potent ability of local adaptive immune responses to eradicate cancer cells by targeting neoantigens generated by somatic alterations. However, how these factors interact to drive the natural history of muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) is not well understood. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role of immune regulation in MIBC disease progression, we performed massively parallel T-cell receptor (TCR) sequencing of tumor-infiltrating T cells (TILs), in silico neoantigen prediction from exome sequences, and expression analysis of immune-related genes...
October 2016: European Urology Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720687/transcriptional-profiling-reveals-functional-dichotomy-between-human-slan-non-classical-monocytes-and-myeloid-dendritic-cells
#18
Nathalie van Leeuwen-Kerkhoff, Kristina Lundberg, Theresia M Westers, Shahram Kordasti, Hetty J Bontkes, Tanja D de Gruijl, Malin Lindstedt, Arjan A van de Loosdrecht
Human 6-sulfo LacNac-positive (slan(+)) cells have been subject to a paradigm debate. They have previously been classified as a distinct dendritic cell (DC) subset. However, evidence has emerged that they may be more related to monocytes than to DCs. To gain deeper insight into the functional specialization of slan(+) cells, we have compared them with both conventional myeloid DC subsets (CD1c(+) and CD141(+)) in human peripheral blood (PB). With the use of genome-wide transcriptional profiling, as well as functional tests, we clearly show that slan(+) cells form a distinct, non-DC-like population...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719012/the-impact-of-immunoglobulin-in-acute-hiv-infection-on-the-hiv-reservoir-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#19
J Tiraboschi, S Ray, K Patel, A Teague, M Pace, P Phalora, N Robinson, E Hopkins, J Meyerowitz, Y Wang, J Cason, S Kaye, J Sanderson, P Klenerman, S Fidler, J Frater, J Fox
OBJECTIVES: Antiretroviral therapy (ART) during acute HIV infection (AHI) restricts the HIV reservoir, but additional interventions are necessary to induce a cure. Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) is not HIV-specific but is safe and temporarily reduces the HIV reservoir in chronic HIV infection. We present a randomized controlled trial to investigate whether IVIG plus ART in AHI reduces the HIV reservoir and immune activation compared with ART alone. METHODS: Ten men with AHI (Fiebig II-IV) initiated ART (tenofovir, entricitabine, ritonavir boosted darunavir and raltegravir) at HIV-1 diagnosis and were randomized to ART alone or ART plus 5 days of IVIG, once virally suppressed (week 19)...
July 18, 2017: HIV Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718943/hepatitis-e-virus-orf-1-induces-proliferative-and-functional-t-cell-responses-in-patients-with-ongoing-and-resolved-hepatitis-e
#20
Jana Al-Ayoubi, Patrick Behrendt, Birgit Bremer, Pothakamuri Venkata Suneetha, Anett Gisa, Franziska Rinker, Michael P Manns, Markus Cornberg, Heiner Wedemeyer, Anke R M Kraft
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a major cause of acute viral hepatitis with > 3 million symptomatic cases per year accounting for 70,000 HEV-related deaths. HEV-specific T-cell responses have been investigated against structural proteins expressed by open reading frames (ORF) 2 and 3. T-cell responses against non-structural HEV proteins encoded by ORF1 are hardly studied. The aim of this study was to determine HEV ORF1-specific T-cell responses in comparison to ORF2/3 in patients exposed to HEV...
July 18, 2017: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
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