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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446382/compensatory-mechanisms-activated-with-intermittent-energy-restriction-a-randomized-control-trial
#1
Sílvia Ribeiro Coutinho, Eline Holli Halset, Sigrid Gåsbakk, Jens F Rehfeld, Bård Kulseng, Helen Truby, Cátia Martins
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Strong compensatory responses, with reduced resting metabolic rate (RMR), increased exercise efficiency (ExEff) and appetite, are activated when weight loss (WL) is achieved with continuous energy restriction (CER), which try to restore energy balance. Intermittent energy restriction (IER), where short spells of energy restriction are interspaced by periods of habitual energy intake, may offer some protection in minimizing those responses. We aimed to compare the effect of IER versus CER on body composition and the compensatory responses induced by WL...
April 7, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446180/physical-activity-when-riding-an-electric-assisted-bicycle
#2
Sveinung Berntsen, Lena Malnes, Aleksander Langåker, Elling Bere
BACKGROUND: The objectives of the present study were to compare time spent cycling, exercise intensity, and time spent in moderate- (MPA) and vigorous intensity physical activity (VPA) when cycling on an E-bike and a conventional bicycle on two "cycling-to-work" routes with differences in topography, defined as a hilly and a flat route. METHODS: Eight adults (23-54 years, two women) cycled outdoors on a conventional bicycle and an E-bike, on a flat (8.2 km) and a hilly (7...
April 26, 2017: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445231/the-effects-of-multi-day-vs-single-pre-exercise-nitrate-supplement-dosing-on-simulated-cycling-time-trial-performance-and-skeletal-muscle-oxygenation
#3
Edward Jo, Michelle Fischer, Alexandra T Auslander, Alan Beigarten, Bruce Daggy, Ken Hansen, Lisa Kessler, Adam Osmond, Hong Wang, Rachel Wes
A transient augmentation in the metabolic efficiency of skeletal muscle is the purported basis for dietary nitrate supplementation amongst competitive and recreational athletes alike. Previous studies support the ergogenic effects of nitrate supplementation as findings indicated improved microvascular blood flow, exercise economy, and performance with relatively short-term supplementation. As with most ergogenic aids, the optimum duration of supplementation prior to performance or competition, i.e. loading phase, is a critical determinant for efficacy...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444930/does-postexercise-modelled-capillary-blood-flow-accurately-reflect-cardiovascular-effects-by-different-exercise-intensities
#4
F Stöcker, C Von Oldershausen, F K Paternoster, T Schulz, R Oberhoffer
Blood flow (BF) in exercising muscles is an important factor for exercise capacity. Recently, a non-invasive method to estimate capillary BF (Qcap ) was introduced. Using this method, the Fick principle is re-arranged by using relative differences in deoxygenated haemoglobin (ΔHHb) as a surrogate for arteriovenous O2 difference and pulmonary oxygen uptake (VO2 ) instead of muscular oxygen uptake. The aim of this study was to examine (I) the relationship between Qcap and exercise intensity during and following exercise, and (II) to critically reflect the Qcap approach...
April 26, 2017: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443785/acute-and-long-term-impact-of-high-protein-diets-on-endocrine-and-metabolic-function-body-composition-and-exercise-induced-adaptations
#5
Flor E Morales, Grant M Tinsley, Paul M Gordon
BACKGROUND: High-protein diets have been shown to improve body composition through alterations in satiety, muscle protein synthesis, and the thermic effect of food. AIM: Given these findings, the purpose of this review is to discuss the integration of the specific hormonal and metabolic effects of high-protein diets following both acute and long-term usage, especially with regard to body composition. METHODS: Full-text articles were obtained through PubMed by using the terms "high-protein diet and body composition," "high-protein diet and exercise," "high-protein diet risk," "high-protein diet side effects," "protein quality PDCAAS," "RDA for protein," and "daily protein recommendation...
April 26, 2017: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442632/effect-of-aerobic-exercise-training-on-ventilatory-efficiency-and-respiratory-drive-in-obese-subjects
#6
Mehdi Chlif, Anis Chaouachi, Said Ahmaidi
BACKGROUND: Obese patients show a decline in exercise capacity and diverse degrees of dyspnea in association with mechanical abnormalities, increased ventilatory requirements secondary to the increased metabolic load, and a greater work of breathing. Consequently, obese patients may be particularly predisposed to the development of respiratory muscle fatigue during exercise. The aim of this study was to assess inspiratory muscle performance during incremental exercise in 19 obese male subjects (body mass index 41 ± 6 kg/m(2)) after aerobic exercise training using the noninvasive, inspiratory muscle tension-time index (TT0...
April 25, 2017: Respiratory Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441908/glucose-fructose-ingestion-and-exercise-performance-the-gastrointestinal-tract-and-beyond
#7
Robin Rosset, Léonie Egli, Virgile Lecoultre
Carbohydrate ingestion can improve endurance exercise performance. In the past two decades, research has repeatedly reported the performance benefits of formulations comprising both glucose and fructose (GLUFRU) over those based on glucose (GLU). This has been usually related to additive effects of these two monosaccharides on the gastrointestinal tract whereby intestinal carbohydrate absorption is enhanced and discomfort limited. This is only a partial explanation, since glucose and fructose are also metabolized through different pathways after being absorbed from the gut...
April 25, 2017: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441760/supplementation-with-a-polyphenol-rich-extract-perfload-%C3%A2-improves-physical-performance-during-high-intensity-exercise-a-randomized-double-blind-crossover-trial
#8
Julien Cases, Cindy Romain, Cristian Marín-Pagán, Linda H Chung, José Miguel Rubio-Pérez, Caroline Laurent, Sylvie Gaillet, Emmanuelle Prost-Camus, Michel Prost, Pedro E Alcaraz
Workout capacity is energy-production driven. To produce peak metabolic power outputs, the organism predominantly relies more on anaerobic metabolism, but this undoubtedly has a negative and limiting impact on muscle function and performance. The aim of the study was to evaluate if an innovative polyphenol-based food supplement, PerfLoad(®), was able to improve metabolic homeostasis and physical performance during high-intensity exercises under anaerobic conditions. The effect of a supplementation has been investigated on fifteen recreationally-active male athletes during a randomized, double-blind and crossover clinical investigation...
April 24, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439848/the-janus-head-of-oxidative-stress-in-metabolic-diseases-and-during-physical-exercise
#9
REVIEW
Dominik Pesta, Michael Roden
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Oxidative stress describes an imbalance between production and degradation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which can damage macromolecules. However, ROS may also serve as signaling molecules activating cellular pathways involved in cell proliferation and adaptation. This review describes alterations in metabolic diseases including obesity, insulin resistance, and/or diabetes mellitus as well as responses to acute and chronic physical exercise. RECENT FINDINGS: Chronic upregulation of oxidative stress associates with the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes (T2D)...
June 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439060/-calcium-and-bone-metabolism-across-women-s-life-stages-exercise-and-sport-to-increase-bone-strength-in-accordance-with-female-lifecycle
#10
Jun Iwamoto
Among females who require the strategies for preventing osteoporosis, appropriate exercise and sport through all their life are important to increase or maintain bone mass. However, the type of exercise and sport applied to females is different in accordance with the lifecycle. Jumping exercise increases bone mineral content(BMC)in prepubescent children(premenarcheal girls). Bone mineral density(BMD)is higher in adolescent athletes who are engaged in weight-bearing activities. Jumping exercise, muscle strengthening exercise, and weight-bearing plus muscle strengthening exercises increase BMD in young adults and premenopausal women...
2017: Clinical Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439059/-calcium-and-bone-metabolism-across-women-s-life-stages-nutritive-therapy-for-improvement-of-bone-and-calcium-metabolism-according-to-life-stage-in-women
#11
Kazuya Makita
Postmenopausal osteoporosis is mainly caused by decreased estrogen levels, and progression of disease is associated with irreversible changes. It is therefore extremely important to maintain or improve healthy bone and calcium metabolism during and before the climacteric from a preventive medicine viewpoint. The specific preventive measures are appropriate calcium intake and regular physical exercise. In recent years, women in their twenties are considerably thinner and have a lower calcium intake than women in other age groups, which may lead to a further increase in the number of women with osteoporosis in the future...
2017: Clinical Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438892/brain-metabolism-in-health-aging-and%C3%A2-neurodegeneration
#12
REVIEW
Simonetta Camandola, Mark P Mattson
Brain cells normally respond adaptively to bioenergetic challenges resulting from ongoing activity in neuronal circuits, and from environmental energetic stressors such as food deprivation and physical exertion. At the cellular level, such adaptive responses include the "strengthening" of existing synapses, the formation of new synapses, and the production of new neurons from stem cells. At the molecular level, bioenergetic challenges result in the activation of transcription factors that induce the expression of proteins that bolster the resistance of neurons to the kinds of metabolic, oxidative, excitotoxic, and proteotoxic stresses involved in the pathogenesis of brain disorders including stroke, and Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases...
April 24, 2017: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437576/irisin-and-musculoskeletal-health
#13
Graziana Colaianni, Saverio Cinti, Silvia Colucci, Maria Grano
Irisin is a hormone-like myokine produced in abundance by skeletal muscle in response to exercise, both in mice and humans. Once released into the circulation, irisin acts on white adipocytes to induce the browning response and subsequently activates nonshivering thermogenesis. We have examined the premise that irisin produced during exercise may subserve further functions in the musculoskeletal system. We review evidence for its possible skeletal effects, including the central role that irisin plays in the control of bone mass, with positive effects on cortical mineral density and geometry in mice...
April 24, 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436723/asymptomatic-peripheral-artery-disease-can-limit-maximal-exercise-capacity-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-patients-regardless-of-airflow-obstruction-and-lung-hyperinflation
#14
Ernesto Crisafulli, Chiara Scelfo, Panagiota Tzani, Marina Aiello, Giuseppina Bertorelli, Alfredo Chetta
Background Silent/asymptomatic peripheral artery disease may occur in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, but it is poorly investigated. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients the impact of asymptomatic/silent peripheral artery disease on maximal exercise capacity; the secondary aim was to search for predictors of peripheral artery disease. Methods We prospectively enrolled chronic obstructive pulmonary disease outpatients. Data on anthropometric characteristics, lung function, cardiopulmonary exercise test and ankle-brachial index were recorded...
January 1, 2017: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435687/an-evaluation-of-low-volume-high-intensity-intermittent-training-hiit-for-health-risk-reduction-in-overweight-and-obese-men
#15
Benjamin M Kelly, Soteris Xenophontos, James A King, Myra A Nimmo
ᅟ: Both sprint interval training (SIT) and high-intensity intermittent training (HIIT) have been described as time-efficient strategies for inducing favourable metabolic and cardiorespiratory adaptations in healthy and diseased participants. BACKGROUND: To date, little attention has been given to profiling the potential health benefits of HIIT or modified HIIT training within overweight and obese cohorts with particular focus on inflammation. Within this pilot trial, we tested the hypothesis that 6 sessions of HIIT performed over 2 weeks with 1-2 days' rest would improve aerobic capacity, glucose metabolism and inflammatory profile in an overweight and obese male cohort...
2017: BMC Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434152/compression-garments-and-recovery-from-exercise-a-meta-analysis
#16
REVIEW
Freddy Brown, Conor Gissane, Glyn Howatson, Ken van Someren, Charles Pedlar, Jessica Hill
BACKGROUND: Adequate recovery from exercise is essential to maintain performance throughout training and competition. While compression garments (CG) have been demonstrated to accelerate recovery, the literature is clouded by conflicting results and uncertainty over the optimal conditions of use. OBJECTIVES: A meta-analysis was conducted to assess the effects of CG on the recovery of strength, power and endurance performance following an initial bout of resistance, running, or non-load-bearing endurance (metabolic) exercise...
April 22, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433617/induced-and-controlled-dietary-ketosis-as-a-regulator-of-obesity-and-metabolic-syndrome-pathologies
#17
Madeline K Gibas, Kelly J Gibas
A worsening epidemic of diabetes and its precursor, metabolic syndrome (MetS) is engulfing America. A healthy individual, with proper glucose regulation has an ability to switch between burning fat and carbohydrates. It has been suggested that signaling errors within this homeostatic system, characterized by impaired switching of substrate oxidation from glucose to fat in response to insulin, can contribute to the etiology of metabolic syndrome and occurs before the development of type II diabetes. Glucose regulation with restored insulin sensitivity facilitated through clinically regulated, benign dietary ketosis (BDK), may significantly reduce, regulate and reverse the adverse pathologies common to MetS and obesity...
March 28, 2017: Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432611/comparison-of-human-erythrocyte-purine-nucleotide-metabolism-and-blood-purine-and-pyrimidine-degradation-product-concentrations-before-and-after-acute-exercise-in-trained-and-sedentary-subjects
#18
Wioleta Dudzinska, M Suska, A Lubkowska, K Jakubowska, M Olszewska, K Safranow, D Chlubek
This study aimed at evaluating the concentration of erythrocyte purine nucleotides (ATP, ADP, AMP, IMP) in trained and sedentary subjects before and after maximal physical exercise together with measuring the activity of purine metabolism enzymes as well as the concentration of purine (hypoxanthine, xanthine, uric acid) and pyrimidine (uridine) degradation products in blood. The study included 15 male elite rowers [mean age 24.3 ± 2.56 years; maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) 52.8 ± 4.54 mL/kg/min; endurance and strength training 8...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432118/molecular-basis-for-exercise-induced-fatigue-the-importance-of-strictly-controlled-cellular-ca-2-handling
#19
Arthur J Cheng, Nicolas Place, Håkan Westerblad
The contractile function of skeletal muscle declines during intense or prolonged physical exercise, that is, fatigue develops. Skeletal muscle fibers fatigue acutely during highly intense exercise when they have to rely on anaerobic metabolism. Early stages of fatigue involve impaired myofibrillar function, whereas decreased Ca(2+) release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) becomes more important in later stages. SR Ca(2+) release can also become reduced with more prolonged, lower intensity exercise, and it is then related to glycogen depletion...
April 21, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432117/control-of-muscle-metabolism-by-the-mediator-complex
#20
Leonela Amoasii, Eric N Olson, Rhonda Bassel-Duby
Exercise represents an energetic challenge to whole-body homeostasis. In skeletal muscle, exercise activates a variety of signaling pathways that culminate in the nucleus to regulate genes involved in metabolism and contractility; however, much remains to be learned about the transcriptional effectors of exercise. Mediator is a multiprotein complex that links signal-dependent transcription factors and other transcriptional regulators with the basal transcriptional machinery, thereby serving as a transcriptional "hub...
April 21, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
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