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coronary plaque burden

George A Karpouzas, Joel Estis, Panteha Rezaeian, John Todd, Matthew J Budoff
Objectives: Patients with RA display greater occult coronary atherosclerosis burden and experience higher cardiovascular morbidity and mortality compared with controls. We here explored whether pro-inflammatory cytokines and high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I (hs-cTnI), a biomarker of myocardial injury, correlated with plaque burden and cardiovascular events (CVEs) in RA. Methods: We evaluated 150 patients with 64-slice coronary CT angiography. Coronary artery calcium, number of segments with plaque (segment involvement score), stenotic severity and plaque burden were assessed...
March 14, 2018: Rheumatology
Ali R Keramati, Lisa R Yanek, Kruthika Iyer, Margaret A Taub, Ingo Ruczinski, Diane M Becker, Lewis C Becker, Nauder Faraday, Rasika A Mathias
Coronary artery disease (CAD) remains a major cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. The aggregation of activated platelets on a ruptured atherosclerotic plaque is a critical step in most acute cardiovascular events like myocardial infarction. Platelet aggregation both at baseline and after aspirin is highly heritable. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified a common variant within the first intron of the platelet endothelial aggregation receptor1 (PEAR1), to be robustly associated with platelet aggregation...
March 19, 2018: Platelets
Maxime M Vroegindewey, Anne-Sophie Schuurman, Isabella Kardys, Sharda S Anroedh, Rohit M Oemrawsingh, Jurgen Ligthart, Hector M Garcia-Garcia, Robert-Jan M van Geuns, Evelyn Regar, Nicolas M Van Mieghem, Patrick W Serruys, Eric Boersma, Martijn Akkerhuis
AIMS: To examine the relationship between the anatomical SYNTAX score (SXscore), derived from all three coronary arteries, and coronary wall pathology measured by radiofrequency-intravascular ultrasound (RF-IVUS) and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in a single non-culprit segment. METHODS AND RESULTS: In referred for coronary angiography (N=88) or PCI (N=592) for stable angina or acute coronary syndrome, the SYNTAX score calculator ( was used to determine SXscore before PCI, if applicable...
March 13, 2018: EuroIntervention
Fabian Plank, Christoph Beyer, Guy Friedrich, Markus Stühlinger, Florian Hintringer, Wolfgang Dichtl, Matthias Wildauer, Gudrun Feuchtner
OBJECTIVE: Vitamin K antagonists (VKA) are associated with increased vascular calcification which may lead to an elevated cardiovascular risk. If the direct anticoagulants (DOACs) have similar negative vascular effects is unknown. We evaluated the influence of different anticoagulation strategies on coronary artery disease (CAD) using coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA). METHODS: Overall 702 consecutive patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (AF) who underwent CTA for AF ablation planning were enrolled and stratified according to their anticoagulation into VKA, DOAC (all agents) and a control group without oral anticoagulation...
March 6, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
Jill K Badin, Ayeeshik Kole, Benjamin Stivers, Victor Progar, Anisha Pareddy, Mouhamad Alloosh, Michael Sturek
BACKGROUND: There is a preponderance of evidence implicating diabetes with increased coronary artery disease (CAD) and calcification (CAC) in human patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS), but the effect of diabetes on CAD severity in animal models remains controversial. We investigated whether diabetes exacerbates CAD/CAC and intracellular free calcium ([Ca2+ ]i ) dysregulation in the clinically relevant Ossabaw miniature swine model of MetS. METHODS: Sixteen swine, eight with alloxan-induced diabetes, were fed a hypercaloric, atherogenic diet for 6 months...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Translational Medicine
Q-H Li, Q Zhang, X-L Li, J-F Yin, H-G Ji
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the plaque distribution and composition pattern in the left main coronary artery (LMCA) disease using intracoronary ultrasound. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Intravascular ultrasound data of 50 patients from the January 2010 to December 2015 with significant LMCA bifurcation lesions, with angiographic diameter stenosis >50%, and requiring revascularization, were evaluated. Plaque burden and percentage of necrotic core (% NC) at the minimal lumen area site and maximal % NC site were measured in different segments...
February 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Jaykrishna Singh, Gerd Brunner, Joel D Morrisett, Christie M Ballantyne, Alan B Lumsden, Dipan J Shah, Paolo Decuzzi
Background and Aims: MRI-based hemodynamics have been applied to study the relationship between time-averaged wall shear stresses (TAWSS), oscillatory shear index (OSI) and atherosclerotic lesions in the coronary arteries, carotid artery, and human aorta. However, the role of TAWSS and OSI are poorly understood in lower extremity arteries. The aim of this work was to investigate the feasibility of hemodynamic assessment of the superficial femoral artery (SFA) in patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD) and we hypothesized that there is an association between TAWSS and OSI, respectively, and atherosclerotic burden expressed as the normalized wall index (NWI)...
2018: Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering. Imaging & Visualization
Samuel L Sidharta, Timothy J Baillie, Stuart Howell, Stephen J Nicholls, Natalie Montarello, Satoshi Honda, Daisuke Shishikura, Sinny Delacroix, Susan Kim, John F Beltrame, Peter J Psaltis, Stephen G Worthley, Matthew I Worthley
OBJECTIVE: Coronary vasodilator function and atherosclerotic plaque progression have both been shown to be associated with adverse cardiovascular events. However, the relationship between these factors and the lipid burden of coronary plaque remains unknown. These experiments focus on investigating the relationship between impaired coronary vasodilator function (endothelium dependent (salbutamol) and endothelium independent (glyceryl trinitrate)) and the natural history of atheroma plaque progression and lipid burden using dual modality intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) imaging...
March 1, 2018: Heart: Official Journal of the British Cardiac Society
Tomoyo Sugiyama, Lei Xing, Erika Yamamoto, Francesco Fracassi, Hang Lee, Bo Yu, Ik-Kyung Jang
OBJECTIVE: Recent studies suggest that conservative management with antithrombotic therapy without stenting may be an option in selected patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). We evaluated whether a glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor, tirofiban, would offer additional benefit in patients with plaque erosion presenting with ACS who were treated with antiplatelet therapy without stenting. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Forty-nine patients who completed 1-year follow-up optical coherence tomography imaging in the EROSION study were divided into two groups: tirofiban (n=32) versus no tirofiban (n=17)...
February 28, 2018: Coronary Artery Disease
Darren G Woodside, Eric A Tanifum, Ketan B Ghaghada, Ronald J Biediger, Amy R Caivano, Zbigniew A Starosolski, Sayadeth Khounlo, Saakshi Bhayana, Shahrzad Abbasi, John W Craft, David S Maxwell, Chandreshkumar Patel, Igor V Stupin, Deenadayalan Bakthavatsalam, Robert V Market, James T Willerson, Richard A F Dixon, Peter Vanderslice, Ananth V Annapragada
Inflammation drives the degradation of atherosclerotic plaque, yet there are no non-invasive techniques available for imaging overall inflammation in atherosclerotic plaques, especially in the coronary arteries. To address this, we have developed a clinically relevant system to image overall inflammatory cell burden in plaque. Here, we describe a targeted contrast agent (THI0567-targeted liposomal-Gd) that is suitable for magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and binds with high affinity and selectivity to the integrin α4β1(very late antigen-4, VLA-4), a key integrin involved in recruiting inflammatory cells to atherosclerotic plaques...
February 27, 2018: Scientific Reports
Gianpiero D'Amico, Marco Basile, Giuseppe Tarantini, Alfredo Marchese
Acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) typically arises from total occlusion of an epicardial coronary artery, most often due to atherosclerotic plaque rupture/erosion and subsequent thrombus formation. Granted this, important angiographic information for patients presenting with STEMI is not only about the status of infarct-related artery (IRA) but also about the atherosclerotic disease burden and disease severity of non-IRA vessels. Previous studies have reported that multivessel (MV) coronary artery disease (CAD) is found in approximately 50% of patients with STEMI undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) [1,2]...
February 19, 2018: Minerva Cardioangiologica
Michael S Lee, Richard A Shlofmitz, Evan Shlofmitz, Pratyaksh K Srivastava, Jeremy Kong, Cindy Grines, George Revytak, Jeffrey W Chambers
OBJECTIVES: We assessed the safety and efficacy of orbital atherectomy to modify severely calcified coronary plaque prior to stent implantation in patients with small vessel (2.5mm) disease. BACKGROUND: Severe coronary artery calcification increases the risk of adverse clinical events during percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Patients who undergo PCI of small vessels have worse clinical outcomes including higher rates of perforation and dissection. The outcomes of orbital atherectomy of small diameter vessels (2...
October 3, 2017: Cardiovascular Revascularization Medicine: Including Molecular Interventions
Francesca Zimetti, Wladimir M Freitas, Alessandra M Campos, Mauricio Daher, Maria Pia Adorni, Franco Bernini, Andrei C Sposito, Ilaria Zanotti
Several studies revealed that traditional risk factors are less effective in predicting CVD risk in the elderly, suggesting the need to identify new biomarkers. Here we evaluated the association between serum cholesterol efflux capacity (CEC), an atheroprotective property of HDL recently identified as a novel marker of CVD risk, and atherosclerotic burden in a cohort of very old, healthy individuals. Serum CEC values were not significantly correlated neither with calcium score nor with markers of vulnerable plaque, such as positive remodeling, hypodensity, spotty calcification or napking-ring sign...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Lipid Research
Giampaolo Niccoli, Domenico D'Amario, Josip A Borovac, Erminio Santangelo, Giancarla Scalone, Francesco Fracassi, Rocco Vergallo, Vincenzo Vetrugno, Giorgia Copponi, Anna Severino, Giovanna Liuzzo, Asiia Imaeva, Andrea Siracusano, Filippo Crea
BACKGROUND: Perilipin 2 (PLIN2) is a protein that potentially facilitates atherogenesis in native coronary arteries or arteries with an implanted drug-eluting stent (DES). The aim of the study was to determine PLIN2 protein levels in peripheral monocytes of enrolled subjects and compare them between patients with native coronary artery disease (CAD) and those with an in-stent restenosis (ISR) due to neoatherosclerosis occurring >1 year after DES implantation. METHODS: Forty-two patients were prospectively enrolled in the study in 3:1 fashion and underwent coronary catheterization...
February 5, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
Roel S Driessen, Wijnand J Stuijfzand, Pieter G Raijmakers, Ibrahim Danad, James K Min, Jonathon A Leipsic, Amir Ahmadi, Jagat Narula, Peter M van de Ven, Marc C Huisman, Adriaan A Lammertsma, Albert C van Rossum, Niels van Royen, Paul Knaapen
BACKGROUND: Atherosclerotic plaque characteristics may affect downstream myocardial perfusion, as well as coronary lesion severity. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to evaluate the association between quantitative plaque burden and plaque morphology obtained using coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) and quantitative myocardial perfusion obtained using [15 O]H2 O positron emission tomography (PET), as well as fractional flow reserve (FFR) derived invasively...
February 6, 2018: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
Xinlei Wu, Clemens von Birgelen, Zehang Li, Su Zhang, Jiayue Huang, Fuyou Liang, Yingguang Li, William Wijns, Shengxian Tu
Cyclic biomechanical stress at the lumen-intima interface plays a crucial role in the rupture of coronary plaque. We performed a comprehensive assessment of a novel angiography-based method for four-dimensional (4D) dynamic assessment of superficial wall stress (SWS) and deformation with a total of 32 analyses in virtual stenosis models with equal lumen dimensions and 16 analyses in human coronary arteries in vivo. The in silico model analyses demonstrated that the SWS, derived by the proposed global displacement method without knowledge of plaque components or blood pressure, was comparable with the result calculated by traditional finite element method...
February 3, 2018: International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging
Rachel Golan, Iris Shai, Yftach Gepner, Ilana Harman-Boehm, Dan Schwarzfuchs, J David Spence, Grace Parraga, Dan Buchanan, Shula Witkow, Michael Friger, Idit F Liberty, Benjamin Sarusi, Sivan Ben-Avraham, Dana Sefarty, Nitzan Bril, Michal Rein, Noa Cohen, Uta Ceglarek, Joachim Thiery, Michael Stumvoll, Matthias Blüher, Meir J Stampfer, Assaf Rudich, Yaakov Henkin
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The progression of carotid-plaque volume in patients with type 2 diabetes is common. Previous observational studies showed an association between moderate alcohol and reduced risk of coronary disease. We examined whether consuming moderate wine affects the progression of carotid atherosclerosis. SUBJECTS/METHODS: In the CASCADE (CArdiovaSCulAr Diabetes and Ethanol), a 2-year randomized controlled trial, we randomized abstainers with type 2 diabetes were to drink 150 ml of either red wine, white wine, or water, provided for 2 years...
January 29, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Satoshi Honda, Samuel Sidharta, Daisuke Shishikura, Kohei Takata, Jordan Andrews, Susan Kim, Julie Butters, Peter Psaltis, Matthew Worthley, Stephen Nicholls
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: Atherosclerosis
Matthew Budoff, J Brent Muhlestein, Viet T Le, Heidi T May, Sion Roy, John R Nelson
Despite reducing progression and promoting regression of coronary atherosclerosis, statin therapy does not fully address residual cardiovascular (CV) risk. High-purity eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) added to a statin has been shown to reduce CV events and induce regression of coronary atherosclerosis in imaging studies; however, data are from Japanese populations without high triglyceride (TG) levels and baseline EPA serum levels greater than those in North American populations. Icosapent ethyl is a high-purity prescription EPA ethyl ester approved at 4 g/d as an adjunct to diet to reduce TG levels in adults with TG levels >499 mg/dL...
January 24, 2018: Clinical Cardiology
Isac C Thomas, Nketi I Forbang, Michael H Criqui
Calcification of the coronary artery is a complex pathophysiologic process that is intimately associated with atherosclerosis. Extensive investigation has demonstrated the value of identifying and quantifying coronary artery calcium (CAC) in atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD) prognostication. However, over the last several years, an increasing body of evidence has suggested that CAC has underappreciated aspects that modulate, and at times attenuate, future CVD risk. The most commonly used measure of CAC, the Agatston unit, effectively models both higher density and higher area of CAC as risk factors for future CVD events...
January 22, 2018: Clinical Cardiology
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