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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432115/effects-of-exercise-on-vascular-function-structure-and-health-in-humans
#1
Daniel J Green, Kurt J Smith
Physical activity has profound impacts on the vasculature in humans. Acute exercise induces immediate changes in artery function, whereas repeated episodic bouts of exercise induce chronic functional adaptation and, ultimately, structural arterial remodeling. The nature of these changes in function and structure are dependent on the characteristics of the training load and may be modulated by other factors such as exercise-induced inflammation and oxidative stress. The clinical implications of these physiological adaptations are profound...
April 21, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431986/ninj2-a-novel-regulator-of-endothelial-inflammation-and-activation
#2
Jingjing Wang, Jingjing Fa, Pengyun Wang, Xinzhen Jia, Huixin Peng, Jing Chen, Yifan Wang, Chenhui Wang, Qiuyun Chen, Xin Tu, Qing K Wang, Chengqi Xu
Previous genetic studies suggested that variants in NINJ2 (encode ninjurin2) confer risk to ischemic stroke or large artery atherosclerotic stroke. However, the underlying mechanisms of NINJ2 in ischemic stroke or atherosclerosis are still unknown. In this study, we hypothesized that NINJ2 may play a role in endothelial inflammation and activation, and regulate the process of atherosclerosis. Here, we demonstrated that NINJ2 can regulate the expression of a panel of genes that are associated with inflammation and atherosclerosis (e...
April 18, 2017: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431936/galectin-3-mediates-the-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-induced-right-ventricular-remodeling-through-interacting-with-nadph-oxidase-4
#3
Jingni He, Xiaohui Li, Hui Luo, Tangzhiming Li, Lin Zhao, Qiangqiang Qi, Yuwei Liu, Zaixin Yu
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a progressive disorder that affects both pulmonary vasculature and the heart. The response of the right ventricle (RV) to the increased afterload is an important determinant of the PAH final outcome. Galectin-3 (Gal-3), a novel biomarker in left cardiac remodeling, takes part in multiple pathophysiological processes including the inflammation, fibrosis, immunity, and oxidative stress. The levels of Gal-3 are elevated in PAH patients, although the exact mechanisms underlie the PAH-induced right ventricular structural changes remain unclear...
March 27, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Hypertension: JASH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431421/sevoflurane-posttreatment-attenuates-lung-injury-induced-by-oleic-acid-in-dogs
#4
Guizhi Du, Shurong Wang, Zhuo Li, Jin Liu
BACKGROUND: In animal models, both sevoflurane and propofol protect against acute lung injury (ALI), especially when administered prior to ALI onset. We hypothesized that when compared to propofol, sevoflurane administration after the onset of acute respiratory distress syndrome would mitigate oleic acid (OA)-induced ALI in dogs. METHODS: Dogs were randomly assigned to receive intravenous OA to induce ALI (n = 7 for each OA group) or saline as an OA control (n = 6 for each control)...
May 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430628/critical-role-of-matrix-metallopeptidase-9-in-postoperative-cognitive-dysfunction-and-age-dependent-cognitive-decline
#5
Jiangjiang Bi, Weiran Shan, Ailin Luo, Zhiyi Zuo
BACKGROUND: Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is a significant clinical syndrome. Neuroinflammation is an important pathological process for POCD. However, it is not clear how systemic inflammation induced by surgery on peripheral tissues or organs is transmitted into the brain. We determined whether matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP9), a protein that can increase blood-brain barrier permeability, is critical in this transmission. The role of MMP9 in age-dependent cognitive decline was also determined...
February 20, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429349/association-between-the-severity-of-newly-diagnosed-obstructive-sleep-apnea-and-subclinical-carotid-atherosclerosis-in-patients-without-overt-cardiovascular-disease
#6
K Theodoropoulos, D Lykouras, K Karkoulias, D Damania, K Leou, O Lagiou, O A Meelu, A Rigopoulou, G D Dangas, G Hahalis, K Spiropoulos, I Starakis
OBJECTIVE: Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) has been associated with both subclinical and accelerated atherosclerosis; however, it still remains unknown whether this association is unique or is mediated by the higher burden of co-existing cardio-metabolic disorders frequently seen in patients with OSA. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 40 subjects without clinically diagnosed cardiovascular disease (CVD) referred for polysomnography test were included in the study. Subjects with apnea/hypopnea index (AHI > 15/h) were classified as moderate/severe OSA...
April 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429221/associations-of-osteocalcin-osteoprotegerin-and-calcitonin-with-inflammation-biomarkers-in-atherosclerotic-plaques-of-coronary-arteries
#7
Ya V Polonskaya, E V Kashtanova, I S Murashov, A M Volkov, A V Kurguzov, A M Chernyavsky, Yu I Ragino
We studied associations of osteocalcin, osteoprotegerin, and calcitonin with markers of inflammation in atherosclerotic plaques in coronary arteries and assessed the influence of these biomolecules on calcification of atherosclerotic plaques. The initial stage of calcification of atherosclerotic plaques is characterized by activation of inflammatory processes, which is seen from increased levels of proinflammatory biomarkers (IL-6, IL 8, TNF-α, and IL-1β). Progressive calcification of atherosclerotic plaques is accompanied by insignificant accumulation of calcitonin and osteoprotegerin...
April 21, 2017: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428450/independent-and-combined-effects-of-serum-albumin-and-c-reactive-protein-on-long-term-outcomes-of-patients-undergoing-percutaneous-coronary-intervention
#8
Hideki Wada, Tomotaka Dohi, Katsumi Miyauchi, Shinichiro Doi, Ryo Naito, Hirokazu Konishi, Shuta Tsuboi, Manabu Ogita, Takatoshi Kasai, Shinya Okazaki, Kikuo Isoda, Satoru Suwa, Hiroyuki Daida
BACKGROUND: Both inflammation and malnutrition have been reported to be closely linked to atherosclerosis, especially in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The combined effects of serum albumin and C-reactive protein (CRP) on clinical outcomes after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) were investigated.Methods and Results:A total of 2,164 all-comer patients with coronary artery disease who underwent their first PCI and had data available for preprocedural serum albumin and hs-CRP levels between 2000 and 2011 were studied...
April 19, 2017: Circulation Journal: Official Journal of the Japanese Circulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428349/toll-like-receptor-4-mediates-hemorrhagic-transformation-after-delayed-tissue-plasminogen-activator-administration-in-in-situ-thromboembolic-stroke
#9
Alicia García-Culebras, Sara Palma-Tortosa, Ana Moraga, Isaac García-Yébenes, Violeta Durán-Laforet, Maria I Cuartero, Juan de la Parra, Ana L Barrios-Muñoz, Jaime Díaz-Guzmán, Jesús M Pradillo, María A Moro, Ignacio Lizasoain
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Hemorrhagic transformation is the main complication of revascularization therapies after stroke. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is implicated in cerebral damage and inflammation in stroke. This study was designed to determine the role of TLR4 in hemorrhagic transformation development after tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) administration. METHODS: Mice expressing (TLR4(+/+)) or lacking functional TLR4 (TLR4(-)(/-)) were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion using an in situ thromboembolic model by thrombin injection into the middle cerebral artery, and tPA (10 mg/kg) was administered 20 minutes or 3 hours after ischemia...
April 20, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427390/advanced-glycation-end-products-decreases-expression-of-endothelial-nitric-oxide-synthase-through-oxidative-stress-in-human-coronary-artery-endothelial-cells
#10
Xiaomei Ren, Liqun Ren, Qin Wei, Hua Shao, Long Chen, Naifeng Liu
BACKGROUND: Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) are elevated under diabetic conditions and associated with insulin resistance, endothelial dysfunction and vascular inflammation in humans. It has been demonstrated that AGEs evoke oxidative and inflammatory reactions in endothelial cells through the interaction with a receptor for AGEs (RAGE). Here, we aimed to identify the cellular mechanisms by which AGEs exacerbate the endothelial dysfunction in human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAECs)...
April 20, 2017: Cardiovascular Diabetology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425862/the-impact-of-il-17-in-atherosclerosis
#11
Xinjie Lu
Atherosclerosis is a chronic vascular disease in which atherosclerotic plaques develop in the arterial wall. It is believed that inflammation plays a major role in atherosclerotic formation and progression. Thus, atherosclerosis can be considered as an inflammatory disease of the arterial vessel. Mouse model demonstrated that T and B cell deficiency reduces the atherosclerotic burden in the formation of an atherosclerotic lesion. CD4+ T helper cells (Th), such as Th1 cells known being the major CD4+ T cell subtype found in mouse models of atherogenesis, increase plaque formation caused by oxLDL...
April 19, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424593/phospholipase-a2-of-peroxiredoxin-6-plays-a-critical-role-in-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-inflammatory-injury
#12
Yu Shanshan, Jiang Beibei, Tan Li, Gao Minna, Lei Shipeng, Peng Li, Zhao Yong
Microglia-mediated inflammation is an important step in the progression of cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury and the associated production of receptors of immunomoudulation, including Toll-like receptors (TLRs). Peroxiredoxin 6 (Prdx6) has been demonstrated as the endogenous antioxidant protein for its peroxidase properties. However, the role of the independent phospholipase A2 (iPLA2) activity of Prdx6 in stroke has not been well studied. In this study, we evaluated whether blocking the calcium-iPLA2 activity of Prdx6 using siRNA and inhibitors (1-hexadecyl-3-(trifluoroethgl)-sn-glycerol-2 phosphomethanol, MJ33) would have a critical effect on inflammatory brain damage...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423237/assessment-of-vascular-response-to-bioss-lim-c-%C3%A2-stents-vs-orsiro-%C3%A2-stents-in-the-porcine-coronary-artery-model
#13
Jacek Bil, Robert J Gil, Tomasz Pawlowski, Krzysztof P Milewski
AIMS: The optimal treatment strategy for coronary bifurcation lesions is still unknown. The aim of the study was to assess applicability of the new cobalt-chromium version of the sirolimus-eluting dedicated bifurcation BiOSS(®) LIM C stent in comparison with regular sirolimus-eluting Orsiro(®)  stent in a porcine coronary model. METHODS: A total of 13 BiOSS(®) LIM C stents and 6 Orsiro(®) stents were implanted in normal non-atherosclerotic porcine straight coronary arteries of six animals using 1...
April 19, 2017: Cardiovascular Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423226/rvx-208-a-novel-bet-protein-inhibitor-role-as-an-inducer-of-apo-a-i-hdl-and-beyond
#14
Gopal C Ghosh, Rajarshi Bhadra, Raktim K Ghosh, Kinjal Banerjee, Anjan Gupta
Low density cholesterol (LDL) has been the prime target of currently available lipid-lowering therapies although current research is expanding the focus beyond LDL lowering and has included high density cholesterol (HDL) also as the target. Bromo and extra-terminal (BET) proteins are implicated in the regulation of transcription of several regulatory genes and regulation of pro-inflammatory pathways. As atherosclerosis is an inflammatory pathway and studies showed that BET inhibition has a role in inhibiting inflammation, the concept of BET inhibition came in the field of atherosclerosis...
April 19, 2017: Cardiovascular Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422282/analysis-of-circulating-mir-1-mir-23a-and-mir-26a-in-atrial-fibrillation-patients-undergoing-coronary-bypass-artery-grafting-surgery
#15
Andre Feldman, Dalmo Antonio Ribeiro Moreira, Carlos Gun, Hui-Tzu Lin Wang, Mario Hiroyuki Hirata, Juliana de Freitas Germano, Gabriela Guimarães Sousa Leite, Pedro Farsky
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common arrhythmia after cardiac surgery. From a pathophysiological point of view, a myriad of factors such as trauma, atrial dilation, ischemia, mechanical myopericarditis, autonomic imbalance, loss of connexins, AF nest remodeling, inflammation, sutures, and dysfunction caused by postextracorporeal circulation can contribute to postoperative atrial fibrillation (POAF) resulting in a longer hospital stay and consequently higher cost. Recent studies showed that short fragments of RNA, called microRNA (miRNA), can contribute to the development of several cardiovascular diseases, including AF...
May 2017: Annals of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421814/elevated-monocyte-to-high-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol-ratio-and-endothelial-dysfunction-in-beh%C3%A3-et-disease
#16
Nusret Acikgoz, Ertuğrul Kurtoğlu, Julide Yagmur, Yelda Kapicioglu, Mehmet Cansel, Necip Ermis
Behçet disease (BD) is a multisystemic disorder characterized by endothelial dysfunction and inflammation. Monocyte to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio (MHR) is a recently emerged indicator of inflammation and oxidative stress. Sixty patients with BD and 50 control individuals were included to investigate the relationship between MHR and endothelial dysfunction. Endothelial function was assessed by flow- and nitroglycerin-mediated dilatation technique (FMD and NMD, respectively). Serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) levels were measured in all study participants...
January 1, 2017: Angiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421362/selective-imaging-of-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-receptor-1-and-receptor-2-in-atherosclerotic-lesions-in-diabetic-and-non-diabetic-apoe-mice
#17
Yared Tekabe, Lynne L Johnson, Krissy Rodriquez, Qing Li, Marina Backer, Joseph M Backer
PURPOSE: Plaque vulnerability is associated with inflammation and angiogenesis, processes that rely on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling via two receptors, VEGFR-1 and VEGFR-2. We have recently reported that enhanced uptake of scVEGF-PEG-DOTA/Tc-99m (scV/Tc) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) tracer that targets both VEGFR-1 and VEGFR-2, identifies accelerated atherosclerosis in diabetic relative to non-diabetic ApoE(-/-) mice. Since VEGFR-1 and VEGFR-2 may play different roles in atherosclerotic plaques, we reasoned that selective imaging of each receptor can provide more detailed information on plaque biology...
April 18, 2017: Molecular Imaging and Biology: MIB: the Official Publication of the Academy of Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420846/intrathecal-isoniazid-for-refractory-tuberculous-meningitis-with-cerebral-infarction
#18
Yuko Nakatani, Yutaka Suto, Kazuki Fukuma, Mika Yamawaki, Ryoichi Sakata, Shotaro Takahashi, Hiroyuki Nakayasu, Kenji Nakashima
A 30-year-old Vietnamese woman, about 19 weeks pregnant, was admitted for acute cerebral infarction with stenosis of the left middle cerebral artery (LMCA), tuberculous meningitis, and miliary tuberculosis. Treatment with heparin, quadruple anti-tuberculosis therapy, and dexamethasone afforded prompt symptomatic improvement. However, she delivered a stillbirth, after which there was recurrence of acute cerebral infarction with LMCA occlusion, sinus thrombosis, and cranial base inflammation. A thrice-weekly 100 mg dose of intrathecal isoniazid (INH) improved the signs of meningeal inflammation...
2017: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420825/colchicine-improves-survival-left-ventricular-remodeling-and-chronic-cardiac-function-after-acute-myocardial-infarction
#19
Koichiro Fujisue, Koichi Sugamura, Hirofumi Kurokawa, Junichi Matsubara, Masanobu Ishii, Yasuhiro Izumiya, Koichi Kaikita, Seigo Sugiyama
BACKGROUND: Several studies have reported that colchicine attenuated the infarct size and inflammation in acute myocardial infarction (MI). However, the sustained benefit of colchicine administration on survival and cardiac function after MI is unknown. It was hypothesized that the short-term treatment with colchicine could improve survival and cardiac function during the recovery phase of MI.Methods and Results:MI was induced in mice by permanent ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery...
April 18, 2017: Circulation Journal: Official Journal of the Japanese Circulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420646/associations-between-left-ventricular-dysfunction-and-brain-structure-and-function-findings-from-the-sabre-southall-and-brent-revisited-study
#20
Chloe M Park, Emily D Williams, Nish Chaturvedi, Therese Tillin, Robert J Stewart, Marcus Richards, Dean Shibata, Jamil Mayet, Alun D Hughes
BACKGROUND: Subclinical left ventricular (LV) dysfunction has been inconsistently associated with early cognitive impairment, and mechanistic pathways have been poorly considered. We investigated the cross-sectional relationship between LV dysfunction and structural/functional measures of the brain and explored the role of potential mechanisms. METHOD AND RESULTS: A total of 1338 individuals (69±6 years) from the Southall and Brent Revisited study underwent echocardiography for systolic (tissue Doppler imaging peak systolic wave) and diastolic (left atrial diameter) assessment...
April 18, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
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