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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527012/effect-of-voluntary-hypocapnic-hyperventilation-or-moderate-hypoxia-on-metabolic-and-heart-rate-responses-during-high-intensity-intermittent-exercise
#1
Kohei Dobashi, Naoto Fujii, Kazuhito Watanabe, Bun Tsuji, Yosuke Sasaki, Tomomi Fujimoto, Satoru Tanigawa, Takeshi Nishiyasu
PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of voluntary hypocapnic hyperventilation or moderate hypoxia on metabolic and heart rate responses during high-intensity intermittent exercise. METHODS: Ten males performed three 30-s bouts of high-intensity cycling [Ex1 and Ex2: constant-workload at 80% of the power output in the Wingate anaerobic test (WAnT), Ex3: WAnT] interspaced with 4-min recovery periods under normoxic (Control), hypocapnic or hypoxic (2500 m) conditions...
May 19, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526781/cd36-is-essential-for-endurance-improvement-changes-in%C3%A2-whole-body-metabolism-and-efficient-ppar-related-transcriptional-responses-in-the-muscle-with-exercise-training
#2
Mark Christian C Manio, Shigenobu Matsumura, Daisaku Masuda, Kazuo Inoue
Although circulating fatty acids are utilized as energy substrates, they also function as ligands to the peroxisome-proliferator activated receptors (PPARs), a family of fatty acid sensing transcription factors. Exercise training leads to various adaptations in the muscle such as elevation of glycogen content, mitochondrial number as well as upregulation of fatty acid uptake and utilization through downstream transcriptional adaptations. In line with this, CD36 has been shown to be critical in controlling fatty acid uptake and consequently, fatty acid oxidation...
May 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526329/a-behaviour-change-intervention-to-reduce-sedentary-time-in-people-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#3
Sonia Wing Mei Cheng, Jennifer Alison, Sarah Dennis, Emmanuel Stamatakis, Lissa Spencer, Renae McNamara, Susan Sims, Zoe McKeough
INTRODUCTION: Replacing sedentary behaviour with light intensity physical activity (ie, activities classified as less than three metabolic equivalents, such as slow-paced walking) may be a more realistic strategy for reducing cardiometabolic risk in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease than only aiming to increase levels of moderate-vigorous intensity physical activity. Behaviour change interventions to reduce sedentary behaviour in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease have not yet been developed or tested...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Physiotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525338/different-training-schedules-influence-platelet-aggregation-in-show-jumping-horses
#4
C Giannetto, F Arfuso, F Fazio, E Giudice, S Di Pietro, D Bruschetta, G Piccione
Depending on the intensity, duration and type of physical exercise, equine metabolism has to adapt to nervous, cardiovascular, endocrine and respiratory system requirements. In horses, exercise and training are known to have considerable effects on the mechanisms of hemostatic system involving platelet activity. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of different training schedules on platelet aggregation in 15 Italian Saddle jumping horses. Animals were divided into three equal groups: Group A was subjected to a high intensity-training program; group B to a light training program, group C included sedentary horses...
March 28, 2017: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523996/micro-rnas-exercise-and-cellular-plasticity-in-humans-the-impact-of-dietary-factors-and-hypoxia
#5
Timothée Watier, Anthony Mj Sanchez
Physical exercise is a stress that modulates a plethora of cellular mechanisms to promote morphological and metabolic adaptations. Substantial efforts have been made to better understand the modulation of pathways involved in cell plasticity during exercise, but human explorations may be limited because invasive procedures are often required. In recent years, minimally invasive methods for the analysis of microRNAs (miRNAs) modulation in response to exercise have been developed. miRNAs are small molecules that belong to a family of non-coding RNAs...
May 19, 2017: MicroRNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523342/exercise-capacity-before-and-after-stent-placement-for-coarctation-of-the-aorta-a-single-center-case-series
#6
Brandon D Morrical, Jason H Anderson, Nathaniel W Taggart
Over the last 15 years, stent placement has become a viable and safe alternative to surgical repair for native and recurrent coarctation of the aorta. Although patients with coarctation of the aorta often have lower exercise tolerance, there is no published data regarding the effect of coarctation stenting on exercise capacity. We aimed to determine the effect of coarctation stent placement on exercise capacity. We conducted a retrospective chart review of all patients who underwent stent placement for native or recurrent coarctation of the aorta at our institution from January 2000 to October 2012...
May 18, 2017: Pediatric Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522975/hypoxia-and-inactivity-related-physiological-changes-constipation-inflammation-are-not-reflected-at-the-level-of-gut-metabolites-and-butyrate-producing-microbial-community-the-planhab-study
#7
Robert Šket, Nicole Treichel, Tadej Debevec, Ola Eiken, Igor Mekjavic, Michael Schloter, Marius Vital, Jenna Chandler, James M Tiedje, Boštjan Murovec, Zala Prevoršek, Blaž Stres
We explored the assembly of intestinal microbiota in healthy male participants during the run-in (5 day) and experimental phases [21-day normoxic bed rest (NBR), hypoxic bedrest (HBR)], and hypoxic ambulation (HAmb) in a strictly controlled laboratory environment, balanced fluid, and dietary intakes, controlled circadian rhythm, microbial ambiental burden, and 24/7 medical surveillance. The fraction of inspired O2 (FiO2) and partial pressure of inspired O2 (PiO2) were 0.209 and 133.1 ± 0.3 mmHg for NBR and 0...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522765/exercise-training-in-tg%C3%AE-q-44-mice-during-the-progression-of-chronic-heart-failure-cardiac-vs-peripheral-soleus-muscle-impairments-to-oxidative-metabolism
#8
Bruno Grassi, Joanna Majerczak, Eleonora Bardi, Alessia Buso, Marina Comelli, Stefan Chlopicki, Magdalena Guzik, Irene Mavelli, Zenon Nieckarz, Desy Salvadego, Urszula Tyrankiewicz, Tomasz Skorka, Roberto Bottinelli, Jerzy A Zoladz, Maria Antonietta Pellegrino
Cardiac function, skeletal (soleus) muscle oxidative metabolism and the effects of exercise training were evaluated in a transgenic murine model (Tgαq*44) of chronic heart failure (CHF) during the critical period between the occurrence of an impairment of cardiac function and the stage at which overt cardiac failure ensues (i.e. from 10 to 12 months of age). Forty-eight Tgαq*44 mice and 43 wild-type (WT) FVB controls were randomly assigned to control groups and to groups undergoing 2 months of intense exercise training (spontaneous running on a instrumented wheel)...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522658/effect-of-fontan-geometry-on-exercise-haemodynamics-and-its-potential-implications
#9
Elaine Tang, Zhenglun Alan Wei, Kevin K Whitehead, Reza H Khiabani, Maria Restrepo, Lucia Mirabella, James Bethel, Stephen M Paridon, Bradley S Marino, Mark A Fogel, Ajit P Yoganathan
OBJECTIVE: Exercise intolerance afflicts Fontan patients with total cavopulmonary connections (TCPCs) causing a reduction in quality of life. Optimising TCPC design is hypothesised to have a beneficial effect on exercise capacity. This study investigates relationships between TCPC geometries and exercise haemodynamics and performance. METHODS: This study included 47 patients who completed metabolic exercise stress test with cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR). Phase-contrast CMR images were acquired immediately following supine lower limb exercise...
May 18, 2017: Heart: Official Journal of the British Cardiac Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521867/effect-of-a-single-bout-of-aerobic-exercise-on-high-fat-meal-induced-inflammation
#10
Kelly N Z Fuller, Corey M Summers, Rudy J Valentine
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Chronic low-grade inflammation is involved in the development of metabolic disorders including atherosclerosis, type 2 diabetes (T2D) and metabolic syndrome. Aerobic exercise has been shown to be anti-inflammatory and attenuate postprandial blood lipids, however, the effect of exercise on postprandial inflammation remains unclear. The aim of this study was to determine the protective effect of a single bout of aerobic exercise against postprandial lipemia and peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) inflammation and to evaluate associations with changes in the energy-sensing enzyme, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)...
June 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520446/-diabetic-foot-syndrome-importance-of-calf-muscles-mr-spectroscopy-in-the-assessment-of-limb-ischemia-and-effect-of-revascularization
#11
Andrea Němcová, Michal Dubský, Alexandra Jirkovská, Petr Šedivý, Miloslav Drobný, Milan Hájek, Monika Dezortová, Robert Bém, Vladimíra Fejfarová, Anna Pyšná
AIM: The standard method for assessment of effect of revascularization in patients with diabetic foot (DF) and critical limb ischemia (CLI) is transcutaneous oxygen pressure (TcPO2). Phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy (31P MRS) enables to evaluate oxidative muscle metabolism that could be impaired in patients with diabetes and its complications. The aim of our study was to compare MRS of calf muscle between patients with DF and CLI and healthy controls and to evaluate the contribution of MRS in the assessment of the effect of revascularization...
2017: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515794/influence-of-a-home-based-exercise-program-on-the-urine-ph-in-elderly-female-subjects-a-secondary-analysis-of-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#12
Yuichiro Nishida, Keitaro Tanaka, Megumi Hara, Noriko Hirao, Hiroaki Tanaka, Takuro Tobina, Masaharu Ikeda, Hiroshi Yamato, Masanori Ohta
BACKGROUND: A low urine pH is a characteristic metabolic feature of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effects of a 12-week home-based bench step exercise on the urine pH status of elderly female subjects. METHODS: The current study is a secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial (RCT) in which 59 postmenopausal female subjects were randomized to either the exercise group (n = 29) or the control group (n = 30)...
2017: European Review of Aging and Physical Activity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515012/breast-cancer-and-exercise-the-role-of-adiposity-and-immune-markers
#13
REVIEW
Supa Pudkasam, Kathy Tangalakis, Nanthapan Chinlumprasert, Vasso Apostolopoulos, Lily Stojanovska
Currently, breast cancer accounts for a quarter of all cancers and 15% of cancer-specific deaths amongst females. The global occurrence of breast cancer has increased in the last decade whilst the mortality rate has decreased. Exercise can be beneficial to breast cancer patients through changes in adiposity and immune responses. Even though there is some evidence supporting the improvement of fat metabolism and immune function after an exercise program in breast cancer, randomized controlled studies are limited and require further comprehensive analysis in this population group...
May 8, 2017: Maturitas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514808/physiological-dynamic-apnea-responses-in-relation-to-apnea-capacity-in-triathletes
#14
Alexandre Guimard, Houssem Zorgati, Sylvain Brulaire, Virgile Amiot, Fabrice Prieur, Katia Collomp
The aim was to assess the cardiac, arterial oxygen saturation, lactate, hormonal and Borg rating of perceived exertion (RPE) responses to acute apnea in relation to apnea capacity in 18 middle-aged triathletes. Subjects were monitored while swimming two 50-m freestyle exercise trials with fins at maximal speed: with normal frequency breathing (NB) and with complete apnea (Ap); the latter was used to assess apnea capacity. The subjects with significant alteration in swimming performance inducing a time increase greater than 2...
May 17, 2017: International Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514721/impact-of-gh-administration-on-athletic-performance-in-healthy-young-adults-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-placebo-controlled-trials
#15
REVIEW
Kasper Hermansen, Mads Bengtsen, Michael Kjær, Peter Vestergaard, Jens Otto Lunde Jørgensen
OBJECTIVE: Illicit use of growth hormone (GH) as a performance-enhancing drug among athletes is prevalent, although the evidence of such effects in healthy, young subjects is sparse. We therefore performed a meta-analysis of published studies on the effect of GH administration on body composition, substrate metabolism, and athletic performance in healthy, young subjects. DESIGN: The English-language based databases PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched, and eligible articles were reviewed in accordance with the PRISMA guidelines...
May 10, 2017: Growth Hormone & IGF Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513179/consumption-of-watermelon-juice-enriched-in-l-citrulline-and-pomegranate-ellagitannins-enhanced-metabolism-during-physical-exercise
#16
Ascension Martinez-Sanchez, Fernando Alacid, Jacobo A Rubio-Arias, Bárbara Fernandez-Lobato, Domingo J Ramos-Campo, Encarna Aguayo
L-citrulline is a non-essential amino acid precursor of arginine and indirectly a precursor of nitric oxide (NO), which is a vasodilator and increases mitochondrial respiration. On the other hand, the antioxidant pomegranate ellagitannins are precursors of urolithin A, which has been associated with mitophagy and increased muscle function. To elucidate if a single dose of watermelon enrichment with these compounds have a positive effect after a high intensity exercise (8 sets of 8 repetitions of half squat exercise), a double-blind randomized crossover in vivo study was performed in healthy male subjects (n=19)...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512448/the-potential-role-of-contraction-induced-myokines-in-the-regulation-of-metabolic-function-for-the-prevention-and-treatment-of-type-2-diabetes
#17
REVIEW
Brian P Carson
Skeletal muscle represents the largest organ in the body, comprises 36-42% of body weight, and has recently been recognized as having an endocrine function. Proteins expressed and released by muscle that have autocrine, paracrine, and endocrine bioactivities have been termed myokines. It is likely that muscle contraction represents the primary stimulus for the synthesis and secretion of myokines to enable communication with other organs such as the liver, adipose tissue, brain, and auto-regulation of muscle metabolism...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512447/low-dose-pulsatile-interleukin-6-as-a-treatment-option-for-diabetic-peripheral-neuropathy
#18
REVIEW
April Ann Cox, Yves Sagot, Gael Hedou, Christina Grek, Travis Wilkes, Aaron I Vinik, Gautam Ghatnekar
Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) remains one of the most common and serious complications of diabetes. Currently, pharmacological agents are limited to treating the pain associated with DPN, and do not address the underlying pathological mechanisms driving nerve damage, thus leaving a significant unmet medical need. Interestingly, research conducted using exercise as a treatment for DPN has revealed interleukin-6 (IL-6) signaling to be associated with many positive benefits such as enhanced blood flow and lipid metabolism, decreased chronic inflammation, and peripheral nerve fiber regeneration...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512432/whole-body-cryotherapy-in-athletes-from-therapy-to-stimulation-an-updated-review-of-the-literature
#19
REVIEW
Giovanni Lombardi, Ewa Ziemann, Giuseppe Banfi
Nowadays, whole-body cryotherapy is a medical physical treatment widely used in sports medicine. Recovery from injuries (e.g., trauma, overuse) and after-season recovery are the main purposes for application. However, the most recent studies confirmed the anti-inflammatory, anti-analgesic, and anti-oxidant effects of this therapy by highlighting the underlying physiological responses. In addition to its therapeutic effects, whole-body cryotherapy has been demonstrated to be a preventive strategy against the deleterious effects of exercise-induced inflammation and soreness...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511954/high-intensity-interval-training-hiit-improves-resting-blood-pressure-metabolic-met-capacity-and-heart-rate-reserve-without-compromising-resting-myocardial-function-in-sedentary-aging-men
#20
Fergal M Grace, Peter Herbert, Adrian D Elliott, Jo Richards, Alexander Beaumont, Nicholas F Sculthorpe
BACKGROUND: This study examined the combination of pre-conditioning exercise with subsequent high intensity interval training (HIIT) on blood pressure, echocardiography, cardiac strain mechanics and maximal metabolic (MET) capacity in sedentary (SED) aging men compared with age matched masters athletes (LEX). METHODS: Using a STROBE compliant observational design, 39 aging male participants (SED; n=22, aged 62.7±5.2yrs) (LEX; n=17, aged=61.1±5.4yrs) were recruited to a study that necessitated three distinct assessment phases; enrolment (Phase A), following pre-conditioning exercise in SED (Phase B), then following 6weeks of HIIT performed once every five days by both groups before reassessment (Phase C)...
May 13, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
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