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Graphic medicine

Marta O Soares, Simon Walker, Stephen J Palmer, Mark J Sculpher
In recent years, Health Technology Assessment (HTA) processes specific to diagnostics and prognostic tests have been created in response to the increased pressure on health systems to decide not only which tests should be used in practice but also the best way to proceed, clinically, from the information they provide. These technologies differ in the way value is accrued to the population of users, depending critically on the value of downstream health care choices. This paper defines an analytical framework for establishing the value of diagnostic and prognostic tests for HTA in a way that is consistent with methods used for the evaluation of other health care technologies...
March 1, 2018: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
Traci A Wolbrink, Lucy Rubin, Jeffrey P Burns, Barry Markovitz
INTRODUCTION: The number of websites for the critical care provider is rapidly growing, including websites that are part of the Free Open Access Med(ical ed)ucation (FOAM) movement. With this rapidly expanding number of websites, critical appraisal is needed to identify quality websites. The last major review of critical care websites was published in 2011, and thus a new review of the websites relevant to the critical care clinician is necessary. METHODS: A new assessment tool for evaluating critical care medicine education websites, the Critical Care Medical Education Website Quality Evaluation Tool (CCMEWQET), was modified from existing tools...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Intensive Care Medicine
Bethany Ober Mannon
The field of narrative medicine holds that personal narratives about illness have the potential to give illness meaning and to create order out of disparate facets of experience, thereby aiding a patient's treatment and resisting universalizing medical discourse. Two narratives of bipolar disorder, Kay Redfield Jamison's prose memoir An Unquiet Mind (1995) and Ellen Forney's graphic memoir Marbles (2012) challenge these ideas. These writers demonstrate that one result of bipolar disorder is a rupture to their sense of identity, making straightforward and verbal forms of narrative impossible...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Medical Humanities
William J Doan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 6, 2018: Annals of Internal Medicine
Sajan Patel, Alvin Rajkomar, James D Harrison, Priya A Prasad, Victoria Valencia, Sumant R Ranji, Michelle Mourad
BACKGROUND: Audit and feedback improves clinical care by highlighting the gap between current and ideal practice. We combined best practices of audit and feedback with continuously generated electronic health record data to improve performance on quality metrics in an inpatient setting. METHODS: We conducted a cluster randomised control trial comparing intensive audit and feedback with usual audit and feedback from February 2016 to June 2016. The study subjects were internal medicine teams on the teaching service at an urban tertiary care hospital...
March 5, 2018: BMJ Quality & Safety
Christian M Rodríguez-Razón, Irinea Yañez-Sánchez, Vicente O Ramos-Santillan, Celso Velásquez-Ordóñez, Susan A Gutiérrez-Rubio, Maritza R García-García, Roció I López-Roa, Pedro E Sánchez-Hernández, Adrian Daneri-Navarro, Trinidad García-Iglesias
Background: Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have attracted considerable attention due to the variety of their applications in medicine and other sciences. AgNPs have been used in vitro for treatment of various diseases, such as hepatitis B and herpes simplex infections as well as colon, cervical, and lung cancers. In this study, we assessed the effect on proliferation, adhesion, and apoptosis in breast cancer cell lines of different molecular profiles (MCF7, HCC1954, and HCC70) exposed to AgNPs (2-9 nm)...
2018: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Meriem Zerrouki, Farid Benkaci-Ali
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) can oxidize and thus damage DNA. Exposure to high levels of ROS is therefore linked with the development of severe illnesses such as cancer, diabetes, and coronary heart disease. Effective treatments for these diseases are yet to be found, despite intensive research. However, it is known that the natural nonenzymatic repair of DNA damage using phytophenols occurs more rapidly than the corresponding enzymatic repair process. Carvacrol, thymol, thymohydroquinone, and p-cymene-2,3-diol are strong natural antioxidant phytophenols that are found in medicinal plants...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Molecular Modeling
Guilin Chen, Jianlin Wu, Na Li, Mingquan Guo
Rhamnus davurica Pall. (R. davurica) has been used as a traditional medicine for many years in China and abroad and shown a wide spectrum of biological activities. Previously, we reported the phytochemical fingerprinting profile of R. davurica, its distinct anti-proliferative activities against HT-29 and SGC-7901 cell lines, and the topoisomerase I (Top I) ligands based on bio-affinity ultrafiltration and HPLC-MS (UF-HPLC-MS). Nevertheless, among the 32 peaks detected in the fingerprinting profile, the common bioactive constituents responsible for the anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative activities in the extracts remain elusive...
February 24, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Maria J Costa, Thomas Drury
To gain regulatory approval, a new medicine must demonstrate that its benefits outweigh any potential risks, ie, that the benefit-risk balance is favourable towards the new medicine. For transparency and clarity of the decision, a structured and consistent approach to benefit-risk assessment that quantifies uncertainties and accounts for underlying dependencies is desirable. This paper proposes two approaches to benefit-risk evaluation, both based on the idea of joint modelling of mixed outcomes that are potentially dependent at the subject level...
February 22, 2018: Pharmaceutical Statistics
Ismail Ocsoy, Didar Tasdemir, Sumeyye Mazicioglu, Weihong Tan
The integration of nanotechnology in medicine has had a tremendous impact in the past few decades. The discovery of synthesis of nanomaterials (NMs) and their functions as versatile tools promoted various applications in nano-biotechnology and nanomedicine. Although the physical and chemical methods are still considered as commonly used methods, they introduce several drawbacks such as the use of toxic chemicals (solvent, reducing, and capping agents) and poor control of size, size distribution, and morphology, respectively...
February 21, 2018: Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
Carol Tilley
The representations of physicians and medical practice found in comic strips, comic books, and graphic novels throughout the past century reflect broader representational trends in popular visual media. Drawing on examples including Winsor McCay's Dream of the Rarebit Fiend, the superhero comics character Stephen Strange/Doctor Strange, and contemporary graphic medicine, this article outlines the shifting models for depicting physicians and medical ethics in comics. It concludes that contemporary representations are often more realistic and nuanced, although gender and racial diversity along with diversity in medical specializations remains problematic...
February 1, 2018: AMA Journal of Ethics
Linda S Raphael, Madden Rowell
This essay argues that we should judge the illustrations in a graphic novel (often a memoir) in the context of the entire work. Judging a work on its emotive effects and the values it expresses, we can consider the ways a graphic novel represents the experience of illness, disability, or injury.
February 1, 2018: AMA Journal of Ethics
Susan M Squier
Parasites!, a 2010 comic sponsored by the Wellcome Trust Centre for Molecular Parasitology, demonstrates that a graphic narrative can play a role in energizing public debate. Part of the genre known as graphic medicine-comics about illness, treatment, disability, and caregiving-Parasites! is intended to educate readers of all ages about illnesses less known in the developed world. Two visual strategies in particular enable the comic to offer an alternative and aesthetic response to questions about developing drugs to treat tropical diseases for profit...
February 1, 2018: AMA Journal of Ethics
Kimberly R Myers, Michael D F Goldenberg
Graphic medicine is a swiftly growing movement that explores, theoretically and practically, the use of comics in medical education and patient care. At the heart of graphic medicine are graphic pathographies, stories of illness conveyed in comic form. These stories are helpful tools for health care professionals who seek new insight into the personal, lived experience of illness and for patients who want to learn more about their disease from others who have actually experienced it. Featuring excerpts from five graphic pathographies, this essay illustrates how the medium can be used to educate patients and enhance empathy in health care professionals, particularly with regard to informed consent and end-of-life issues...
February 1, 2018: AMA Journal of Ethics
Mark Tschaepe
I advocate using graphic medicine in introductory medical ethics courses to help trainees learn about patients' experiences of autonomy. Graphic narratives about this content offer trainees opportunities to gain insights into making diagnoses and recommending treatments. Graphic medicine can also illuminate aspects of patients' experiences of autonomy differently than other genres. Specifically, comics allow readers to consider visual and text-based representations of a patient's actions, speech, thoughts, and emotions...
February 1, 2018: AMA Journal of Ethics
Megan Yu
Although graphic pathographies have recently been recognized as playing an important role in medical care, they have not been formally incorporated in many medical school curricula. In this paper, I discuss current applications of graphic pathographies in medicine as well as some potential ethical and epistemological challenges that can arise when using these narratives. Health professionals and medical educators should understand when, why, and how to use graphic pathographies with the goal of enhancing medical education and patient care...
February 1, 2018: AMA Journal of Ethics
Fernando Antoñanzas, Roberto Rodríguez-Ibeas, Carmelo A Juárez-Castelló
In this article, we model the behavior of a pharmaceutical firm that has marketing authorization for a new therapy believed to be a candidate for personalized use in a subset of patients, but that lacks information as to why a response is seen only in some patients. We characterize the optimal outcome-based reimbursement policy a health authority should follow to encourage the pharmaceutical firm to undertake research and development activities to generate the information needed to effectively stratify patients...
February 15, 2018: PharmacoEconomics
Zhihong Liu, Jiewen Du, Xin Yan, Jiali Zhong, Lu Cui, Jinyuan Lin, Lizhu Zeng, Peng Ding, Pin Chen, Xinxin Zhou, Huihao Zhou, Qiong Gu, Jun Xu
Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) has been widely used and proven effective in the long-term clinical practice. However, the molecular mechanism of action for many TCMs remains unclear due to the complexity of many ingredients and their interactions with biological receptors. This is one of the major roadblocks in TCM modernization. In order to solve this problem, we have developed TCMAnalyzer, which is a free web-based toolkit allowing a user to: 1) identify the potential compounds that are responsible for the bioactivities for a TCM herb through scaffold-activity relation searches using structural search techniques, 2) investigate the molecular mechanism of actions for a TCM herb at systemic level, 3) explore the potential targeted bioactive herbs...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling
Faical Alaoui Abdalaoui Slimani, M'hamed Bentourkia
There are several computer programs or combination of programs for radiation tracking and other information in tissues by using Monte Carlo simulation [1]. Among these are GEANT4 [2] programs provided as classes that can be incorporated in C++ codes to achieve different tasks in radiation interactions with matter. GEANT4 made the physics easier but requires often a long learning-curve that implies a good knowledge of C++ and the Geant4 architecture. GAMOS [3], the Geant4-based Architecture for Medicine-Oriented Simulations, facilitates the use of Geant4 by providing a script language that covers almost all the needs of a radiotherapy simulation but it is obviously out of reach of biological researchers...
January 2018: Physica Medica: PM
Kevin Dueck
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 6, 2018: Annals of Internal Medicine
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