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Adipose inflammation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142285/blockade-of-cb1-cannabinoid-receptor-alters-gut-microbiota-and-attenuates-inflammation-and-diet-induced-obesity
#1
Pegah Mehrpouya-Bahrami, Kumaraswamy Naidu Chitrala, Mitra S Ganewatta, Chuanbing Tang, E Angela Murphy, Reilly T Enos, Kandy T Velazquez, Jamie McCellan, Mitzi Nagarkatti, Prakash Nagarkatti
Obesity is characterized by chronic low-grade, systemic inflammation, altered gut microbiota, and gut barrier disruption. Additionally, obesity is associated with increased activity of endocannabinoid system (eCB). However, the clear connection between gut microbiota and the eCB system in the regulation of energy homeostasis and adipose tissue inflammation and metabolism, remains to be established. We investigated the effect of treatment of mice with a cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) antagonist on Diet-Induced Obesity (DIO), specifically whether such a treatment that blocks endocannabinoid activity can induce changes in gut microbiota and anti-inflammatory state in adipose tissue...
November 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141203/mouse-adenovirus-type-1-infection-of-adipose-tissue
#2
Caitlyn T Molloy, Laura J Adkins, Cameron Griffin, Kanakadurga Singer, Jason B Weinberg
Human adenovirus (HAdV) type 36 seropositivity has been linked to obesity in humans. That link is supported by a small number of studies using HAdV-36 infection of animals that are not natural hosts for HAdVs. In this study, we infected mice with mouse adenovirus type 1 (MAV-1), a mouse pathogen, to determine whether MAV-1 infected adipose tissue and was associated with adipose tissue inflammation and obesity. We detected MAV-1 in adipose tissue during acute MAV-1 infection, but we did not detect virus-induced increases in adipose tissue cytokine expression or histological evidence of adipose tissue inflammation during acute infection...
November 12, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141038/depot-specific-inflammation-with-decreased-expression-of-atm2-in-white-adipose-tissues-induced-by-high-margarine-lard-intake
#3
Nannan Wang, Jie Guo, Fuding Liu, Mingxia Wang, Chuntao Li, Lihong Jia, Lingling Zhai, Wei Wei, Yinglong Bai
A high-fat diet has been recognized as an important risk factor of obesity, with variable impacts of different fatty acid compositions on the physiological process. To understand the effects of a high-margarine/lard diet, which is a major source of trans fatty acids (TFAs)/ saturated fatty acids (SFAs), elaidic acid as a biomarker of margarine intake was used to screen affected adipokines on mature human adipocytes in vitro. Weaned male Wistar rats were fed a high-fat diet enriched with margarine/lard to generate obesity-prone (OP) and obesity-resistant (OR) models, which were then used to explore the inflammatory responses of depot-specific white adipose tissue...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138853/role-of-innate-lymphoid-cells-in-obesity-and-metabolic-disease-review
#4
Jirakrit Saetang, Surasak Sangkhathat
The immune system has previously been demonstrated to be associated with the pathophysiological development of metabolic abnormalities. However, the mechanisms linking immunity to metabolic disease remain to be fully elucidated. It has previously been suggested that innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) may be involved in the progression of numerous types of metabolic diseases as these cells act as suppressors and promoters for obesity and associated conditions, and are particularly involved in adipose tissue inflammation, which is a major feature of metabolic imbalance...
November 13, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138673/the-beneficial-effects-of-quercetin-curcumin-and-resveratrol-in-obesity
#5
REVIEW
Yueshui Zhao, Bo Chen, Jing Shen, Lin Wan, Yinxin Zhu, Tao Yi, Zhangang Xiao
Over the past two decades, obesity has been one of the major public health concerns in most countries. In the search for new molecules that could be used for the treatment of obesity, good perspectives have been opened up for polyphenols, a class of natural bioactive phytochemicals. Experimental and limited clinical trial evidence supports that some polyphenols such as quercetin, curcumin, and resveratrol have potential benefit functions on obesity treatment. This brief review focuses on the main functions of the above-named polyphenols on adipose tissue...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137352/maternal-high-calorie-diet-induces-mitochondrial-dysfunction-and-senescence-phenotype-in-subcutaneous-fat-of-newborn-mice
#6
Daniele Lettieri-Barbato, Fabiana D'Angelo, Francesca Sciarretta, Giuseppe Tatulli, Flavia Tortolici, Maria Rosa Ciriolo, Katia Aquilano
Mitochondrial dysfunction, inflammation and senescence-like features are observed in adipose depots in aging and obesity. Herein, we evaluated how maternal high calorie diet (HCD) may impact on subcutaneous adipose tissue (sAT) of the newborn mice. Adult C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided in three groups: normal calorie diet (NCD), HCD and HCD supplemented with niacin 8 weeks before mating. Mothers and pups were then sacrificed and metabolic and molecular analyses were carried out on sAT. HCD induced mitochondria dysfunction in mothers without inflammation and senescence, whereas in pups we also revealed the occurrence of senescent phenotype...
October 13, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133512/exosomes-from-adipose-derived-stem-cells-attenuate-adipose-inflammation-and-obesity-through-polarizing-m2-macrophages-and-beiging-in-white-adipose-tissues
#7
Hui Zhao, Qianwen Shang, Zhenzhen Pan, Yang Bai, Zequn Li, Huiying Zhang, Qiu Zhang, Chun Guo, Lining Zhang, Qun Wang
Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) play critical roles in controlling obesity-associated inflammation and metabolic disorders. Exosomes from ADSCs exert protective effects in several diseases, but their roles in obesity and related pathological conditions remain unclear. Here we showed that treatment of obese mice with ADSC-derived exosomes facilitated their metabolic homeostasis including improved insulin sensitivity (27.8% improvement), reduced obesity and alleviated hepatic steatosis. ADSC-derived exosomes drove M2 macrophage polarization, inflammation reduction and beiging in white adipose tissues (WAT) of diet-induced obese mice...
November 13, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133343/clinical-and-histologic-characterization-of-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis-in-african-american-patients
#8
Fernando Bril, Paola Portillo-Sanchez, I-Chia Liu, Srilaxmi Kalavalapalli, Kristin Dayton, Kenneth Cusi
OBJECTIVE: There has been a widespread misconception among physicians that African Americans are protected from developing nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). However, a formal histologic and metabolic comparison against well-matched Caucasians has never been performed. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Sixty-seven African American patients were matched 2:1 to Caucasians (n = 134) for age, sex, BMI, hemoglobin A1c, and prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Screening for NASH included measurement of intrahepatic triglyceride content by proton MRS ((1)H-MRS), followed by a liver biopsy if patients had hepatic steatosis...
November 13, 2017: Diabetes Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132171/metabolic-endotoxemia-activated-macrophages-promote-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cell-death-via-ifn%C3%AE-xaf1-pathway
#9
Mitsudai Tsuruta, Misaki Iwashita, Takanori Shinjo, Hiroaki Matsunaga, Akiko Yamashita, Fusanori Nishimura
Metabolic endotoxemia has been implicated in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. In addition to adipose tissue inflammation, inflammatory cell infiltration is also observed in islets, although its effect on islets is largely unknown. We hypothesized that macrophage infiltration into islets leads to impairment of α or β cell function, which ultimately act to exacerbate the pathophysiology of diabetes. Gene expression in a murine α cell line, αTC1, and β cell line, βTC6, was investigated by DNA microarray after co-culturing the cells with a murine macrophage cell line, RAW 264...
November 13, 2017: Hormone and Metabolic Research, Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung, Hormones et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131526/amniotic-mesenchymal-stem-cells-mitigate-osteoarthritis-progression-in-a-synovial-macrophage-mediated-in-vitro-explant-co-culture-model
#10
Natasha Topoluk, Kathleen Steckbeck, Sandra Siatkowski, Brian Burnikel, John Tokish, Jeremy Mercuri
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a disease of the synovial joint marked by chronic, low-grade inflammation leading to cartilage destruction. Regenerative medicine strategies for mitigating OA progression and/or promoting cartilage regeneration must be assessed using models that mimic the hallmarks of OA. More specifically, these models should maintain synovial macrophage phenotype in their native micro-environment. Herein, an in vitro co-culture model of patient-matched human OA cartilage and synovium was assessed for viability, macrophage phenotype, and progressive cartilage destruction in the presence of an inflammatory milieu...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131161/rapid-virtual-hematoxylin-and-eosin-histology-of-breast-tissue-specimens-using-a-compact-fluorescence-nonlinear-microscope
#11
Lucas C Cahill, Michael G Giacomelli, Tadayuki Yoshitake, Hilde Vardeh, Beverly E Faulkner-Jones, James L Connolly, Chi-Kuang Sun, James G Fujimoto
Up to 40% of patients undergoing breast conserving surgery for breast cancer require repeat surgeries due to close to or positive margins. The lengthy processing required for evaluating surgical margins by standard paraffin-embedded histology precludes its use during surgery and therefore, technologies for rapid evaluation of surgical pathology could improve the treatment of breast cancer by reducing the number of surgeries required. We demonstrate real-time histological evaluation of breast cancer surgical specimens by staining specimens with acridine orange (AO) and sulforhodamine 101 (SR101) analogously to hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and then imaging the specimens with fluorescence nonlinear microscopy (NLM) using a compact femtosecond fiber laser...
November 13, 2017: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130699/inflammation-and-insulin-resistance-according-to-body-composition-in-european-adolescents-the-helena-study
#12
Esther González-Gil, Luis Gracia-Marco, Javier Santabárbara, Denes Molnar, Francisco Jose Amaro Gahete, Frederic Gottrand, Aline Arouca, Antonios Kafatos, Kurt Widhalm, Yannis Manios, Alfonso Siani, Marcela González-Gross, Sonia Gómez-Martínez, Ligia Esperanza Díaz, Catherine Leclerq, Jean Dallongeville, Ascensión Marcos, Luis A Moreno Aznar
INTRODUCTION: Inflammation is related to insulin resistance in adults, especially on those individuals with high levels of body composition. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to assess the relationship between a set of inflammatory biomarkers and insulin resistance by levels of body composition in a sample of European adolescents. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Nine hundred and sixty-two adolescents (442 boys and 520 girls) from nine European countries met the inclusion criteria of having measurements for the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) and a set of inflammation-related biomarkers: C-reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin (IL-6), complement factors C3 and C4 and selected cell adhesion molecules...
October 24, 2017: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129815/biological-effects-of-adipocytes-in-sulfur-mustard-induced-toxicity
#13
Hua Xu, Zhongcai Gao, Peng Wang, Bin Xu, Yajiao Zhang, Long Long, Cheng Zong, Lei Guo, Weijian Jiang, Qinong Ye, Lili Wang, Jianwei Xie
Sulphur mustard (2,2'-dichloroethyl sulfide; SM) is a vesicant chemical warfare agent whose mechanism of acute or chronic action is not known with any certainty and to date there is no effective antidote. SM accumulation in adipose tissue (AT) has been originally verified in our previous study. To evaluate the biological effect caused by the presence of abundant SM in adipocyte and assess the biological role of AT in SM poisoning, in vitro and in vivo experiments were performed. High content analysis revealed multi-cytotoxicity in SM exposed cells in a time and dose dependent manner, and adipocytes showed a relative moderate damage compared with non-adipocytes...
November 9, 2017: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129772/glycyrrhizin-ameliorates-high-fat-diet-induced-obesity-in-rats-by-activating-nrf2-pathway
#14
Nada F Abo El-Magd, Mohamed El-Mesery, Amro El-Karef, Mamdouh M El-Shishtawy
AIM: Obesity based on insulin resistance is a state of chronic oxidative stress and inflammation that are highly regulated through nuclear factor Erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NrF2) pathway. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 70 male Wistar rats were randomized into two models. The prophylactic model was 10weeks and rats were grouped into: normal group, GL group (received glycyrrhizin 50mg/kg/day orally along with normal pellet diet), HFD group and HFD+ GL group (received glycyrrhizin along with HFD)...
November 9, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129025/assessment-of-circulating-wnt1-inducible-signalling-pathway-protein-1-wisp-1-ccn4-as-a-novel-biomarker-of-obesity
#15
Christopher Tacke, Krasimira Aleksandrova, Miriam Rehfeldt, Veronica Murahovschi, Mariya Markova, Margrit Kemper, Silke Hornemann, Ulrike Kaiser, Caroline Honig, Christiana Gerbracht, Stefan Kabisch, Tina Hörbelt, D Margriet Ouwens, Martin O Weickert, Heiner Boeing, Andreas F H Pfeiffer, Olga Pivovarova, Natalia Rudovich
WNT1 inducible signaling pathway protein 1 (WISP-1/CCN4) is a novel adipokine, which is upregulated in obesity, and induces a pro-inflammatory response in macrophages in-vitro. Preclinical observations suggested WISP-1/CCN4 as a potential candidate for novel obesity therapy targeting adipose tissue inflammation. Whether circulating levels of WISP-1/CCN4 in humans are altered in obesity and/or type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and in the postprandial state, however, is unknown. This study assessed circulating WISP-1/CCN4 levels in a) paired liquid meal tests and hyperinsulinemic- euglycemic clamps (cohort I, n = 26), b) healthy individuals (cohort II, n = 207) and c) individuals with different stages of obesity and glucose tolerance (cohort III, n = 253)...
November 11, 2017: Journal of Cell Communication and Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128140/comparative-assessment-of-serum-adipokines-zinc-%C3%AE-2-glycoprotein-and-adipose-triglyceride-lipase-and-cardiovascular-risk-factors-between-normal-weight-and-obese-patients-with-hemodialysis
#16
Mohammad Javad Hosseinzadeh-Attar, Mitra Mahdavi-Mazdeh, Mehdi Yaseri, Narges Sadat Zahed, Elham Alipoor
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the potential relationship of obesity, adipose tissue and novel adipokines with cardiometabolic risk factors in end-stage renal disease. Zinc-α2-glycoprotein (ZAG) and adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) are novel adipokines with proposed desirable effects on inflammation, and lipid and glucose metabolism. The aim of this study was to investigate serum concentrations of ZAG and ATGL, and the relationship of these adipokines with cardiovascular risk factors in normal weight (NW) and obese (OB) patients undergoing hemodialysis...
November 8, 2017: Archives of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127754/-osteoarthritis-as-part-of-metabolic-syndrome
#17
Karel Pavelka
Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most frequent joint disease, whereas etiopathogenesis of OA is not entirely clarified. It is a heterogeneous disorder and genetic as well as biomechanical, endocrine and inflammatory effects may be involved in its origin. The author examines the problems concerning relationships between the metabolic syndrome and OA, and states that the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in patients with OA is higher than in those without OA (59 % vs 23 %). It remains problematic that one of the main components of metabolic syndrome is obesity which in itself is a risk factor for arthrosis development in the weight-bearing joints, not for OA in the hands...
2017: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127476/co-supplementation-of-isomalto-oligosaccharides-potentiates-metabolic-health-benefits-of-polyphenol-rich-cranberry-extract-in-high-fat-diet-fed-mice-via-enhanced-gut-butyrate-production
#18
Dhirendra Pratap Singh, Shashank Singh, Vandana Bijalwan, Vijay Kumar, Pragyanshu Khare, Ritesh Kumar Baboota, Paramdeep Singh, Ravneet Kaur Boparai, Jagdeep Singh, Kanthi Kiran Kondepudi, Kanwaljit Chopra, Mahendra Bishnoi
PURPOSE: Cranberries are a rich source of polyphenolic antioxidants. Purified sugars or artificial sweeteners are being added to cranberry-based food products to mask tartness. Refined sugar and artificial sweeteners intake modulate gut microbiota and result in metabolic complications. We evaluated effects of isomalto-oligosaccharides (IMOs; sweet tasting non-digestible oligosaccharides) with cranberry extract (CRX) on high fat diet (HFD)-induced metabolic alterations in mice. METHODS: Male Swiss albino mice were fed normal chow or HFD (58% fat kcal), and were administered either CRX (200 mg/kg) alone or in combination with IMOs (1 g/kg)...
November 10, 2017: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124887/association-between-metabolic-syndrome-and-gingival-inflammation-in-obese-children
#19
K Kâ, M-C Rousseau, S D Tran, M Henderson, B Nicolau
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Our previous work showed a positive association between metabolic syndrome (MetS) and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) in a sample of obese and non-obese children. However, whether this association persists among obese children is unknown. We aim to investigate the extent to which MetS is associated with GCF TNF-α level among obese children. METHODOLOGY: We performed a cross-sectional analysis using data from visit 1 of the QUebec Adipose and Lifestyle InvesTigation in Youth cohort...
November 10, 2017: International Journal of Dental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124251/trail-deletion-prevents-liver-but-not-adipose-tissue-inflammation-during-murine-diet-induced-obesity
#20
Petra Hirsova, Peggy Weng, Warda Salim, Steven F Bronk, Thomas S Griffith, Samar H Ibrahim, Gregory J Gores
Background & Aim: TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) and its cognate receptor(s) are upregulated in human and murine nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). However, the consequence of this enhanced expression on NASH pathogenesis remains unclear. TRAIL may either accentuate liver injury by promoting hepatic steatosis and inflammation, or it may mitigate the disease process by improving systemic insulin resistance and averting hepatic fibrosis. Herein, we investigated the role of TRAIL in an obesity-induced murine model of NASH...
September 2017: Hepatol Commun
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