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Police Use of Force

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111739/forensic-evidence-and-criminal-investigations-the-impact-of-ballistics-information-on-the-investigation-of-violent-crime-in-nine-cities
#1
William R King, Bradley A Campbell, Matthew C Matusiak, Charles M Katz
We explore the impact of information from ballistics imaging hit reports on the investigation into violent crimes. Ballistics imaging hits link two crimes involving the same firearm by forensically matching tool marks on the fired bullets or cartridge cases. Interview data collected from detectives who received a hit report were used to explore the relationship between the presence of a hit report and outcomes in 65 gun-related violent crime investigations in nine U.S. police agencies. Findings indicate hit reports rarely contribute to identification, arrest, charging, or sentencing of suspects, because of delays in producing hit reports...
January 23, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110168/ultra-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry-uhplc-ms-ms-for-determination-of-ghb-precursors-and-metabolites-in-different-specimens-application-to-clinical-and-forensic-cases
#2
Francesco Paolo Busardò, Chrystalla Kyriakou, Emilia Marchei, Roberta Pacifici, Daniel Sejer Pedersen, Simona Pichini
Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) acts as a precursor and metabolite of the inhibitory central nervous system (CNS) neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Sodium salt of GHB has been used as a medication for narcolepsy and alcohol withdrawal. Moreover, GHB and its precursor gamma-butyrolactone (GBL), are illegal recreational drugs of abuse. A procedure based on ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry has been developed and validated in plasma, urine, cerebrospinal fluid and hair for acute and chronic exposure to GHB and in seized preparations coming from black market...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059498/rapid-screening-method-for-new-psychoactive-substances-of-forensic-interest-electrochemistry-and-analytical-determination-of-phenethylamines-derivatives-nbome-via-cyclic-and-differential-pulse-voltammetry
#3
Ana Flávia B Andrade, Samuel Kasahun Mamo, Jose Gonzalez-Rodriguez
The NBOMe derivatives are phenethylamines derived from the 2C class of hallucinogens. Only a few human pharmacologic studies have been conducted on these drugs, and several cases of intoxication and deaths have been reported. Presently, NBOMe are not a part of the routine drugs-of-abuse screening procedure for many police forces, and there are no rapid immunoassay screening tests that can detect the presence of those compounds. In this Article, the voltammetric behavior of 25B NBOMe and 25I NBOMe were investigated and their electroanalytical characteristics determined for the first time...
February 7, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029437/the-nature-and-extent-of-police-use-of-force-in-encounters-with-people-with-behavioral-health-disorders
#4
Melissa S Morabito, Kelly Socia, Amanda Wik, William H Fisher
Previous research studies have examined the treatment of people with mental illnesses by the police. Much available data support the adoption of the Crisis Intervention Team (CIT) model. A key issue in CIT development has been reduction in the use of force by CIT officers, and it is suggested that such adoption does accomplish such reduction. However, to date, scant research compares variation in police use of force by CIT officers across populations with mental illnesses, co-occurring disorders, and substance abuse disorders, as compared to their non-disordered peers...
October 28, 2016: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997230/racial-ethnic-disparities-in-the-use-of-lethal-force-by-us-police-2010-2014
#5
James W Buehler
OBJECTIVES: To update previous examinations of racial/ethnic disparities in the use of lethal force by US police. METHODS: I examined online national vital statistics data for deaths assigned an underlying cause of "legal intervention" (International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision, external-cause-of-injury codes Y35.0-Y35.7, excluding Y35.5 [legal execution]) for the 5-year period 2010 to 2014. RESULTS: Death certificates identified 2285 legal intervention deaths (1...
February 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907227/the-effectiveness-of-trace-dna-profiling-a-comparison-between-a-u-s-and-a-u-k-law-enforcement-jurisdiction
#6
John W Bond, Jocelyn R Weart
Recovery, profiling, and speculative searching of trace DNA (not attributable to a body fluid/cell type) over a twelve-month period in a U.S. Crime Laboratory and U.K. police force are compared. Results show greater numbers of U.S. firearm-related items submitted for analysis compared with the U.K., where greatest numbers were submitted from burglary or vehicle offenses. U.S. multiple recovery techniques (double swabbing) occurred mainly during laboratory examination, whereas the majority of U.K. multiple recovery techniques occurred at the scene...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852878/working-hours-and-common-mental-disorders-in-english-police-officers
#7
J Houdmont, R Randall
BACKGROUND: There is a paucity of evidence on working hours and their psychological correlates in police officers of the federated ranks in England. AIMS: An exploratory study to establish the extent to which a sample of English police officers worked long hours and the association between long working hours and common mental disorder (CMD). METHODS: Officers of the federated ranks (constable, sergeant, inspector) from two English county forces completed a questionnaire to report their typical weekly working hours and symptoms of CMD...
December 2016: Occupational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27792960/driving-forces-of-changes-in-the-water-and-sediment-relationship-in-the-yellow-river
#8
Shuai Wang, Bojie Fu, Wei Liang, Yu Liu, Yafeng Wang
The world is composed of various river basins. Within a specific river basin, water and sediment dynamics, and the relationship between them, can be assessed to reflect the basin's functions and services. Due to its changing nature, understanding and balancing the relationship between water and sediment is a global concern and is crucial for the sustainable management of river basins, especially for the Yellow River (YR), which is one of the most sediment-laden rivers in the world. Here, we used the past 60years of runoff and sediment load observations to investigate the middle reach of the YR, i...
January 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27773436/police-officers-perceptions-and-experiences-with-mentally-disordered-suspects
#9
Laura Oxburgh, Fiona Gabbert, Rebecca Milne, Julie Cherryman
Despite mentally disordered suspects being over-represented within the criminal justice system, there is a dearth of published literature that examines police officers' perceptions when interviewing this vulnerable group. This is concerning given that police officers are increasingly the first point of contact with these individuals. Using a Grounded Theory approach, this study examined 35 police officers' perceptions and experiences when interviewing mentally disordered suspects. Current safeguards, such as Appropriate Adults, and their experiences of any training they received were also explored...
September 2016: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27762571/how-suspect-race-affects-police-use-of-force-in-an-interaction-over-time
#10
Kimberly Barsamian Kahn, Joel S Steele, Jean M McMahon, Greg Stewart
Although studies often find racial disparities in policing outcomes, less is known about how suspect race biases police interactions as they unfold. This study examines what is differentially occurring during police-suspect interactions for White, Black, and Latino suspects across time. It is hypothesized that racial bias may be more evident earlier in interactions, when less information about the situation is available. One hundred thirty-nine (62 White, 42 Black, and 35 Latino) use-of-force case files and associated written narratives from a medium to large size urban police department in the United States were analyzed...
October 20, 2016: Law and Human Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27734440/medical-provider-ballistic-protection-at-active-shooter-events
#11
Jason P Stopyra, William P Bozeman, David W Callaway, James Winslow, Henderson D McGinnis, Justin Sempsrott, Lisa Evans-Taylor, Roy L Alson
There is some controversy about whether ballistic protective equipment (body armor) is required for medical responders who may be called to respond to active shooter mass casualty incidents. In this article, we describe the ongoing evolution of recommendations to optimize medical care to injured victims at such an incident. We propose that body armor is not mandatory for medical responders participating in a rapid-response capacity, in keeping with the Hartford Consensus and Arlington Rescue Task Force models...
2016: Journal of Special Operations Medicine: a Peer Reviewed Journal for SOF Medical Professionals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27703958/temporal-patterns-of-road-traffic-injuries-in-iran
#12
Ali Khorshidi, Elaheh Ainy, Seyed Saeed Hashemi Nazari, Hamid Soori
BACKGROUND: Road traffic injuries (RTIs) are the main causes of death and disability in Iran. However, very few studies about the temporal variations of RTIs have been published to date. OBJECTIVES: This study was conducted to investigate the temporal pattern of RTIs in Iran in 2012. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All road traffic accidents (RTAs) reported to traffic police during a one-year period (March 21, 2012 through March 21, 2013) were investigated after obtaining permission from the law enforcement force of the Islamic Republic of Iran...
June 2016: Archives of Trauma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27631734/a-research-agenda-for-racial-equity-applications-of-the-ferguson-commission-report-to-public-health
#13
Karishma Furtado, Kira Hudson Banks
The Ferguson Commission was an independent body of 16 commissioners in operation from November 2014 to December 2015 and appointed by Missouri governor Jay Nixon to examine the root causes underlying the death of Michael Brown Jr. Its report, "Forward Through Ferguson: A Path Toward Racial Equity," raises many issues on racial equity that public health is well suited to address, such as trends in police use of force, the health implications of the school-based discipline gap, and the health benefits of a coordinated housing strategy...
November 2016: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27591582/locating-bomb-factories-by-detecting-hydrogen-peroxide
#14
Francesco Saverio Romolo, Samantha Connell, Carlotta Ferrari, Guillaume Suarez, Jean-Jacques Sauvain, Nancy B Hopf
The analytical capability to detect hydrogen peroxide vapour can play a key role in localizing a site where a H2O2 based Improvised Explosive (IE) is manufactured. In security activities it is very important to obtain information in a short time. For this reason, an analytical method to be used in security activity needs portable devices. The authors have developed the first analytical method based on a portable luminometer, specifically designed and validated to locate IE manufacturing sites using quantitative on-site vapour analysis for H2O2...
November 1, 2016: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27574107/identification-and-characterization-of-n-tert-butoxycarbonyl-mdma-a-new-mdma-precursor
#15
Michael Collins, Christopher Donnelly, Shane Cameron, Mark Tahtouh, Helen Salouros
In September 2015, eighty litres of a viscous, light-red liquid, described as hair product, was seized by the Australian Border Force (ABF). Initial testing by ABF indicated that the liquid was the MDMA precursor chemical safrole and custody of the material was transferred to the Australian Federal Police (AFP) who coordinated all subsequent investigations. Initial gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis by AFP indicated that the material was not safrole and samples of the liquid were transferred to the National Measurement Institute Australia (NMIA) for identification...
August 30, 2016: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27495118/metabolism-of-carfentanil-an-ultra-potent-opioid-in-human-liver-microsomes-and-human-hepatocytes-by-high-resolution-mass-spectrometry
#16
Michael G Feasel, Ariane Wohlfarth, John M Nilles, Shaokun Pang, Robert L Kristovich, Marilyn A Huestis
Carfentanil is an ultra-potent synthetic opioid. No human carfentanil metabolism data are available. Reportedly, Russian police forces used carfentanil and remifentanil to resolve a hostage situation in Moscow in 2002. This alleged use prompted interest in the pharmacology and toxicology of carfentanil in humans. Our study was conducted to identify human carfentanil metabolites and to assess carfentanil's metabolic clearance, which could contribute to its acute toxicity in humans. We used Simulations Plus's ADMET Predictor™ and Molecular Discovery's MetaSite™ to predict possible metabolite formation...
2016: AAPS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27462294/perceived-threat-associated-with-police-officers-and-black-men-predicts-support-for-policing-policy-reform
#17
Allison L Skinner, Ingrid J Haas
Racial disparities in policing and recent high-profile incidents resulting in the deaths of Black men have ignited a national debate on policing policies. Given evidence that both police officers and Black men may be associated with threat, we examined the impact of perceived threat on support for reformed policing policies. Across three studies we found correlational evidence that perceiving police officers as threatening predicts increased support for reformed policing practices (e.g., limiting the use of lethal force and matching police force demographics to those of the community)...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27435712/sexual-violence-from-police-and-hiv-risk-behaviours-among-hiv-positive-women-who-inject-drugs-in-st-petersburg-russia%C3%A2-%C3%A2-a-mixed-methods-study
#18
Karsten Lunze, Anita Raj, Debbie M Cheng, Emily K Quinn, Fatima I Lunze, Jane M Liebschutz, Carly Bridden, Alexander Y Walley, Elena Blokhina, Evgeny Krupitsky, Jeffrey H Samet
INTRODUCTION: Police violence against people who inject drugs (PWID) is common in Russia and associated with HIV risk behaviours. Sexual violence from police against women who use drugs has been reported anecdotally in Russia. This mixed-methods study aimed to evaluate sexual violence from police against women who inject drugs via quantitative assessment of its prevalence and HIV risk correlates, and through qualitative interviews with police, substance users and their providers in St...
2016: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27386625/-an-unusual-bodily-injury
#19
Gerhard Kernbach-Wighton, Cornelius Hess, Burkhard Madea
In most cases, bodily harm results from the use of sharp objects or blunt force. This paper deals with a 42-year-old pharmacist who was known to the police and the courts because of several previous convictions for bodily injury. The man had visited a pub just before it closed and was therefore not served any drinks. He got angry about this and returned to his pharmacy (within walking distance) to fetch three disposable syringes which he filled with phosphoric acid (85%). Through the open pub window, he splattered the acid from the syringes on two guests and the host, who were hit on the upper part of their bodies and the arms...
May 2016: Archiv Für Kriminologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27321289/pattern-of-rubber-bullet-injuries-in-the-lower-limbs-a-report-from-kashmir
#20
Shabir Ahmed Dhar, Tahir-Ahmed Dar, Sharief-Ahmed Wani, Saheel Maajid, Jawed Ahmed Bhat, Naseer Ahmed Mir, Imtiyaz Hussain Dar, Shahid Hussain
PURPOSE: Rubber bullets are considered a non-lethal method of crowd control and are being used over the world. However the literature regarding the pattern and management of these injuries is scarce for the forensic pathologist as well as for the traumatologist. The objective of this report was to add our experience to the existing literature. METHODS: From June 2008 to August 2010 the Government Hospital for Bone and Joint Surgery Barzulla and the Department of Orthopaedics, SKIMS Medical College/Hospital Bemina Srinagar received 28 patients for management of their orthopaedic injuries caused by rubber bullets...
June 1, 2016: Chinese Journal of Traumatology, Zhonghua Chuang Shang za Zhi
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