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Police Use of Force

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131255/the-correlation-between-the-expression-of-adam17-egfr-and-ki-67-in-malignant-gliomas
#1
J Sun, D-M Li, J Huang, J Liu, B Sun, D-L Fu, G-S Mao
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyze the depolymerization in metalloproteinase (ADAM17), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), the expression of Ki-67 of glioma patients and the correlations with malignancy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 53 brain glioma samples resected from patients who had surgery from April 2015 to May 2016 at Chinese People's Armed Police Force General Hospital were selected. According to the degree of malignancy: 22 patients were divided into a deterioration group (stage I to II); 31 patients in highly deteriorated group (stage III to IV); 14 brain tissue samples of traumatic decompression from the hospital as control group...
October 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128127/a-crossbow-suicide
#2
Laura Panata, Massimo Lancia, Alessandra Persichini, Sergio Scalise Pantuso, Mauro Bacci
The crossbow is an ancient ranged weapon originally conceived for war and hunting. Although nowadays its use in warfare has been surpassed by firearms, it continues to be used in hunting, sports and recreation. The authors present the case of a 40-year-old man who suffered from severe depression. When his condition further deteriorated, doctors ordered a forced hospitalization but, just a few hours before the measure became effective, the man committed suicide using a crossbow. The autopsy and police investigation showed possession of the crossbow darts which the man used to shoot himself in the head...
October 18, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098424/a-cross-sectional-investigation-into-the-occupational-and-socio-demographic-characteristics-of-british-police-force-employees-reporting-a-dietary-pattern-associated-with-cardiometabolic-risk-findings-from-the-airwave-health-monitoring-study
#3
Rachel Gibson, Rebeca Eriksen, Deepa Singh, Anne-Claire Vergnaud, Andrew Heard, Queenie Chan, Paul Elliott, Gary Frost
PURPOSE: The aims of this study were to (1) determine the association between diet quality using the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) score and cardiometabolic risk in a British working population and (2) identify employee characteristics associated with reporting a poorer quality dietary pattern. METHODS: British police employees enrolled (2007-2012) into the Airwave Health Monitoring Study (n = 5527) were included for sex-specific cross-sectional analyses...
November 2, 2017: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089008/specialized-police-based-mental-health-crisis-response-the-first-10-years-of-colorado-s-crisis-intervention-team-implementation
#4
Hari-Mandir K Khalsa, Attila C Denes, Diane M Pasini-Hill, Jeffrey C Santelli, Ross J Baldessarini
OBJECTIVE: This study examined the implementation of crisis intervention teams by law enforcement agencies in Colorado. METHODS: Rates of Special Weapons and Tactics (SWAT) use, arrests, use of force, and injuries were assessed during 6,353 incidents involving individuals experiencing a mental health crisis. Relationships among original complaint, psychiatric illness, substance abuse, violence risk, and disposition of crisis calls were analyzed. RESULTS: Rates of SWAT use (<1%), injuries (<1%), arrests (<5%), and use of force (<5%) were low...
November 1, 2017: Psychiatric Services: a Journal of the American Psychiatric Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066612/a-systematic-review-of-health-promotion-intervention-studies-in-the-police-force-study-characteristics-intervention-design-and-impacts-on-health
#5
REVIEW
Freya MacMillan, Diana Karamacoska, Aymen El Masri, Kate A McBride, Genevieve Z Steiner, Amelia Cook, Gregory S Kolt, Nerida Klupp, Emma S George
To systematically review studies of health promotion intervention in the police force. Four databases were searched for articles reporting on prepost single and multigroup studies in police officers and trainees. Data were extracted and bias assessed to evaluate study characteristics, intervention design and the impact of interventions on health. Database searching identified 25 articles reporting on 21 studies relevant to the aims of this review. Few studies (n=3) were of long duration (≥6 months). Nine of 21 studies evaluated structured physical activity and/or diet programmes only, 5 studies used education and behaviour change support-only interventions, 5 combined structured programmes with education and behaviour change support, and 2 studies used computer prompts to minimise sedentary behaviour...
October 24, 2017: Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940465/police-officers-volunteering-for-rather-than-being-assigned-to-crisis-intervention-team-cit-training-evidence-for-a-beneficial-self-selection-effect
#6
Michael T Compton, Roger Bakeman, Beth Broussard, Barbara D'Orio, Amy C Watson
Officers' volunteering for Crisis Intervention Team (CIT) training-rather than being assigned-is assumed to be an important, beneficial self-selection bias. This bias remains poorly characterized, though CIT officers are more likely to be female and to have had exposure to the mental health field. We determined whether or not self-selection is beneficial with regard to knowledge, attitudes, and skills, as well as level of force used (i.e., no or low force versus any form of physical force) and disposition of subjects, in actual encounters...
September 22, 2017: Behavioral Sciences & the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931967/can-we-trust-measures-of-political-trust-assessing-measurement-equivalence-in-diverse-regime-types
#7
Irena Schneider
Do standard "trust in government" survey questions deliver measures which are reliable and equivalent in meaning across diverse regime types? I test for the measurement equivalence of political trust in a sample of 35 former Soviet and European countries using the 2010 Life in Transition Survey II conducted by the World Bank and European Bank for Reconstruction and Development. Employing multiple group confirmatory factor analysis, I find that trust perceptions in central political institutions differ from (1) trust in regional and local political institutions, (2) trust in protective institutions like the armed forces and police and (3) trust in order institutions like the courts and police...
2017: Social Indicators Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926374/reducing-urban-violence-a-contrast-of-public-health-and-criminal-justice-approaches
#8
Magdalena Cerdá, Melissa Tracy, Katherine M Keyes
BACKGROUND: Cities are investing millions in Cure Violence, a public health approach to reduce urban violence by targeting at-risk youth and redirecting conflict to non-violent responses. The impact of such a program compared to criminal justice responses is unknown because experiments directly comparing criminal justice and public health approaches to violence prevention are infeasible with observational data. We simulated experiments to test the influence of two interventions on violence: a) Cure Violence; and b) directed police patrol in violence hot spots...
September 18, 2017: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903578/mental-health-services-use-trends-in-canadian-veterans-a-population-based-retrospective-cohort-study-in-ontario
#9
Alyson L Mahar, Alice B Aiken, Heidi Cramm, Marlo Whitehead, Patti Groome, Paul Kurdyak
OBJECTIVE: A substantial evidence base in the peer-reviewed literature exists investigating mental illness in the military, but relatively less is documented about mental illness in veterans. This study uses provincial, administrative data to study the use of mental health services by Canadian veterans in Ontario. METHOD: This was a retrospective cohort study of Canadian Armed Forces and Royal Canadian Mounted Police veterans who were released between 1990 and 2013 and resided in Ontario...
January 1, 2017: Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. Revue Canadienne de Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898969/job-specific-mandatory-medical-examinations-for-the-police-force
#10
J S Boschman, C T J Hulshof, M H W Frings-Dresen, J K Sluiter
Background: Mandatory medical examinations (MMEs) of workers should be based on the health and safety requirements that are needed for effectively performing the relevant work. For police personnel in the Netherlands, no job-specific MME exists that takes the specific tasks and duties into account. Aims: To provide the Dutch National Police with a knowledge base for job-specific MMEs for police personnel that will lead to equitable decisions from an occupational health perspective about who can perform police duties...
August 1, 2017: Occupational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889867/an-investigation-into-the-effect-of-surveillance-drones-on-textile-evidence-at-crime-scenes
#11
Alistair Bucknell, Tom Bassindale
With increasing numbers of Police forces using drones for crime scene surveillance, the effect of the drones on trace evidence present needs evaluation. In this investigation the effect of flying a quadcopter drone at different heights over a controlled scene and taking off at different distances from the scene were measured. Yarn was placed on a range of floor surfaces and the number lost or moved from their original position was recorded. It was possible to estimate "safe" distances above and take off distance from the bath mat (2m and 1m respectively), and carpet tile (3m and 1m) which were the roughest surfaces...
September 2017: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886163/effectiveness-of-a-training-program-for-police-officers-who-come-into-contact-with-people-with-mental-health-problems-a-pragmatic-randomised-controlled-trial
#12
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Arabella Scantlebury, Caroline Fairhurst, Alison Booth, Catriona McDaid, Nicola Moran, Adwoa Parker, Rebecca Payne, William J Scott, David Torgerson, Martin Webber, Catherine Hewitt
INTRODUCTION: Police officers frequently come into contact with individuals with mental health problems. Specialist training in this area for police officers may improve how they respond to individuals with mental health problems; however, evidence to support this is sparse. This study evaluated the effectiveness of one bespoke mental health training package for frontline police officers relative to routine training. DESIGN: Pragmatic, two-armed cluster randomised controlled trial in one police force in England...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876965/analyzing-decision-logs-to-understand-decision-making-in-serious-crime-investigations
#13
Coral J Dando, Thomas C Ormerod
Objective To study decision making by detectives when investigating serious crime through the examination of decision logs to explore hypothesis generation and evidence selection. Background Decision logs are used to record and justify decisions made during serious crime investigations. The complexity of investigative decision making is well documented, as are the errors associated with miscarriages of justice and inquests. The use of decision logs has not been the subject of an empirical investigation, yet they offer an important window into the nature of investigative decision making in dynamic, time-critical environments...
December 2017: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863730/the-challenges-of-identifying-and-classifying-child-sexual-abuse-material
#14
Juliane A Kloess, Jessica Woodhams, Helen Whittle, Tim Grant, Catherine E Hamilton-Giachritsis
The aim of the present study was to (a) assess the reliability with which indecent images of children (IIOC) are classified as being of an indecent versus nonindecent nature, and (b) examine in detail the decision-making process engaged in by law enforcement personnel who undertake the difficult task of identifying and classifying IIOC as per the current legislative offense categories. One experienced researcher and four employees from a police force in the United Kingdom coded an extensive amount of IIOC ( n = 1,212-2,233) to determine if they (a) were deemed to be of an indecent nature, and (b) depicted a child...
August 1, 2017: Sexual Abuse: a Journal of Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764681/a-brief-trauma-informed-intervention-increases-safety-behavior-and-reduces-hiv-risk-for-drug-involved-women-who-trade-sex
#15
Michele R Decker, Catherine Tomko, Erin Wingo, Anne Sawyer, Sarah Peitzmeier, Nancy Glass, Susan G Sherman
BACKGROUND: Female sex workers (FSWs) are an important population for HIV acquisition and transmission. Their risks are shaped by behavioral, sexual network, and structural level factors. Violence is pervasive and associated with HIV risk behavior and infection, yet interventions to address the dual epidemics of violence and HIV among FSWs are limited. METHODS: We used participatory methods to develop a brief, trauma-informed intervention, INSPIRE (Integrating Safety Promotion with HIV Risk Reduction), to improve safety and reduce HIV risk for FSWs...
August 1, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744599/use-of-minicameras-to-improve-operative-procedure-in-security-forces
#16
Vicente Javier Clemente-Suárez, Montaña Diaz-Manzano, José Juan Robles-Pérez
The aim of the present study was to analyze pistol and compact rifle marksmanship in close quarter combat (CQC). There is currently a controversy about what weapon is most appropriate to use in CQC, short weapon as pistols or long weapons as rifle. Forty two participants conducted two close quarter combat simulations, one with pistol and one with compact rifle. Marksmanship and time to cover the simulation were measured. Data obtained showed no significant differences between pistol and compact rifle. In addition, it was observed a tendency to obtain higher scores with compact rifle, probably be due to the higher stability provided in the shot action...
September 2017: Journal of Medical Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703259/-evaluation-of-referral-and-intervention-patterns-at-the-psychiatric-emergency-service-utrecht-2009-2015
#17
M H Hoek, A W Braam
Emergency psychiatric care in the Netherlands is provided mainly by community mental health services. Although these emergency services vary in their approach per region, they show many similarities: they tend to receive referrals from the same type of agencies and they practice similar techniques of crisis management.<br/> AIM: To identify some of the patterns that appear in the type of psychiatric problems encountered, the type of referral agencies involved and in the intervention strategies practiced by the psychiatric emergency service in Utrecht...
2017: Tijdschrift Voor Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700308/toward-a-constructive-public-health-agenda-on-race-and-police-use-of-force
#18
Jennifer M Reingle Gonzalez, Katelyn K Jetelina, Stephen A Bishopp
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682194/interpersonal-and-structural-contexts-of-intimate-partner-violence-among-female-sex-workers-in-conflict-affected-northern-uganda
#19
Margaret Erickson, Shira M Goldenberg, Aditi Master, Godfrey Muzaaya, Monica Akello, Melissa Braschel, Josephine Birungi, Kate Shannon
BACKGROUND: Intimate partner violence (IPV) is the most prevalent form of violence against women, yet remains under-researched among sex workers in sub-Saharan Africa. We explored the interpersonal and structural determinants of recent IPV among female sex workers in northern Uganda. METHODS: This analysis drew on data from a community-based cross-sectional study (conducted May 2011-January 2012), involving 379 female sex workers in Gulu, northern Uganda. Using logistic regression and multivariable modeling, we examined the correlates of recent male-perpetrated physical or sexual IPV...
July 6, 2017: Women & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655625/impact-of-city-police-layperson-education-and-equipment-with-automatic-external-defibrillators-on-patient-outcome-after-out-of-hospital-cardiac-arrest
#20
Philipp Stein, Gabriela H Spahn, Stefan Müller, Andreas Zollinger, Werner Baulig, Martin Brüesch, Burkhardt Seifert, Donat R Spahn
INTRODUCTION: Out of hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) occurs frequently and the outcome is often dismal. Early defibrillation saves lives and brain function in OHCA. The Zurich city police (STAPO) forces were instructed and equipped to provide basic life support (BLS) and to use an AED in 2009. METHODS: Retrospective observational study comparing period 1 (P1) 2004-2009 before equipping and training of the STAPO and period 2 (P2) 2010-2015 after the implementation...
September 2017: Resuscitation
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