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Claus Nielsen, Morten Steen Nørby, Jacob Kongsted, Ilia A Solov'yov
The magnetic compass sense utilized by migratory birds for long-distance navigation functions only once light of a certain wavelength is present. This piece of evidence fits partially with the popular hypothesis of chemical magnetoreception in cryptochrome proteins, located in the bird retina. According to this hypothesis a magnetosensitive radical pair is produced after photoexcitation of an FAD co-factor inside cryptochrome, and as such the absorption properties of FAD is of crucial importance for cryptochrome activation...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Magali Del C de la Vega, María B Delsouc, Ivana Ponce, Vicente Ragusa, Sandra Vallcaneras, Ana C Anzulovich, Marilina Casais
The rhythm of factors involved in luteal regression is crucial in determining the physiological duration of the oestrous cycle. Given the role of tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α in luteal function and circadian regulation and that most of the effects of TNF-α are mediated by p55 TNF receptor (TNFRp55), the aims of the present study were to analyse the following during the luteal regression phase in the ovary of mice: (1) whether the pattern of expression of progesterone (P4) and the enzymes involved in the synthesis and degradation of P4 is circadian and endogenous (the rhythm persists in constant conditions, (i...
June 15, 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Lina Wang, Rongling Wu, Wenhao Bo
Cryptochromes, a class of blue light photoreceptors, play vital roles in regulating growth and development in higher plants. Despite their control over various important traits, there have been few studies focusing on cryptochromes in forest trees to date. In this study, the Euphrates poplar (Populus euphratica) gene PeCRY1 (cryptochrome 1 of Populus euphratica) was isolated and heterologously expressed in Populus tomentosa. Three biological replicates of each of the PeCRY1 transgenic P. tomentosa (CRY1) and wild-type (WT) plants were processed for transcriptome profiling...
April 2018: Genes & Genomics
Bárbara González-Fernández, Diana I Sánchez, Irene Crespo, Beatriz San-Miguel, Juan Ortiz de Urbina, Javier González-Gallego, María J Tuñón
Dysregulation of the circadian clock machinery is a critical mechanism in the pathogenesis of fibrosis. This study aimed to investigate whether the antifibrotic effect of melatonin is associated with attenuation of circadian clock pathway disturbances in mice treated with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 ) and in human hepatic stellate cells line LX2. Mice received CCl4 5 μL/g body weight i.p. twice a week for 4 or 6 weeks. Melatonin was given at 5 or 10 mg/kg/day i.p., beginning 2 weeks after the start of CCl4 administration...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Pavel Slaby, Premysl Bartos, Jakub Karas, Radek Netusil, Kateřina Tomanova, Martin Vacha
Diverse animal species perceive Earth's magnetism and use their magnetic sense to orientate and navigate. Even non-migrating insects such as fruit flies and cockroaches have been shown to exploit the flavoprotein Cryptochrome (Cry) as a likely magnetic direction sensor; however, the transduction mechanism remains unknown. In order to work as a system to steer insect flight or control locomotion, the magnetic sense must transmit the signal from the receptor cells to the brain at a similar speed to other sensory systems, presumably within hundreds of milliseconds or less...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Yueming Yu, Yinghua Li, Lei Zhou, Gong Yang, Minghai Wang, Yang Hong
BACKGROUND Circadian disruption is a potential cancer risk factor in humans. However, the role of the clock gene, cryptochrome 2 (CRY2), in osteosarcoma (OS) is still not clear. MATERIAL AND METHODS To evaluate the potential role of CRY2 in HOS osteosarcoma cells, CRY2-silenced cell lines were established. Furthermore, we investigated the effect of CRY2 knockdown on HOS cells by CCK-8, colony formation, migration assay, and flow cytometry, in vitro. RESULTS CRY2 knockdown promoted HOS OS cell proliferation and migration...
June 7, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Pallavi Lamba, Lauren E Foley, Patrick Emery
Light is one of the chief environmental cues that reset circadian clocks. In Drosophila , CRYPTOCHROME (CRY) mediates acute photic resetting of circadian clocks by promoting the degradation of TIMELESS (TIM) in a cell-autonomous manner. Thus, even circadian oscillators in peripheral organs can independently perceive light in Drosophila However, there is substantial evidence for non-autonomous mechanisms of circadian photoreception in the brain. We have previously shown that the Morning (M) and Evening (E) oscillators are critical light-sensing neurons that cooperate to shift the phase of circadian behavior in response to light input...
June 6, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Martina Tetti, Isabella Castellano, Francesca Venziano, Corrado Magnino, Franco Veglio, Paolo Mulatero, Silvia Monticone
Mice lacking the core-clock components, cryptochrome-1 (CRY1) and cryptochrome-2 (CRY2) display a phenotype of hyperaldosteronism, due to the upregulation of type VI 3β-hydroxyl-steroid dehydrogenase ( Hsd3b6 ), the murine counterpart to the human type I 3β-hydroxyl-steroid dehydrogenase ( HSD3B1 ) gene. In the present study, we evaluated the role of CRY1 and CRY2 genes, and their potential interplay with HSD3B isoforms in adrenal pathophysiology in man. Forty-six sporadic aldosterone-producing adenomas (APAs) and 20 paired adrenal samples were included, with the human adrenocortical cells HAC15 used as the in vitro model...
June 5, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Emil Sjulstok, Gesa Lüdemann, Tomáš Kubař, Marcus Elstner, Ilia A Solov'yov
Cryptochrome proteins are activated by the absorption of blue light, leading to the formation of radical pairs through electron transfer in the active site. Recent experimental studies have shown that once some of the amino acid residues in the active site of Xenopus laevis cryptochrome DASH are mutated, radical-pair formation is still observed. In this study, we computationally investigate electron-transfer pathways in the X. laevis cryptochrome DASH by extensively equilibrating a previously established homology model using molecular dynamics simulations and then mutating key amino acids involved in the electron transfer...
June 5, 2018: Biophysical Journal
Chiara Agliassa, Ravishankar Narayana, John M Christie, Massimo E Maffei
The geomagnetic field (GMF) is an environmental element whose instability affects plant growth and development. Despite known plant responses to GMF direction and intensity, the mechanism of magnetoreception in plants is still not known. Magnetic field variations affect many light-dependent plant processes, suggesting that the magnetoreception could require light. The objective of this work was to comprehensively investigate the influence of GMF on Arabidopsis thaliana (Col-0) photoreceptor signaling. Wild-type Arabidopsis seedlings and photoreceptor-deficient mutants (cry1cry2, phot1, phyA and phyAphyB) were exposed to near null magnetic field (NNMF, ≤40 nT) and GMF (~43 μT) under darkness and different light wavelengths...
May 29, 2018: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
Sheng Wang, Ling Li, Pengbo Xu, Hongli Lian, Wenxiu Wang, Feng Xu, Zhilei Mao, Ting Zhang, Hongquan Yang
Cryptochromes (CRYs) are blue light photoreceptors that mediate various light responses in plants and animals. In Arabidopsis, there are two homologous CRYs, CRY1 and CRY2, which mediate blue light inhibition of hypocotyl elongation. It is known that CRY2 interacts with CIB1, a bHLH transcriptional factor, to regulate transcription and floral induction. In this study, we performed yeast two-hybrid screening and identified CIB1 as a CRY1-interacting protein. Moreover, we demonstrated that CRY1 physically interacted with the close homolog of CIB1, HBI1, which is known to act downstream of brassinosteroid (BR) and gibberellin acid (GA) signaling pathways to promote hypocotyl elongation, in a blue light-dependent manner...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Gongyi Hong, Ruth Pachter, Thorsten Ritz
Motivated by observations on the involvement of light-induced processes in the Drosophila melanogaster cryptochrome (DmCry) regulation of the neuronal firing rate, which is achieved by a redox state change of its voltage-dependent K+ channel Kvβ subunit Hyperkinetic (Hk) NADPH cofactor, we propose in this work two hypothetical pathways that potentially may enable such coupling. In the first pathway, triggered by blue-light-induced formation of a radical-pair [FAD•-TRP•+] in DmCry, the hole (TRP•+) may hop to Hk, e...
May 30, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Ibrahim Abdul Kareem Al-Sarraf, Violet Kasabri, Amal Akour, Randa Naffa
Background Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of metabolic risk factors which increases the chances for future cardiovascular diseases, as well as diabetes. The underlying causes of MetS include overweight and obesity, physical inactivity and genetic factors. Our intension here was to focus in this study on the importance of the chronobiology, represented by melatonin (MT) and cryptochrome 2 (CRY2), in developing MetS and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Thus, we aimed to compare MT and CRY2 plasma levels and correlate both biomarkers with adiposity, atherogenicity and hematological indices in MetS and T2DM cohorts...
May 29, 2018: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
Alexander T Eprintsev, Dmitry N Fedorin, Maria A Dobychina, Abir U Igamberdiev
Expression of genes encoding the mitochondrial and peroxisomal forms of citrate synthase (EC was studied in maize (Zea mays L.) in scutella during germination and in leaves depending on light regime. During germination, citrate synthase activity increased in scutella both in mitochondria and in fatty-acid metabolizing peroxisomes (glyoxysomes) by day 6 and then declined. This was preceded by the peak of expression of the genes encoding the mitochondrial (Csy1) and peroxisomal (Csy2) forms of citrate synthase occurring on the day 3 of germination, after which the expression of Csy1 gradually and of Csy2 sharply declined...
July 2018: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
Jukka Juutilainen, Mikko Herrala, Jukka Luukkonen, Jonne Naarala, P J Hore
Extremely low-frequency (ELF) magnetic fields have been classified as possibly carcinogenic, mainly based on rather consistent epidemiological findings suggesting a link between childhood leukaemia and 50-60 Hz magnetic fields from power lines. However, causality is not the only possible explanation for the epidemiological associations, as animal and in vitro experiments have provided only limited support for carcinogenic effects of ELF magnetic fields. Importantly, there is no generally accepted biophysical mechanism that could explain such effects...
May 30, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Pimkhuan Hannanta-Anan, Brian Y Chow
As fast terminators of G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling, regulators of G-protein signaling (RGS) serve critical roles in fine-tuning second messenger levels and, consequently, cellular responses to external stimuli. Here, we report the creation of an optogenetic RGS2 (opto-RGS2) that suppresses agonist-evoked calcium oscillations by the inactivation of Gαq protein. In this system, cryptochrome-mediated hetero-dimerization of the catalytic RGS2-box with its N-terminal amphipathic helix reconstitutes a functional membrane-localized complex that can dynamically suppress store-operated release of calcium...
May 24, 2018: ACS Synthetic Biology
Mari Ochiai, Midori Iida, Tetsuro Agusa, Kohki Takaguchi, Satoshi Fujiic, Kei Nomiyama, Hisato Iwata
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and their hydroxylated metabolites (OH-PCBs) have been detected in tissues of both wild animals and humans. Several previous studies have suggested adverse effects of OH-PCBs on the endocrine and nervous systems in mammals. However, there have been no studies on transcriptome analysis of the effects of OH-PCBs, and thus, the whole picture and mechanisms underlying the adverse effects induced by OH-PCBs are still poorly understood. We therefore investigated the mRNA expression profile in the liver of adult male Wistar rats treated with 4-hydroxy-2,3,3',4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (4-OH-CB107) to explore the genes responsive to OH-PCBs and to understand the potential effects of the chemical...
May 21, 2018: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
Maite Ogueta, Roger C Hardie, Ralf Stanewsky
The daily light-dark cycles represent a key signal for synchronizing circadian clocks. Both insects and mammals possess dedicated "circadian" photoreceptors but also utilize the visual system for clock resetting. In Drosophila, circadian clock resetting is achieved by the blue-light photoreceptor cryptochrome (CRY), which is expressed within subsets of the brain clock neurons. In addition, rhodopsin-expressing photoreceptor cells contribute to light synchronization. Light resets the molecular clock by CRY-dependent degradation of the clock protein Timeless (TIM), although in specific subsets of key circadian pacemaker neurons, including the small ventral lateral neurons (s-LNvs), TIM and Period (PER) oscillations can be synchronized by light independent of CRY and canonical visual Rhodopsin phototransduction...
April 30, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Roman Podolec, Roman Ulm
Plants have evolved specific photoreceptors that capture informational cues from sunlight. The phytochrome, cryptochrome, and UVR8 photoreceptors perceive red/far-red, blue/UV-A, and UV-B light, respectively, and control overlapping photomorphogenic responses important for plant growth and development. A major repressor of such photomorphogenic responses is the E3 ubiquitin ligase formed by CONSTITUTIVELY PHOTOMORPHOGENIC 1 (COP1) and SUPPRESSOR OF PHYA-105 (SPA) proteins, which acts by regulating the stability of photomorphogenesis-promoting transcription factors...
May 15, 2018: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
Yuma Terai, Ryuma Sato, Takahiro Yumiba, Ryuhei Harada, Kohei Shimizu, Tatsuya Toga, Tomoko Ishikawa-Fujiwara, Takeshi Todo, Shigenori Iwai, Yasuteru Shigeta, Junpei Yamamoto
(6-4) Photolyases ((6-4)PLs) are flavoenzymes that repair the carcinogenic UV-induced DNA damage, pyrimidine(6-4)pyrimidone photoproducts ((6-4)PPs), in a light-dependent manner. Although the reaction mechanism of DNA photorepair by (6-4)PLs has been intensively investigated, the molecular mechanism of the lesion recognition remains obscure. We show that a well-conserved arginine residue in Xenopus laevis (6-4)PL (Xl64) participates in DNA binding, through Coulomb and CH-π interactions. Fragment molecular orbital calculations estimated attractive interaction energies of -80-100 kcal mol-1 for the Coulomb interaction and -6 kcal mol-1 for the CH-π interaction, and the loss of either of them significantly reduced the affinity for (6-4)PP-containing oligonucleotides, as well as the quantum yield of DNA photorepair...
May 14, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
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