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Adipose inflammation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447981/isolation-characterization-and-purification-of-macrophages-from-tissues-affected-by-obesity-related-inflammation
#1
Joselyn N Allen, Adwitia Dey, Ruth Nissly, James Fraser, Shan Yu, Gayathri Balandaram, Jeffrey M Peters, Pamela A Hankey-Giblin
Obesity promotes a chronic inflammatory state that is largely mediated by tissue-resident macrophages as well as monocyte-derived macrophages. Diet-induced obesity (DIO) is a valuable model in studying the role of macrophage heterogeneity; however, adequate macrophage isolations are difficult to acquire from inflamed tissues. In this protocol, we outline the isolation steps and necessary troubleshooting guidelines derived from our studies for obtaining a suitable population of tissue-resident macrophages from mice following 18 weeks of high-fat (HFD) or high-fat/high-cholesterol (HFHCD) diet intervention...
April 3, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447763/berberine-protects-against-diet-induced-obesity-through-regulating-metabolic-endotoxemia-and-gut-hormone-levels
#2
Jian Hui Xu, Xing Zhen Liu, Wei Pan, Da Jin Zou
Systemic inflammation, which can be induced by metabolic endotoxemia, and corresponding high‑fat diet‑mediated metabolic disorders are associated with gut microbiota. In the present study reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, immunofluorescence, pyrosequencing, ELISA and Oil Red O staining were performed to assess whether berberine can protect against diet-induced obesity, through modulating the gut microbiota and consequently improving metabolic endotoxemia and gastrointestinal hormone levels...
March 14, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446249/adipose-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-modulate-cd14-cd16-expression-on-monocytes-from-sepsis-patients-in-vitro-via-prostaglandin-e2
#3
Guanguan Qiu, Guoping Zheng, Menghua Ge, Lanfang Huang, Haijiang Tong, Ping Chen, Dengming Lai, Yaoqin Hu, Baoli Cheng, Qiang Shu, Jianguo Xu
BACKGROUND: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been shown to reduce sepsis-induced inflammation and improve survival in mouse models of sepsis. CD16(+) monocytes are proinflammatory and abundant in inflammatory conditions such as sepsis. The primary objective in this exploratory study was to determine the effects of adipose-derived MSCs (ASCs) on three subsets of monocytes from sepsis patients in vitro and to delineate the underlying mechanism. METHODS: This is a prospective cohort study of patients admitted to the medical intensive care unit (ICU) at an academic medical center...
April 26, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445787/adipose-derived-stem-cells-were-impaired-in-restricting-cd4-t-cell-proliferation-and-polarization-in-type-2-diabetic-apoe-mouse
#4
Ming-Hao Liu, Ya Li, Lu Han, Yao-Yuan Zhang, Di Wang, Zhi-Hao Wang, Hui-Min Zhou, Ming Song, Yi-Hui Li, Meng-Xiong Tang, Wei Zhang, Ming Zhong
BACKGROUND: Atherosclerosis (AS) is the most common and serious complication of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and is accelerated via chronic systemic inflammation rather than hyperglycemia. Adipose tissue is the major source of systemic inflammation in abnormal metabolic state. Pro-inflammatory CD4(+)T cells play pivotal role in promoting adipose inflammation. Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) for fat regeneration have potent ability of immunosuppression and restricting CD4(+)T cells as well...
April 23, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445389/fructose-glucocorticoids-and-adipose-tissue-implications-for-the-metabolic-syndrome
#5
REVIEW
Balázs Legeza, Paola Marcolongo, Alessandra Gamberucci, Viola Varga, Gábor Bánhegyi, Angiolo Benedetti, Alex Odermatt
The modern Western society lifestyle is characterized by a hyperenergetic, high sugar containing food intake. Sugar intake increased dramatically during the last few decades, due to the excessive consumption of high-sugar drinks and high-fructose corn syrup. Current evidence suggests that high fructose intake when combined with overeating and adiposity promotes adverse metabolic health effects including dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, type II diabetes, and inflammation. Similarly, elevated glucocorticoid levels, especially the enhanced generation of active glucocorticoids in the adipose tissue due to increased 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 (11β-HSD1) activity, have been associated with metabolic diseases...
April 26, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445363/indomethacin-enhances-fat-graft-retention-by-up-regulating-adipogenic-genes-and-reducing-inflammation
#6
Weiqing Zhan, Shaun S Tan, Xiaolian Han, Jason A Palmer, Geraldine M Mitchell, Wayne A Morrison
BACKGROUND: Cell-assisted lipotransfer has been promisingly applied to restore soft-tissue defects in plastic surgery; however, the harvesting of stromal vascular fraction increases morbidity and poses potential safety hazards. The authors investigated whether adding indomethacin, an antiinflammatory proadipogenic drug, to the fat graft at the time of transplantation would enhance the final graft volume compared with cell-assisted lipotransfer. METHODS: In vitro, human adipose-derived stem cells were cultured in conditioned growth media supplemented with various doses of indomethacin to investigate adipogenesis and the expression of the adipogenic genes...
May 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445156/dietary-capsaicin-and-antibiotics-act-synergistically-to-reduce-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-induced-by-high-fat-diet-in-mice
#7
Jingjuan Hu, Haihua Luo, Yong Jiang, Peng Chen
The prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is increasing rapidly worldwide. However, effective strategies for combating high-fat diet (HFD) induced obesity, fatty liver and metabolic disorder are still limited, and outcomes remain poor. In the present study, we evaluated the combined actions of dietary capsaicin and antibiotics on HFD-induced physiological abnormalities in mice. C57BL/6 male mice were fed with HFD (60% calories from fat) for 17 weeks, and the resultant pathophysiological effects were examined...
April 8, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445107/hypodermal-adipose-tissue-sonoelastography-for-monitoring-treatment-response-in-patients-with-plaque-psoriasis
#8
Annunziata Dattola, Simone Altobelli, Salvatore Marsico, Domenico Plastina, Steven P Nistico, Armando Cavallo, Roberto Floris, Luca Bianchi, Manlio Guazzaroni
BACKGROUND: Psoriasis (PsO) is a multifactorial chronic and relapsing skin disease that affects about 125 million people in the world. Several studies have demonstrated the link between adipose tissue, inflammation, and PsO. The purpose of our study is to evaluate hypodermal adipose tissue inflammation underneath PsO plaques quantifying tissue elasticity with sonoelastography before and after treatment. The study was conducted at the Department of Dermatology of the University of "Rome Tor Vergata" and Department of Radiology of the University of "Rome Tor Vergata...
April 24, 2017: Photomedicine and Laser Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443906/the-enhanced-anti-obesity-effect-and-reduced-gastric-mucosa-irritation-of-capsaicin-loaded-nanoemulsions
#9
Muwen Lu, Yong Cao, Chi-Tang Ho, Qingrong Huang
Capsaicin (CAP), the major active component of chili peppers, is known to have thermogenic and weight-loss potential. The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-obesity effects of capsaicin-loaded nanoemulsions (C-NE) on male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats treated with a high-fat diet (HFD). The food grade C-NE was prepared using capsaicin, medium chain triacylglycerols (MCT) (Neobee 1053), sucrose stearate S-370, Tween 80 and distilled water with an emulsion droplet size of 168 nm and a capsaicin loading of 80...
April 26, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440734/cholinergic-activation-suppresses-palmitate-induced-macrophage-activation-and-improves-acylation-stimulating-protein-resistance-in-co-cultured-adipocytes
#10
Jing Wu, Zhou-Yang Jiao, Rui-Zhen Li, Hui-Ling Lu, Hao-Hao Zhang, Katherine Cianflone
Acylation-stimulating protein (ASP), produced through activation of the alternative complement immune system, modulates lipid metabolism. Using a trans-well co-culture cell model, the mitigating role of α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR)-mediated cholinergic pathway on ASP resistance was evaluated. ASP signaling in adipocytes via its receptor C5L2 and signaling intermediates Gαq, Gβ, phosphorylated protein kinase C-α, and protein kinase C-ζ were markedly suppressed in the presence of TNFα or medium from palmitate-treated RAW264...
May 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440284/cyp2j2-and-its-metabolites-eets-attenuate-insulin-resistance-via-regulating-macrophage-polarization-in-adipose-tissue
#11
Meiyan Dai, Lujin Wu, Peihua Wang, Zheng Wen, Xizhen Xu, Dao Wen Wang
Macrophages in adipose tissue are associated with obesity-induced low-grade inflammation, which contributed to insulin resistance and the related metabolic diseases. Previous studies demonstrated the beneficial effects of epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) on metabolic disorders and inflammation. Here we investigated the effects of CYP2J2-EETs-sEH metabolic pathway on insulin resistance in mice and the potential mechanisms. High fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity caused metabolic dysfunction with more weight gain, elevated glucose and lipids levels, impaired glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity, while increase in EETs level by rAAV-mediated CYP2J2 overexpression, administration of sEH inhibit TUPS or EETs infusion significantly attenuated these metabolic disorders...
April 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440046/attenuated-low-grade-inflammation-following-long-term-dietary-intervention-in-postmenopausal-women-with-obesity
#12
Caroline Blomquist, Malin Alvehus, Jonas Burén, Mats Ryberg, Christel Larsson, Bernt Lindahl, Caroline Mellberg, Ingegerd Söderström, Elin Chorell, Tommy Olsson
OBJECTIVE: Abdominal fat accumulation after menopause is associated with low-grade inflammation and increased risk of metabolic disorders. Effective long-term lifestyle treatment is therefore needed. METHODS: Seventy healthy postmenopausal women (age 60 ± 5.6 years) with BMI 32.5 ± 5.5 were randomized to a Paleolithic-type diet (PD) or a prudent control diet (CD) for 24 months. Blood samples and fat biopsies were collected at baseline, 6 months, and 24 months to analyze inflammation-related parameters...
May 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439667/myricetin-induced-brown-adipose-tissue-activation-prevents-obesity-and-insulin-resistance-in-db-db-mice
#13
Tao Hu, Xiaoxue Yuan, Gang Wei, Haoshu Luo, Hyuek Jong Lee, Wanzhu Jin
PURPOSE: Myricetin, a dietary flavonoid, is effective in the treatment of obesity and insulin resistance by increasing glucose transport and lipogenesis in adipocyte and diminishing systemic inflammation in obesity. However, it has not been revealed yet whether myricetin is associated with brown adipose tissue (BAT) activation that tightly mediates systemic energy metabolism. Therefore, this study assessed whether myricetin activated brown adipose tissue in db/db mouse. METHODS: Myricetin (400 mg/kg) in distilled water was fed daily by oral gavage to leptin receptor-deficient db/db male mice at 4 weeks of age for 14 weeks...
April 24, 2017: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439093/gene-expression-profile-of-subcutaneous-adipose-tissue-in-bmi-discordant-monozygotic-twin-pairs-unravels-molecular-and-clinical-changes-associated-with-sub-types-of-obesity
#14
M Muniandy, S Heinonen, H Yki-Järvinen, A Hakkarainen, J Lundbom, N Lundbom, J Kaprio, A Rissanen, M Ollikainen, K H Pietiläinen
BACKGROUND: Subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) undergoes major changes in obesity, but little is known about the whole-genome scale patterns of these changes or about their variation between different obesity subgroups. We sought to compare how transcriptomics profiles in SAT differ between monozygotic (MZ) co-twins who are discordant for body mass index (BMI), whether the profiles vary between twin pairs and whether the variation can be linked to clinical characteristics. METHODS: We analyzed the transcriptomics (Affymetrix U133 Plus 2...
April 25, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438715/impact-of-physical-exercise-on-visceral-adipose-tissue-fatty-acid-profile-and-inflammation-in-response-to-a-high-fat-diet-regimen
#15
Sílvia Rocha-Rodrigues, Amaia Rodríguez, Inês O Gonçalves, Ana Moreira, Elisabete Maciel, Sónia Santos, Maria R Domingues, Gema Frühbeck, António Ascensão, José Magalhães
PURPOSE: Studies associate specific fatty-acids (FA) with the pathophysiology of inflammation. We aimed to analyze the impact of exercise on adipose tissue FA profile in response to a high-fat diet (HFD) and to ascertain whether these exercise-induced changes in specific FA have repercussions on obesity-related inflammation. METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned into sedentary, voluntary physical-activity (VPA) and endurance training (ET) groups fed a standard (S, 35kcal% fat) or high-fat (71kcal% fat) diets...
April 21, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436986/adiposity-amplifies-the-genetic-risk-of-fatty-liver-disease-conferred-by-multiple-loci
#16
Stefan Stender, Julia Kozlitina, Børge G Nordestgaard, Anne Tybjærg-Hansen, Helen H Hobbs, Jonathan C Cohen
Complex traits arise from the interplay between genetic and environmental factors. The actions of these factors usually appear to be additive, and few compelling examples of gene-environment synergy have been documented. Here we show that adiposity significantly amplifies the effect of three sequence variants (encoding PNPLA3 p.I148M, TM6SF2 p.E167K, and GCKR p.P446L) associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Synergy between adiposity and genotype promoted the full spectrum of NAFLD, from steatosis to hepatic inflammation to cirrhosis...
April 24, 2017: Nature Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434881/muramyl-dipeptide-based-postbiotics-mitigate-obesity-induced-insulin-resistance-via-irf4
#17
Joseph F Cavallari, Morgan D Fullerton, Brittany M Duggan, Kevin P Foley, Emmanuel Denou, Brennan K Smith, Eric M Desjardins, Brandyn D Henriksbo, Kalvin J Kim, Brian R Tuinema, Jennifer C Stearns, David Prescott, Philip Rosenstiel, Brian K Coombes, Gregory R Steinberg, Jonathan D Schertzer
Intestinal dysbiosis contributes to obesity and insulin resistance, but intervening with antibiotics, prebiotics, or probiotics can be limited by specificity or sustained changes in microbial composition. Postbiotics include bacterial components such as lipopolysaccharides, which have been shown to promote insulin resistance during metabolic endotoxemia. We found that bacterial cell wall-derived muramyl dipeptide (MDP) is an insulin-sensitizing postbiotic that requires NOD2. Injecting MDP lowered adipose inflammation and reduced glucose intolerance in obese mice without causing weight loss or altering the composition of the microbiome...
April 6, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434744/a-prospective-cohort-study-of-digital-cushion-and-corium-thickness-part-1-associations-with-body-condition-lesion-incidence-and-proximity-to-calving
#18
R F Newsome, M J Green, N J Bell, N J Bollard, C S Mason, H R Whay, J N Huxley
Claw horn disruption lesions (CHDL) are a major cause of lameness in dairy cattle and are likely a result of excessive forces being applied to the germinal epithelium that produces the claw horn. The digital cushion is a connective tissue structure, containing depots of adipose tissue, that sits beneath the distal phalanx and has been shown to be thicker in fatter cows. Body condition score (BCS) loss is a risk factor for CHDL, and one possible explanation is that fat is mobilized from the digital cushion during negative energy balance, causing the digital cushion to thin and lose force-dissipating capacity, leading to disruption of claw horn growth...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432036/increased-inflammation-from-childhood-to-adolescence-predicts-sleep-apnea-in-boys-a-preliminary-study
#19
Jordan Gaines, Alexandros N Vgontzas, Julio Fernandez-Mendoza, Fan He, Susan L Calhoun, Duanping Liao, Edward O Bixler
While chronic systemic inflammation in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has been traditionally considered a consequence of intermittent hypoxia, several treatment studies targeting inflammation suggest that this process may precede the development of the disorder. A recent cross-sectional study in the Penn State Child Cohort (PSCC) revealed that inflammation largely mediates the association between visceral adiposity and OSA in adolescence. The purpose of this study was to examine for the first time whether, longitudinally, inflammation precedes OSA during this developmental period...
April 18, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429893/significant-associations-between-c-reactive-protein-levels-body-adiposity-distribution-and-peripheral-blood-cells-in-school-age-children
#20
Aralia Berenice Salgado-Bernabé, Luz Elena Ramos-Arellanol, Iris Paola Guzmán-Guzmán, José Francisco Muñoz-Valle, Natividad Castro-Alarcón, Amalia Vences-Velázquez, Lorenzo Salga-do-Goytia, Isela Parra-Rojas
Obesity is associated with a state of chronic low-grade inflammation. Ge- nerally, there are significant correlations between body mass index and increased C-reactive protein levels. We investigated the relationship of high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) levels with body adiposity distribution and blood cell count in obese children. A cross-sec- tional study was performed in 225 Mexican children. In the study were included 106 obese and 119 normal-weight children, aged 6-13 years old. The body composition was evaluated by BMI, body circumferences and skinfold thickness...
June 2016: Investigación Clínica
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