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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891621/animal-cryptochromes-divergent-roles-in-light-perception-circadian-timekeeping-and-beyond
#1
Alicia K Michael, Jennifer L Fribourgh, Russell N Van Gelder, Carrie L Partch
Cryptochromes are evolutionarily related to the light-dependent DNA repair enzyme photolyase, serving as major regulators of circadian rhythms in insects and vertebrate animals. There are two types of cryptochromes in the animal kingdom: Drosophila-like CRYs that act as non-visual photopigments linking circadian rhythms to the environmental light/dark cycle, and vertebrate-like CRYs that do not appear to sense light directly, but control the generation of circadian rhythms by acting as transcriptional repressors...
November 28, 2016: Photochemistry and Photobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891613/a-review-of-spectroscopic-and-biophysical-chemical-studies-of-the-complex-of-cpd-photolyase-and-cryptochrome-dash-with-substrate-dna
#2
Johannes P M Schelvis, Yvonne M Gindt
CPD photolyase (PL) is a structure-specific DNA repair enzyme that uses blue light to repair cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPD) on DNA. Cryptochrome (CRY) DASH enzymes use blue light for the repair of CPD lesions on single-stranded (ss) DNA, though some may also repair these lesions on double-stranded (ds) DNA. In addition, CRY DASH may be involved in blue-light signaling, similar to cryptochromes. The focus of this review is on spectroscopic and biophysical chemical experiments of the enzyme-substrate complex that have contributed to a more detailed understanding of all the aspects of the CPD repair mechanism of CPD photolyase and CRY DASH...
November 28, 2016: Photochemistry and Photobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889265/integration-of-phytochrome-and-cryptochrome-signals-determines-plant-growth-during-competition-for-light
#3
Mieke de Wit, Diederik H Keuskamp, Franca J Bongers, Patricia Hornitschek, Charlotte M M Gommers, Emilie Reinen, Carmen Martínez-Cerón, Christian Fankhauser, Ronald Pierik
Plants in dense vegetation perceive their neighbors primarily through changes in light quality. Initially, the ratio between red (R) and far-red (FR) light decreases due to reflection of FR by plant tissue well before shading occurs. Perception of low R:FR by the phytochrome photoreceptors induces the shade avoidance response [1], of which accelerated elongation growth of leaf-bearing organs is an important feature. Low R:FR-induced phytochrome inactivation leads to the accumulation and activation of the transcription factors PHYTOCHROME-INTERACTING FACTORs (PIFs) 4, 5, and 7 and subsequent expression of their growth-mediating targets [2, 3]...
November 17, 2016: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864885/phylogenetic-and-functional-classification-of-the-photolyase-cryptochrome-family
#4
Nuri Ozturk
The Photolyase/Cryptochrome (PHR/CRY) family is a large group of proteins with similar structure and but very diverge functions such as in DNA repair, circadian clock resetting, and regulation of transcription. As a result of advances in the biochemistry of the CRY/PHR family and identification of new members, several adjustments have been made to the classification of this protein family. For example, a new class of PHRs, Class III, has been proposed. Furthermore, CRYs have been suggested to function as photosensory proteins in the primordial eye of sponge larvae...
November 19, 2016: Photochemistry and Photobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863243/the-c-%C3%A2-elegans-taste-receptor-homolog-lite-1-is-a-photoreceptor
#5
Jianke Gong, Yiyuan Yuan, Alex Ward, Lijun Kang, Bi Zhang, Zhiping Wu, Junmin Peng, Zhaoyang Feng, Jianfeng Liu, X Z Shawn Xu
Many animal tissues/cells are photosensitive, yet only two types of photoreceptors (i.e., opsins and cryptochromes) have been discovered in metazoans. The question arises as to whether unknown types of photoreceptors exist in the animal kingdom. LITE-1, a seven-transmembrane gustatory receptor (GR) homolog, mediates UV-light-induced avoidance behavior in C. elegans. However, it is not known whether LITE-1 functions as a chemoreceptor or photoreceptor. Here, we show that LITE-1 directly absorbs both UVA and UVB light with an extinction coefficient 10-100 times that of opsins and cryptochromes, indicating that LITE-1 is highly efficient in capturing photons...
November 17, 2016: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861979/targeted-inactivation-of-dna-photolyase-genes-in-medaka-fish-oryzias-latipes
#6
Tomoko Ishikawa-Fujiwara, Eri Shiraishi, Yoshihiro Fujikawa, Toshio Mori, Tohru Tsujimura, Takeshi Todo
Proteins of the cryptochrome/photolyase family (CPF) exhibit sequence and structural conservation, but their functions are divergent. Photolyase is a DNA repair enzyme that catalyzes the light-dependent repair of ultraviolet (UV)-induced photoproducts, whereas cryptochrome acts as a photoreceptor or circadian clock protein. Two types of DNA photolyase exist: CPD photolyase, which repairs cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs), and 6-4 photolyase, which repairs 6-4 pyrimidine-pyrimidone photoproducts (6-4PPs)...
November 10, 2016: Photochemistry and Photobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861974/solving-blue-light-riddles-new-lessons-from-flavin-binding-lov-photoreceptors
#7
Aba Losi, Wolfgang Gärtner
Detection of blue light (BL) via flavin-binding photoreceptors (Fl-Blues) has evolved throughout all three domains of life. Although the main BL players, i.e. LOV (Light, Oxygen and Voltage), BLUF (Blue Light Sending using Flavins) and Cry (Cryptochrome) proteins have been characterized in great detail with respect to structure and function, still several unresolved issues at different levels of complexity remain and novel unexpected findings were reported. Here, we review the most prevailing riddles of LOV-based photoreceptors, for example: the relevance of water and/or small metabolites for the dynamics of the photocycle; molecular details of light-to-signal transduction events; the interplay of BL sensing by LOV domains with other environmental stimuli, such as BL plus oxygen mediating photodamage and its impact on microbial life-styles; the importance of the cell or chromophore redox state in determining the fate of BL-driven reactions; the evolutionary pathways of LOV-based BL sensing and associated functions through the diverse phyla...
November 18, 2016: Photochemistry and Photobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861972/cryptochromes-orchestrate-transcription-regulation-of-diverse-blue-light-responses-in-plants
#8
Zhaohe Yang, Bobin Liu, Jun Su, Jiakai Liao, Chentao Lin, Yoshito Oka
Blue light affects many aspects of plant growth and development throughout the plant lifecycle. Plant cryptochromes (CRYs) are UV-A/blue light photoreceptors that play pivotal roles in regulating blue light-mediated physiological responses via the regulated expression of more than one thousand genes. Photoactivated CRYs regulate transcription via two distinct mechanisms: indirect promotion of the activity of transcription factors by inactivation of the COP1/SPA E3 ligase complex or direct activation or inactivation of at least two sets of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor families by physical interaction...
November 12, 2016: Photochemistry and Photobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858334/identification-of-medaka-magnetoreceptor-and-cryptochromes
#9
Yunzhi Wang, Jianbin Chen, Feng Zhu, Yunhan Hong
Magnetoreception is a hallmark ability of animals for orientation and migration via sensing and utilizing geomagnetic fields. Magnetoreceptor (MagR) and cryptochromes (Cry) have recently been identified as the basis for magnetoreception in Drosophila. However, it has remained unknown whether MagR and Cry have conserved roles in diverse animals. Here we report the identification and expression of magr and cry genes in the fish medaka (Oryzias latipes). Cloning and sequencing identified a single magr gene, four cry genes and one cry-like gene in medaka...
November 17, 2016: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846570/photoactivation-and-inactivation-of-arabidopsis-cryptochrome-2
#10
Qin Wang, Zecheng Zuo, Xu Wang, Lianfeng Gu, Takeshi Yoshizumi, Zhaohe Yang, Liang Yang, Qing Liu, Wei Liu, Yun-Jeong Han, Jeong-Il Kim, Bin Liu, James A Wohlschlegel, Minami Matsui, Yoshito Oka, Chentao Lin
Cryptochromes are blue-light receptors that regulate development and the circadian clock in plants and animals. We found that Arabidopsis cryptochrome 2 (CRY2) undergoes blue light-dependent homodimerization to become physiologically active. We identified BIC1 (blue-light inhibitor of cryptochromes 1) as an inhibitor of plant cryptochromes that binds to CRY2 to suppress the blue light-dependent dimerization, photobody formation, phosphorylation, degradation, and physiological activities of CRY2. We hypothesize that regulated dimerization governs homeostasis of the active cryptochromes in plants and other evolutionary lineages...
October 21, 2016: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798129/magnetic-fields-modulate-blue-light-dependent-regulation-of-neuronal-firing-by-cryptochrome
#11
Carlo N G Giachello, Nigel S Scrutton, Alex R Jones, Richard A Baines
: Many animals are able to sense the Earth's geomagnetic field to enable behaviors such as migration. It is proposed that the magnitude and direction of the geomagnetic field modulates the activity of cryptochrome (CRY) by influencing photochemical radical pair intermediates within the protein. However, this proposal will remain theoretical until a CRY-dependent effect on a receptor neuron is shown to be modified by an external magnetic field (MF). It is established that blue-light (BL) photoactivation of CRY is sufficient to depolarize and activate Drosophila neurons...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766438/light-effects-on-the-multicellular-magnetotactic-prokaryote-candidatus-magnetoglobus-multicellularis-are-cancelled-by-radiofrequency-fields-the-involvement-of-radical-pair-mechanisms
#12
Roger Duarte de Melo, Daniel Acosta-Avalos
'Candidatus Magnetoglobus multicellularis' is the most studied multicellular magnetotactic prokaryote. It presents a light-dependent photokinesis: green light decreases the translation velocity whereas red light increases it, in comparison to blue and white light. The present article shows that radio-frequency electromagnetic fields cancel the light effect on photokinesis. The frequency to cancel the light effect corresponds to the Zeeman resonance frequency (DC magnetic field of 4 Oe and radio-frequency of 11...
October 20, 2016: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761341/identification-and-temporal-expression-of-putative-circadian-clock-transcripts-in-the-amphipod-crustacean-talitrus-saltator
#13
Joseph F O'Grady, Laura S Hoelters, Martin T Swain, David C Wilcockson
BACKGROUND: Talitrus saltator is an amphipod crustacean that inhabits the supralittoral zone on sandy beaches in the Northeast Atlantic and Mediterranean. T. saltator exhibits endogenous locomotor activity rhythms and time-compensated sun and moon orientation, both of which necessitate at least one chronometric mechanism. Whilst their behaviour is well studied, currently there are no descriptions of the underlying molecular components of a biological clock in this animal, and very few in other crustacean species...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27759059/evidence-for-discrete-solar-and-lunar-orientation-mechanisms-in-the-beach-amphipod-talitrus-saltator-montagu-crustacea-amphipoda
#14
Alberto Ugolini, Laura S Hoelters, Alice Ciofini, Vittorio Pasquali, David C Wilcockson
Animals that use astronomical cues to orientate must make continuous adjustment to account for temporal changes in azimuth caused by Earth's rotation. For example, the Monarch butterfly possesses a time-compensated sun compass dependent upon a circadian clock in the antennae. The amphipod Talitrus saltator possesses both a sun compass and a moon compass. We reasoned that the time-compensated compass mechanism that enables solar orientation of T. saltator is located in the antennae, as is the case for Monarch butterflies...
October 19, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27739235/rhodobacter-sphaeroides-cryb-is-a-bacterial-cryptochrome-with-6-4-photolyase-activity
#15
Andrea von Zadow, Elisabeth Ignatz, Richard Pokorny, Lars-Oliver Essen, Gabriele Klug
Photolyases are efficient DNA repair enzymes that specifically repair either cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers or (6-4) photoproducts in a light-dependent cleavage reaction. The closely related classical cryptochrome blue light photoreceptors do not repair DNA lesions; instead they are involved in regulatory processes. CryB of Rhodobacter sphaeroides was until now described as a cryptochrome that affects light-dependent and singlet oxygen-dependent gene expression and is unusual in terms of its cofactor composition...
October 14, 2016: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27721804/phosphorylation-regulating-the-ratio-of-intracellular-cry1-protein-determines-the-circadian-period
#16
Na Liu, Eric Erquan Zhang
The core circadian oscillator in mammals is composed of transcription/translation feedback loop, in which cryptochrome (CRY) proteins play critical roles as repressors of their own gene expression. Although post-translational modifications, such as phosphorylation of CRY1, are crucial for circadian rhythm, little is known about how phosphorylated CRY1 contributes to the molecular clockwork. To address this, we created a series of CRY1 mutants with single amino acid substitutions at potential phosphorylation sites and performed a cell-based, phenotype-rescuing screen to identify mutants with aberrant rhythmicity in CRY-deficient cells...
2016: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27721187/prkcdbp-cavin3-and-cry2-associate-with-major-depressive-disorder
#17
Leena Kovanen, Kati Donner, Mari Kaunisto, Timo Partonen
BACKGROUND: Dysfunctions in the intrinsic clocks are suggested in patients with depressive disorders. The cryptochrome circadian clocks 1 and 2 (CRY1 and CRY2) proteins modulate circadian rhythms in a cell and influence emotional reactions and mood in an individual. The protein kinase C delta binding protein (PRKCDBP, or CAVIN3), similar to the serum deprivation response protein (SDPR, or CAVIN2), reduces metabolic stability of the PER2-CRY2 transcription factor complex that plays a role in the circadian rhythm synchronization...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27716936/integration-of-light-and-circadian-signals-that-regulate-chloroplast-transcription-by-a-nuclear-encoded-sigma-factor
#18
Fiona E Belbin, Zeenat B Noordally, Sarah J Wetherill, Kelly A Atkins, Keara A Franklin, Antony N Dodd
We investigated the signalling pathways that regulate chloroplast transcription in response to environmental signals. One mechanism controlling plastid transcription involves nuclear-encoded sigma subunits of plastid-encoded plastid RNA polymerase. Transcripts encoding the sigma factor SIG5 are regulated by light and the circadian clock. However, the extent to which a chloroplast target of SIG5 is regulated by light-induced changes in SIG5 expression is unknown. Moreover, the photoreceptor signalling pathways underlying the circadian regulation of chloroplast transcription by SIG5 are unidentified...
September 15, 2016: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27697903/reversible-optogenetic-control-of-kinase-activity-during-differentiation-and-embryonic-development
#19
Vishnu V Krishnamurthy, John S Khamo, Wenyan Mei, Aurora J Turgeon, Humza M Ashraf, Payel Mondal, Dil B Patel, Noah Risner, Ellen E Cho, Jing Yang, Kai Zhang
A limited number of signaling pathways are repeatedly used to regulate a wide variety of processes during development and differentiation. Lack of tools to dynamically manipulate signaling pathways in space and time has been a major technical challenge for biologists. Optogenetic techniques, which utilize light to control protein functions in a reversible fashion, hold promise in modulating intracellular signaling networks with high spatial and temporal resolution. Applications of the optogenetics in multicellular organisms, however, have not been widely reported...
October 3, 2016: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27694986/mapping-light-driven-conformational-changes-within-the-photosensory-module-of-plant-phytochrome-b
#20
Silke von Horsten, Simon Straß, Nils Hellwig, Verena Gruth, Ramona Klasen, Andreas Mielcarek, Uwe Linne, Nina Morgner, Lars-Oliver Essen
Organisms developed different photoreceptors to be able to adapt to changing environmental light conditions. Phytochromes are red/far-red (r/fr) photochromic photoreceptors that belong to the classical photoreceptors along with cryptochromes and phototropins. They convert absorbed light into a biological signal by switching between two states in a light-dependent manner therefore enabling the light control downstream signalling. Their Pfr conformation is the biological active form in plants, but until now only a structure of the ground state (Pr) was solved...
October 3, 2016: Scientific Reports
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