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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715178/flexible-and-robust-superomniphobic-surfaces-created-by-localized-photofluidization-of-azopolymer-pillars
#1
Jaeho Choi, Wonhee Jo, Seung Yeol Lee, Yeon Sik Jung, Shin-Hyun Kim, Hee-Tak Kim
Springtails, insects which breathe through their skins, possess mushroom-shaped nanostructures. As doubly re-entrant geometry in the mushroom head enhances the resistance against liquid invasion, the springtails have robust, liquid-free omniphobic skins. Although omniphobic surfaces are promising for various applications, it remains an important challenge to mimic the structural feature of springtails. This paper presents a pragmatic method to create doubly re-entrant nanostructures and robust superomniphobic surfaces by exploiting localized photofluidization of azopolymers...
July 19, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614735/enhanced-biomimic-bactericidal-surfaces-by-coating-with-positively-charged-zif-nano-dagger-arrays
#2
Yuan Yuan, Yugen Zhang
Cicada wing surfaces are covered with dense patterns of nano-pillar structure that prevent bacterial growth by rupturing adhered microbial cells. To mimic the natural nano-pillar structure, we developed a general and simple method to grow metal organic framework (MOF) nano-dagger arrays on a wide range of surfaces. These nano-daggers possess high bactericidal activity, with log reduction >7 for Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. It was hypothesized that the positively-charged ZIF-L nano-dagger surfaces enhance bacterial cell adhesion, facilitating selective and efficient bacteria killing by the rigid and sharp nano-dagger tips...
June 11, 2017: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580784/doubly-reentrant-cavities-prevent-catastrophic-wetting-transitions-on-intrinsically-wetting-surfaces
#3
Eddy M Domingues, Sankara Arunachalam, Himanshu Mishra
Omniphobic surfaces, that is, which repel all known liquids, have proven of value in applications ranging from membrane distillation to underwater drag reduction. A limitation of currently employed omniphobic surfaces is that they rely on perfluorinated coatings, increasing cost and environmental impact and preventing applications in harsh environments. Thus, there is a keen interest in rendering conventional materials, such as plastics, omniphobic by micro/nanotexturing rather than via chemical makeup, with notable success having been achieved for silica surfaces with doubly reentrant micropillars...
June 19, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572669/smooth-anti-reflective-three-dimensional-textures-for-liquid-phase-crystallized-silicon-thin-film-solar-cells-on-glass
#4
David Eisenhauer, Grit Köppel, Klaus Jäger, Duote Chen, Oleksandra Shargaieva, Paul Sonntag, Daniel Amkreutz, Bernd Rech, Christiane Becker
Recently, liquid phase crystallization of thin silicon films has emerged as a candidate for thin-film photovoltaics. On 10 μm thin absorbers, wafer-equivalent morphologies and open-circuit voltages were reached, leading to 13.2% record efficiency. However, short-circuit current densities are still limited, mainly due to optical losses at the glass-silicon interface. While nano-structures at this interface have been shown to efficiently reduce reflection, up to now these textures caused a deterioration of electronic silicon material quality...
June 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504823/centrifugal-driven-reduced-dimension-planar-chromatography
#5
Rachel B Strickhouser, Nahla A Hatab, Nickolay V Lavrik, Michael J Sepaniak
A fundamental problem with efficiency in capillary action driven planar chromatography results from diminishing flow rates as development proceeds, giving rise to molecular diffusion related band dispersion for most sample types. Overpressure and electrokinetic means to speed flow have been used successfully in TLC. We explore the use of centrifugal force (CF) to drive flow for reduced-dimension planar platforms (ultra-TLC, low μm features, and nano-TLC, nanoscale features). The silicon wafer platforms have two forms of continuous 2-D arrays created by either photolithography or metal dewetting followed by deep reactive ion etching and coated with porous SiO2 ...
May 15, 2017: Electrophoresis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504417/laser-preparation-of-geometrically-optimised-samples-for-x-ray-nano-ct
#6
J J Bailey, T M M Heenan, D P Finegan, X Lu, S R Daemi, F Iacoviello, N R Backeberg, O O Taiwo, D J L Brett, A Atkinson, P R Shearing
A robust and versatile sample preparation technique for the fabrication of cylindrical pillars for imaging by X-ray nano-computed tomography (nano-CT) is presented. The procedure employs simple, cost-effective laser micro-machining coupled with focused-ion beam (FIB) milling, when required, to yield mechanically robust samples at the micrometre length-scale to match the field-of-view (FOV) for nano-CT imaging. A variety of energy and geological materials are exhibited as case studies, demonstrating the procedure can be applied to a variety of materials to provide geometrically optimised samples whose size and shape are tailored to the attenuation coefficients of the constituent phases...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427662/ultrasonic-assisted-synthesis-of-a-tetrazine-functionalized-mof-and-its-application-in-colorimetric-detection-of-phenylhydrazine
#7
Sayed Ali Akbar Razavi, Mohammad Yaser Masoomi, Ali Morsali
TMU-34(-2H), [Zn(OBA)(DPT)0.5].DMF, has been sonochemically synthesized by applying H2OBA, (4,4'-oxybis(benzoic acid)), as the dicarboxylate linker, and DPT, (3,6-di(pyridin-4-yl)-1,2,4,5-tetrazine), as pillar spacer. Sonication time, concentration of initial reagents, sonication power and molar ratio of pyridine as modulator has been optimized to synthesize nano powder of TMU-34(-2H) including uniform plate morphology. Nano TMU-34(-2H), can detect phenylhydrazine (PH) by color changing from pink to deep purple...
July 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409936/visualizing-strain-induced-pseudomagnetic-fields-in-graphene-through-an-hbn-magnifying-glass
#8
Yuhang Jiang, Jinhai Mao, Junxi Duan, Xinyuan Lai, Kenji Watanabe, Takashi Taniguchi, Eva Y Andrei
Graphene's remarkable properties are inherent to its two-dimensional honeycomb lattice structure. Its low dimensionality, which makes it possible to rearrange the atoms by applying an external force, offers the intriguing prospect of mechanically controlling the electronic properties. In the presence of strain, graphene develops a pseudomagnetic field (PMF) that reconstructs the band structure into pseudo Landau levels (PLLs). However, a feasible route to realizing, characterizing and controlling PMFs is still lacking...
April 24, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371165/capturing-irradiation-with-nanoantennae-plasmon-induced-enhancement-of-photoelectrolysis
#9
Layal Daccache, Sven Zeller, Timo Jacob
In solving the energy challenge of solar irradiation's inconsistency, a desirable approach is mimicking nature's photosynthesis by collecting and storing solar energy via water splitting. TiO2 is a promising candidate, a wide-gap semiconductor with low cost, high efficiencies in the UV region, and photostability. Its shortcomings in the visible spectrum can be improved via band gap engineering, mainly co-catalyst doping, thereof Au nanoparticles. In contrast, we deposit a structured semiconductor on a plasmonic-active co-catalyst: we reverse the species order with respect to illumination and achieve a patterned structure for both species in which TiO2 pillars are grown on a Raman-active Au substrate...
June 20, 2017: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338130/the-aqueous-supramolecular-chemistry-of-cucurbit-n-urils-pillar-n-arenes-and-deep-cavity-cavitands
#10
REVIEW
James Murray, Kimoon Kim, Tomoki Ogoshi, Wei Yao, Bruce C Gibb
This tutorial review summarizes the continuing exploration of three prominent water-soluble hosts: cucurbiturils, pillar[n]arenes and deep-cavity cavitands. As we describe, these hosts are revealing how orchestrating the hydrophobic effect can lead to a broad range of properties and applications, from: nano-reactors, supramolecular polymers, stimuli-responsive biointerfaces, switches, and novel purification devices. We also describe how their study is also revealing more details about the properties of water and aqueous solutions...
May 9, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281347/two-dimensional-mxene-with-controlled-interlayer-spacing-for-electrochemical-energy-storage
#11
Patrice Simon
In this issue of ACS Nano, Luo et al. report the preparation of pillared two-dimensional (2D) Ti3C2 MXenes with controllable interlayer spacings between 1 and 2.708 nm. These materials were further intercalated by ion exchange with Sn(+IV) ions. The results show improved electrochemical performance due to improved ion accessibility into the 2D structure as well as the confinement effect, which limits volume expansion during the Li-alloying reaction. Beyond this specific example, the demonstration that the interlayer spacings of MXenes can be fine-tuned by creating pillared structures based on the spontaneous intercalation of surfactants opens new perspectives in the field of electrochemical energy storage...
March 28, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262672/multifunctional-nano-engineered-polymer-surfaces-with-enhanced-mechanical-resistance-and-superhydrophobicity
#12
Jaime J Hernández, Miguel A Monclús, Iván Navarro-Baena, Felipe Viela, Jon M Molina-Aldareguia, Isabel Rodríguez
This paper presents a multifunctional polymer surface that provides superhydrophobicity and self-cleaning functions together with an enhancement in mechanical and electrical performance. These functionalities are produced by nanoimprinting high aspect ratio pillar arrays on polymeric matrix incorporating functional reinforcing elements. Two distinct matrix-filler systems are investigated specifically, Carbon Nanotube reinforced Polystyrene (CNT-PS) and Reduced Graphene Oxide reinforced Polyvinylidene Difluoride (RGO-PVDF)...
March 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241523/cmos-compatible-fabrication-of-micro-nano-convex-silicon-lens-arrays-by-conformal-chemical-vapor-deposition
#13
Haijie Zuo, Duk-Yong Choi, Xin Gai, Barry Luther-Davies, Baoping Zhang
We present a novel CMOS-compatible fabrication technique for convex micro-nano lens arrays (MNLAs) with high packing density on the wafer scale. By means of conformal chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) following patterning of silicon pillars via electron beam lithography (EBL) and plasma etching, large areas of a close packed silicon lens array with the diameter from a few micrometers down to a few hundred nanometers was fabricated. The resulting structure shows excellent surface roughness and high uniformity...
February 20, 2017: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221808/decoupled-hierarchical-structures-for-suppression-of-leidenfrost-phenomenon
#14
Nazanin Farokhnia, Seyed Mohammad Sajadi, Peyman Irajizad, Hadi Ghasemi
Thermal management of high temperature systems through cooling droplets is limited by the existence of the Leidenfrost point (LFP), at which the formation of a continuous vapor film between a hot solid and a cooling droplet diminishes the heat transfer rate. This limit results in a bottleneck for the advancement of the wide spectrum of systems including high-temperature power generation, electronics/photonics, reactors, and spacecraft. Despite a long time effort on development of surfaces for suppression of this phenomenon, this limit has only shifted to higher temperatures, but still exists...
March 14, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073276/interlaced-nanostructured-interface-with-graphene-buffer-layer-reduces-thermal-boundary-resistance-in-nano-microelectronic-systems
#15
Lei Tao, Sreeprasad Theruvakkattil Sreenivasan, Rouzbeh Shahsavari
Improving heat transfer in hybrid nano/microelectronic systems is a challenge, mainly due to the high thermal boundary resistance (TBR) across the interface. Herein, we focus on gallium nitride (GaN)/diamond interface-as a model system with various high power, high temperature, and optoelectronic applications-and perform extensive reverse nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations, decoding the interplay between the pillar length, size, shape, hierarchy, density, arrangement, system size, and the interfacial heat transfer mechanisms to substantially reduce TBR in GaN-on-diamond devices...
January 11, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061402/sequentially-crosslinked-bioactive-hydrogels-as-nano-patterned-substrates-with-customizable-stiffness-and-degradation-for-corneal-tissue-engineering-applications
#16
Muhammad Rizwan, Gary S L Peh, Heng-Pei Ang, Nyein Chan Lwin, Khadijah Adnan, Jodhbir S Mehta, Wui Siew Tan, Evelyn K F Yim
Naturally-bioactive hydrogels like gelatin provide favorable properties for tissue-engineering but lack sufficient mechanical strength for use as implantable tissue engineering substrates. Complex fabrication or multi-component additives can improve material strength, but often compromises other properties. Studies have shown gelatin methacrylate (GelMA) as a bioactive hydrogel with diverse tissue growth applications. We hypothesize that, with suitable material modifications, GelMA could be employed for growth and implantation of tissue-engineered human corneal endothelial cell (HCEC) monolayer...
March 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004577/property-self-optimization-during-wear-of-mos2
#17
Rui Hao, Aleksander A Tedstone, David J Lewis, Chris P Warrens, Kevin R West, Philip Howard, Sander Gaemers, Shen J Dillon, Paul O'Brien
Knowledge of their bulk physical properties often guides selection of appropriate tribological coating materials. However, these properties as well as the microstructure evolve dramatically under the extreme conditions imposed during mechanical wear. The dynamic response ultimately governs the material's wear performance; thus, understanding the dynamic evolution of the system is critical. This work characterizes the change in mechanical properties and microstructure as a function of wear cycles in model MoS2 films using a combination of nanowear testing, transmission electron microscopy, and site-specific nanopillar compression...
January 18, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27960490/exceptional-resilience-of-small-scale-au30cu25zn45-under-cyclic-stress-induced-phase-transformation
#18
Xiaoyue Ni, Julia R Greer, Kaushik Bhattacharya, Richard D James, Xian Chen
Shape memory alloys that produce and recover from large deformation driven by martensitic transformation are widely exploited in biomedical devices and microactuators. Generally their actuation work degrades significantly within first a few cycles and is reduced at smaller dimensions. Further, alloys exhibiting unprecedented reversibility have relatively small superelastic strain, 0.7%. These raise the questions of whether high reversibility is necessarily accompanied by small work and strain and whether high work and strain is necessarily diminished at small scale...
December 14, 2016: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824280/the-combined-effect-of-substrate-stiffness-and-surface-topography-on-chondrogenic-differentiation-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#19
Yingnan Wu, Zheng Yang, Jaslyn Bee Khuan Law, Ai Yu He, Azlina A Abbas, Vinitha Denslin, Tunku Kamarul, James H P Hui, Eng Hin Lee
Stem cell differentiation is guided by contact with the physical microenvironment, influence by both topography and mechanical properties of the matrix. In this study, the combined effect of substratum nano-topography and mechanical stiffness in directing mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) chondrogenesis was investigated. Three polyesters of varying stiffness were thermally imprinted to create nano-grating or pillar patterns of the same dimension. The surface of the nano-patterned substrate was coated with chondroitin sulfate (CS) to provide an even surface chemistry, with cell-adhesive and chondro-inductive properties, across all polymeric substrates...
January 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27779182/dynamic-microfluidic-control-of-supramolecular-peptide-self-assembly
#20
Zohar A Arnon, Andreas Vitalis, Aviad Levin, Thomas C T Michaels, Amedeo Caflisch, Tuomas P J Knowles, Lihi Adler-Abramovich, Ehud Gazit
The dynamic nature of supramolecular polymers has a key role in their organization. Yet, the manipulation of their dimensions and polarity remains a challenge. Here, the minimalistic diphenylalanine building block was applied to demonstrate control of nano-assemblies growth and shrinkage using microfluidics. To fine-tune differential local environments, peptide nanotubes were confined by micron-scale pillars and subjected to monomer flows of various saturation levels to control assembly and disassembly. The small-volume device allows the rapid adjustment of conditions within the system...
October 25, 2016: Nature Communications
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