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Stephanie A Kraft, Melissa Constantine, David Magnus, Kathryn M Porter, Sandra Soo-Jin Lee, Michael Green, Nancy E Kass, Benjamin S Wilfond, Mildred K Cho
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Participant understanding is a key element of informed consent for enrollment in research. However, participants often do not understand the nature, risks, benefits, or design of the studies in which they take part. Research on medical practices, which studies standard interventions rather than new treatments, has the potential to be especially confusing to participants because it is embedded within usual clinical care. Our objective in this randomized study was to compare the ability of a range of multimedia informational aids to improve participant understanding in the context of research on medical practices...
September 13, 2016: Clinical Trials: Journal of the Society for Clinical Trials
Andrew Edgar
This paper seeks to explore the attraction and the beauty of the contemporary athletic body. It will be suggested that a body shaped through muscular bulk and definition has come to be seen as aesthetically normative. This body differs from the body of athletes from the early and mid-twentieth century. It will be argued that the contemporary body is not merely the result of advances in sports science, but rather that it is expressive of certain meanings and values. The visual similarity of the contemporary athletic body and that of the comic book superhero suggests that both bodies carry a similar potential for narrative story-telling, and that their attraction is bound up with this narrative potential...
September 10, 2016: Health Care Analysis: HCA: Journal of Health Philosophy and Policy
Lidija Čomić, Benedek Nagy
Topological coordinate systems are used to address all cells of abstract cell complexes. In this paper, a topological coordinate system for cells in the diamond cubic grid is presented and some of its properties are detailed. Four dependent coordinates are used to address the voxels (triakis truncated tetrahedra), their faces (hexagons and triangles), their edges and the points at their corners. Boundary and co-boundary relations, as well as adjacency relations between the cells, can easily be captured by the coordinate values...
September 1, 2016: Acta Crystallographica. Section A, Foundations and Advances
Luigi Gallimberti, Alessandra Buja, Sonia Chindamo, Andrea Rabensteiner, Alberto Terraneo, Elena Marini, Luis Javier Gómez Pérez, Vincenzo Baldo
OBJECTIVES: Problematic use of video games (PUVG) is associated with substance use in middle school students. The aim of our study was to examine the association between PUVG and substance abuse in children and young adolescents. METHODS: A survey was conducted during the 2014-2015 school year in Padua (northeastern Italy). The sample consisted of 1156 students in grades 6 to 8. A multivariate logistic regression model was applied to seek associations between PUVG (dependent variable) and independent variables...
September 2016: American Journal of Health Behavior
Willibald Ruch, Sonja Heintz
The Humor Styles Questionnaire (HSQ; Martin et al., 2003) is one of the most frequently used questionnaires in humor research and has been adapted to several languages. The HSQ measures four humor styles (affiliative, self-enhancing, aggressive, and self-defeating), which should be adaptive or potentially maladaptive to psychosocial well-being. The present study analyzes the internal consistency, factorial validity, and factorial invariance of the HSQ on the basis of several German-speaking samples combined (total N = 1,101)...
August 2016: Europe's journal of psychology
Melinda Krakow
As the interest in graphic medicine grows, health communicators have started engaging readers with compelling visual and textual accounts of health and illness, including via comic books. One context where comics have shown promise is cancer communication. This brief report presents an early example of graphic medicine developed by the American Cancer Society. "Ladies … Wouldn't It Be Better to Know?" is a comic book produced in the 1960s to provide the public with lay information about the Pap test for cervical cancer prevention and detection...
August 19, 2016: Health Communication
Andy J King
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 19, 2016: Health Communication
May May Leung, Melanie C Green, Deborah F Tate, Jianwen Cai, Katarzyna Wyka, Alice S Ammerman
The purpose of this study was to determine whether exposure to a manga comic (Japanese comic art) with messages promoting fruit consumption influenced psychosocial variables associated with increased fruit intake in middle-school youth. A three-group, randomized, single-session study was conducted in two public middle schools in central North Carolina. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three groups: (a) comic (manga comic promoting fruit consumption, (b) newsletter (newsletter about fruit), or (c) attention-control (newsletter about ancient Greece)...
August 19, 2016: Health Communication
Aaron Hanson, Amy L Drendel, Gary Ashwal, Alex Thomas
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 19, 2016: Health Communication
Judy Diamond, Julia McQuillan, Amy N Spiegel, Patricia Wonch Hill, Rebecca Smith, John West, Charles Wood
Current research in virology is changing public conceptions about vaccines and infectious disease. The University of Nebraska State Museum collaborated with research virologists, science writers, artists and learning researchers to create public outreach materials about viruses and infectious disease. The project, funded by the National Institute of Health's SEPA program, developed comics, a book with Carl Zimmer, and other materials and programs. The project launched three kinds of learning research: 1) a survey of Nebraska adults on their opinions about vaccines and infectious disease; 2) a study comparing the mental models of viruses, vaccines and infection from virologists, teachers, and students; and 3) a controlled study 873 high school students randomly assigned to read either a comic or a text-based essay with the same virus information...
2016: Mus Soc Issues
Pamela Tsao, Catherine H Yu
BACKGROUND: Physician empathy is associated with improved diabetes outcomes. However, empathy declines throughout medical school training. This study seeks to describe how comics on diabetes affect learning processes for empathy in medical students. METHODS: All first- or second-year students at a Canadian medical school were invited to provide written reflections on two comics regarding diabetes and participate in a focus group. Responses were analyzed qualitatively for emergent themes...
2016: BMC Medical Education
Eakta Jain, Yaser Sheikh, Jessica Hodgins
Comic art consists of a sequence of panels of different shapes and sizes that visually communicate the narrative to the reader. The move-on-stills technique allows such still images to be retargeted for digital displays via camera moves. Today, moves-on-stills can be created by software applications given user-provided parameters for each desired camera move. The proposed algorithm uses viewer gaze as input to computationally predict camera move parameters. The authors demonstrate their algorithm on various comic book panels and evaluate its performance by comparing their results with a professional DVD...
July 2016: IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications
Helen Donnelly, Demissie Alemayehu, Radu Botgros, Sabrina Comic-Savic, Barry Eisenstein, Benjamin Lorenz, Kunal Merchant, Eric Pelfrene, Christina Reith, Jonas Santiago, Rosemary Tiernan, Richard Wunderink, Pamela Tenaerts, Charles Knirsch
BACKGROUND: Resistant bacteria are one of the leading causes of hospital-acquired/ventilator-associated bacterial pneumonia (HABP/VABP). HABP/VABP trials are complex and difficult to conduct due to the large number of medical procedures, adverse events, and concomitant medications involved. Differences in the legislative frameworks between different regions of the world may also lead to excessive data collection. The Clinical Trials Transformation Initiative (CTTI) seeks to advance antibacterial drug development (ABDD) by streamlining clinical trials to improve efficiency and feasibility while maintaining ethical rigor, patient safety, information value, and scientific validity...
August 15, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Charles Knirsch, Demissie Alemayehu, Radu Botgros, Sabrina Comic-Savic, David Friedland, Thomas L Holland, Kunal Merchant, Gary J Noel, Eric Pelfrene, Christina Reith, Jonas Santiago, Rosemary Tiernan, Pamela Tenearts, Jennifer C Goldsack, Vance G Fowler
BACKGROUND: The etiology of hospital-acquired or ventilator-associated bacterial pneumonia (HABP/VABP) is often multidrug-resistant infections. The evaluation of new antibacterial drugs for efficacy in this population is important, as many antibacterial drugs have demonstrated limitations when studied in this population. HABP/VABP trials are expensive and challenging to conduct due to protocol complexity and low patient enrollment, among other factors. The Clinical Trials Transformation Initiative (CTTI) seeks to advance antibacterial drug development by streamlining HABP/VABP clinical trials to improve efficiency and feasibility while maintaining ethical rigor, patient safety, information value, and scientific validity...
August 15, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
M Brusse-Keizer, M Klatte, M Zuur-Telgen, K Koehorst-Ter Huurne, J van der Palen, P VanderValk
To better classify patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) for prognostic purposes and to tailor treatment, the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) 2007 classification was revised in 2011. The primary aim of the current data analyses was to evaluate the accuracy of the GOLD 2007 and 2011 GOLD classifications to predict all-cause mortality and morbidity in a well-described COPD cohort. The prognostic values of both GOLD classifications, expressed as the C-statistic, were assessed in the Cohort of Mortality and Inflammation in COPD (COMIC) study of 795 COPD patients, with a follow-up of 3 years...
July 21, 2016: COPD
J R Stothard, A N Khamis, I S Khamis, C H E Neo, I Wei, D Rollinson
Endeavours to control urogenital schistosomiasis on Unguja Island (Zanzibar) have focused on school-aged children. To assess the impact of an associated health education campaign, the supervised use of the comic-strip medical booklet Juma na Kichocho by Class V pupils attending eighteen primary schools was investigated. A validated knowledge and attitudes questionnaire was completed at baseline and repeated one year later following the regular use of the booklet during the calendar year. A scoring system (ranging from 0...
September 2016: Journal of Biosocial Science
Emanuel Citgez, Job van der Palen, Kirsten Koehorst-Ter Huurne, Kris Movig, Paul van der Valk, Marjolein Brusse-Keizer
BACKGROUND: Both chronic inflammation and cardiovascular comorbidity play an important role in the morbidity and mortality of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Statins could be a potential adjunct therapy. The additional effects of statins in COPD are, however, still under discussion. The aim of this study is to further investigate the association of statin use with clinical outcomes in a well-described COPD cohort. METHODS: 795 patients of the Cohort of Mortality and Inflammation in COPD (COMIC) study were divided into statin users or not...
2016: BMJ Open Respiratory Research
Redda Tekle-Haimanot, Preux Pierre-Marie, Gerard Daniel, Dawit Kibru Worku, Hanna Demissie Belay, Meron Awraris Gebrewold
INTRODUCTION: Epilepsy is of worldwide public health importance because it is common, often accompanied by physical and cognitive disabilities, and is widely stigmatized. The incidence of epilepsy in Ethiopia was reported to be 64/100,000 population and a prevalence of 520/100,000 population. A minority of subjects is treated, and religious and sociocultural beliefs influence the nature of treatment and care. One approach to support the development of positive attitudes toward individuals with disabilities is through the use of comics...
August 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Issei Shinmei, Kei Kobayashi, Yuki Oe, Yuriko Takagishi, Ayako Kanie, Masaya Ito, Yoshitake Takebayashi, Miho Murata, Masaru Horikoshi, Roseanne D Dobkin
OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the feasibility of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for Japanese Parkinson's disease (PD) patients with depression. To increase cultural acceptability, we developed the CBT program using manga, a type of Japanese comic novel. METHODS: Participants included 19 non-demented PD patients who had depressive symptoms (GRID-Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression score ≥8). A CBT program comprising six sessions was individually administered...
2016: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
B Kassai, M Rabilloud, E Dantony, S Grousson, O Revol, S Malik, T Ginhoux, N Touil, D Chassard, E Pereira de Souza Neto
BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to determine whether the introduction of a paediatric anaesthesia comic information leaflet reduced preoperative anxiety levels of children undergoing major surgery. Secondary objectives were to determine whether the level of understanding of participants and other risk factors influence STAIC-S (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children-State subscale) score in children. METHODS: We performed a randomized controlled parallel-group trial comparing preoperative anxiety between two groups of children aged >6 and <17 yr...
July 2016: British Journal of Anaesthesia
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