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Police Use of Force

Kimberly Barsamian Kahn, Joel S Steele, Jean M McMahon, Greg Stewart
Although studies often find racial disparities in policing outcomes, less is known about how suspect race biases police interactions as they unfold. This study examines what is differentially occurring during police-suspect interactions for White, Black, and Latino suspects across time. It is hypothesized that racial bias may be more evident earlier in interactions, when less information about the situation is available. One hundred thirty-nine (62 White, 42 Black, and 35 Latino) use-of-force case files and associated written narratives from a medium to large size urban police department in the United States were analyzed...
October 20, 2016: Law and Human Behavior
Jason P Stopyra, William P Bozeman, David W Callaway, James Winslow, Henderson D McGinnis, Justin Sempsrott, Lisa Evans-Taylor, Roy L Alson
There is some controversy about whether ballistic protective equipment (body armor) is required for medical responders who may be called to respond to active shooter mass casualty incidents. In this article, we describe the ongoing evolution of recommendations to optimize medical care to injured victims at such an incident. We propose that body armor is not mandatory for medical responders participating in a rapid-response capacity, in keeping with the Hartford Consensus and Arlington Rescue Task Force models...
2016: Journal of Special Operations Medicine: a Peer Reviewed Journal for SOF Medical Professionals
Ali Khorshidi, Elaheh Ainy, Seyed Saeed Hashemi Nazari, Hamid Soori
BACKGROUND: Road traffic injuries (RTIs) are the main causes of death and disability in Iran. However, very few studies about the temporal variations of RTIs have been published to date. OBJECTIVES: This study was conducted to investigate the temporal pattern of RTIs in Iran in 2012. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All road traffic accidents (RTAs) reported to traffic police during a one-year period (March 21, 2012 through March 21, 2013) were investigated after obtaining permission from the law enforcement force of the Islamic Republic of Iran...
June 2016: Archives of Trauma Research
Karishma Furtado, Kira Hudson Banks
The Ferguson Commission was an independent body of 16 commissioners in operation from November 2014 to December 2015 and appointed by Missouri governor Jay Nixon to examine the root causes underlying the death of Michael Brown Jr. Its report, "Forward Through Ferguson: A Path Toward Racial Equity," raises many issues on racial equity that public health is well suited to address, such as trends in police use of force, the health implications of the school-based discipline gap, and the health benefits of a coordinated housing strategy...
November 2016: American Journal of Public Health
Francesco Saverio Romolo, Samantha Connell, Carlotta Ferrari, Guillaume Suarez, Jean-Jacques Sauvain, Nancy B Hopf
The analytical capability to detect hydrogen peroxide vapour can play a key role in localizing a site where a H2O2 based Improvised Explosive (IE) is manufactured. In security activities it is very important to obtain information in a short time. For this reason, an analytical method to be used in security activity needs portable devices. The authors have developed the first analytical method based on a portable luminometer, specifically designed and validated to locate IE manufacturing sites using quantitative on-site vapour analysis for H2O2...
November 1, 2016: Talanta
Michael Collins, Christopher Donnelly, Shane Cameron, Mark Tahtouh, Helen Salouros
In September 2015, eighty litres of a viscous, light-red liquid, described as hair product, was seized by the Australian Border Force (ABF). Initial testing by ABF indicated that the liquid was the MDMA precursor chemical safrole and custody of the material was transferred to the Australian Federal Police (AFP) who coordinated all subsequent investigations. Initial gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis by AFP indicated that the material was not safrole and samples of the liquid were transferred to the National Measurement Institute Australia (NMIA) for identification...
August 30, 2016: Drug Testing and Analysis
Michael G Feasel, Ariane Wohlfarth, John M Nilles, Shaokun Pang, Robert L Kristovich, Marilyn A Huestis
Carfentanil is an ultra-potent synthetic opioid. No human carfentanil metabolism data are available. Reportedly, Russian police forces used carfentanil and remifentanil to resolve a hostage situation in Moscow in 2002. This alleged use prompted interest in the pharmacology and toxicology of carfentanil in humans. Our study was conducted to identify human carfentanil metabolites and to assess carfentanil's metabolic clearance, which could contribute to its acute toxicity in humans. We used Simulations Plus's ADMET Predictor™ and Molecular Discovery's MetaSite™ to predict possible metabolite formation...
August 5, 2016: AAPS Journal
Allison L Skinner, Ingrid J Haas
Racial disparities in policing and recent high-profile incidents resulting in the deaths of Black men have ignited a national debate on policing policies. Given evidence that both police officers and Black men may be associated with threat, we examined the impact of perceived threat on support for reformed policing policies. Across three studies we found correlational evidence that perceiving police officers as threatening predicts increased support for reformed policing practices (e.g., limiting the use of lethal force and matching police force demographics to those of the community)...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Karsten Lunze, Anita Raj, Debbie M Cheng, Emily K Quinn, Fatima I Lunze, Jane M Liebschutz, Carly Bridden, Alexander Y Walley, Elena Blokhina, Evgeny Krupitsky, Jeffrey H Samet
INTRODUCTION: Police violence against people who inject drugs (PWID) is common in Russia and associated with HIV risk behaviours. Sexual violence from police against women who use drugs has been reported anecdotally in Russia. This mixed-methods study aimed to evaluate sexual violence from police against women who inject drugs via quantitative assessment of its prevalence and HIV risk correlates, and through qualitative interviews with police, substance users and their providers in St...
2016: Journal of the International AIDS Society
Gerhard Kernbach-Wighton, Cornelius Hess, Burkhard Madea
In most cases, bodily harm results from the use of sharp objects or blunt force. This paper deals with a 42-year-old pharmacist who was known to the police and the courts because of several previous convictions for bodily injury. The man had visited a pub just before it closed and was therefore not served any drinks. He got angry about this and returned to his pharmacy (within walking distance) to fetch three disposable syringes which he filled with phosphoric acid (85%). Through the open pub window, he splattered the acid from the syringes on two guests and the host, who were hit on the upper part of their bodies and the arms...
May 2016: Archiv Für Kriminologie
Shabir Ahmed Dhar, Tahir-Ahmed Dar, Sharief-Ahmed Wani, Saheel Maajid, Jawed Ahmed Bhat, Naseer Ahmed Mir, Imtiyaz Hussain Dar, Shahid Hussain
PURPOSE: Rubber bullets are considered a non-lethal method of crowd control and are being used over the world. However the literature regarding the pattern and management of these injuries is scarce for the forensic pathologist as well as for the traumatologist. The objective of this report was to add our experience to the existing literature. METHODS: From June 2008 to August 2010 the Government Hospital for Bone and Joint Surgery Barzulla and the Department of Orthopaedics, SKIMS Medical College/Hospital Bemina Srinagar received 28 patients for management of their orthopaedic injuries caused by rubber bullets...
June 1, 2016: Chinese Journal of Traumatology, Zhonghua Chuang Shang za Zhi
Paola A Prada, Mario Chávez Rodríguez
Within the framework of an internal armed conflict in Colombia, the use of antipersonnel mines by revolutionary armed forces represents a strategic factor for these groups. Antipersonnel mines are used by these revolutionary forces as a mean to hinder the advancement of the national armed forces in the recovery of territory and to protect tactical natural resources and illegal economies within a given area. These antipersonnel mines and improvised explosive devices (IEDs) are not of industrial manufacturing, and have a variety of activating mechanisms as well as non-metal materials which make them difficult for successful detection...
July 2016: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
Michele Goodwin
Punishing pregnant women increasingly serves as a litmus test in political discourse, inviting more than a metaphor about state sanctioned violence targeted at women. In 2016, candidates for the United States presidency threatened to defund Planned Parenthood if elected and a leading candidate promised he would "punish" pregnant women who seek abortions. Other presidential candidates urged that even victims of rape and incest should be forced to carry their pregnancies to term, imposing yet another penalty or strike against sexually violated women and girls...
2016: Health Matrix
Abigail A Sewell, Kevin A Jefferson, Hedwig Lee
A growing body of research highlights the collateral consequences of mass incarceration, including stop-and-frisk policing tactics. Living in a neighborhood with aggressive policing may affect one's mental health, especially for men who are the primary targets of police stops. We examine whether there is an association between psychological distress and neighborhood-level aggressive policing (i.e., frisking and use of force by police) and whether that association varies by gender. The 2009-2011 New York City (NYC) Stop, Question, and Frisk Database is aggregated to the neighborhood-level (N = 34) and merged with individual data from the 2012 NYC Community Health Survey (N = 8066) via the United Hospital Fund neighborhood of respondents' residence...
June 2016: Social Science & Medicine
K V Nelson, A P Smith
BACKGROUND: Police are exposed to a wide range of stressors and this is especially true in developing countries such as Jamaica. Exposure to psychosocial stressors and use of maladaptive coping styles can result in mental ill-health. AIMS: To examine the relationship between work characteristics, coping and mental health in Jamaican police officers and to test whether work characteristics are indirectly associated with mental health outcomes through perceived job stress and job satisfaction...
August 2016: Occupational Medicine
Anne-Claire Vergnaud, Maria Aresu, Dennis McRobie, Deepa Singh, Jeanette Spear, Andy Heard, Paul Elliott
BACKGROUND: Terrestrial Trunked Radio (TETRA) is a digital communication system progressively adopted by Police Forces in Great Britain since 2001. In 2000, the UK Independent Expert Group on Mobile Phones suggested that exposure to TETRA-like signal modulation might have adverse effects on health. The Airwave Health Monitoring Study was established to investigate possible long-term effects of TETRA use on health. This requires estimation of TETRA use among Police Force employees participating in the study...
July 2016: Environmental Research
Steven B Karch
The term "positional asphyxia" was originally used to describe the situation in which the upper airways becomes compromised by sharp angulation of the head or neck, or where the chest wall is splinted and the diaphragm is prevented from moving because of an unusual position of the body. The term was redefined in the early 1980s to describe sudden death during physical restraint of an individual who is in a prone position. A large percent of reported victims were overweight males. Most were in early middle age and manifesting psychotic behavior at the time of death...
July 2016: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
Simon Baldwin, Christine Hall, Craig Bennell, Brittany Blaskovits, Chris Lawrence
STUDY OBJECTIVE: The frequency with which the police encounter non-fatal cases of Excited Delirium Syndrome (ExDS) has not been well studied. To date only a single prospective, epidemiologic study has been completed to determine the prevalence of the features of ExDS in police use of force (UoF) encounters. We examined a cluster of previously published features associated with ExDS to establish if these features were consistently recognizable across policing populations, thus demonstrating reproducibility...
July 2016: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
Alison V Hall, Erika V Hall, Jamie L Perry
In late 2014, a series of highly publicized police killings of unarmed Black male civilians in the United States prompted large-scale social turmoil. In the current review, we dissect the psychological antecedents of these killings and explain how the nature of police work may attract officers with distinct characteristics that may make them especially well-primed for negative interactions with Black male civilians. We use media reports to contextualize the precipitating events of the social unrest as we ground our explanations in theory and empirical research from social psychology and industrial and organizational (I/O) psychology...
April 2016: American Psychologist
Chris Baber, Richard McMaster
Using examples of incidents that UK Police Forces deal with on a day-to-day basis, we explore the macrocognition of incident response. Central to our analysis is the idea that information relating to an incident is translated from negotiated to structured and actionable meaning, in terms of the Community of Practice of the personnel involved in incident response. Through participant observation of, and interviews with, police personnel, we explore the manner in which these different types of meaning shift over the course of incident...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
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