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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100634/cryptochromes-regulate-igf-1-production-and-signaling-through-control-jak2-dependent-stat5b-phosphorylation
#1
Amol Chaudhari, Richa Gupta, Sonal Patel, Nikkhil Velingkaar, Roman Kondratov
Insulin like growth factor (IGF) signaling plays an important role in cell growth and proliferation and implicated in regulation of cancer, metabolism and aging. Here we report that IGF-1 level in blood and IGF-1 signaling demonstrates circadian rhythms. Circadian control occurs through Cryptochromes (CRYs), transcriptional repressors and components of the circadian clock. IGF-1 rhythms are disrupted in Cry deficient mice and IGF-1 level is reduced by 80% in these mice, which leads to reduced IGF signaling...
January 18, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100053/the-grateful-infrared-sequential-protein-structural-changes-resolved-by-infrared-difference-spectroscopy
#2
Tilman Kottke, Víctor A Lórenz-Fonfría, Joachim Heberle
The catalytic activity of proteins is a function of structural changes. Very often these are as minute as protonation changes, hydrogen bonding changes, and amino acid side chain reorientations. To resolve these, a methodology is afforded that not only provides the molecular sensitivity but allows for tracing the sequence of these hierarchical reactions at the same time. This feature article showcases results from time-resolved IR spectroscopy on channelrhodopsin (ChR), light-oxygen-voltage (LOV) domain protein, and cryptochrome (CRY)...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072861/identification-of-the-molecular-clockwork-of-the-oyster-crassostrea-gigas
#3
Mickael Perrigault, Damien Tran
Molecular clock system constitutes the origin of biological rhythms that allow organisms to anticipate cyclic environmental changes and adapt their behavior and physiology. Components of the molecular clock are largely conserved across a broad range of species but appreciable diversity in clock structure and function is also present especially in invertebrates. The present work aimed at identify and characterize molecular clockwork components in relationship with the monitoring of valve activity behavior in the oyster Crassostrea gigas...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067410/the-photolyase-cryptochrome-family-of-proteins-as-dna-repair-enzymes-and-transcriptional-repressors
#4
REVIEW
Ibrahim Halil Kavakli, Ibrahim Baris, Mehmet Tardu, Şeref Gül, Haşimcan Öner, Sibel Çal, Selma Bulut, Darya Yarparvar, Çağlar Berkel, Pınar Ustaoğlu, Cihan Aydın
Light is a very important environmental factor that governs many cellular responses in organisms. As a consequence, organisms possess different kinds of light-sensing photoreceptors to regulate their physiological variables and adapt to a given habitat. The cryptochrome/photolyase family (CPF) includes photoreceptors that perform different functions in different organisms. Photolyases repair ultraviolet-induced DNA damage by a process known as photoreactivation using photons absorbed from the blue end of the light spectrum...
November 16, 2016: Photochemistry and Photobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062690/cryptochrome-mediates-behavioral-executive-choice-in-response-to-uv-light
#5
Lisa S Baik, Keri J Fogle, Logan Roberts, Alexis M Galschiodt, Joshua A Chevez, Yocelyn Recinos, Vinh Nguy, Todd C Holmes
Drosophila melanogaster CRYPTOCHROME (CRY) mediates behavioral and electrophysiological responses to blue light coded by circadian and arousal neurons. However, spectroscopic and biochemical assays of heterologously expressed CRY suggest that CRY may mediate functional responses to UV-A (ultraviolet A) light as well. To determine the relative contributions of distinct phototransduction systems, we tested mutants lacking CRY and mutants with disrupted opsin-based phototransduction for behavioral and electrophysiological responses to UV light...
January 6, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011868/chemical-induced-inhibition-of-blue-light-mediated-seedling-development-caused-by-disruption-of-upstream-signal-transduction-involving-cryptochromes-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#6
Wen-Dee Ong, Emiko Okubo-Kurihara, Yukio Kurihara, Setsuko Shimada, Yuko Makita, Mika Kawashima, Kaori Honda, Yasumitsu Kondoh, Nobumoto Watanabe, Hiroyuki Osada, Sean R Cutler, Kumar Sudesh, Minami Matsui
Plants have a remarkable ability to perceive and respond to various wavelengths of light and initiate regulation of different cascades of light signaling and molecular components. While the perception of red light and the mechanisms of its signaling involving phytochromes are largely known, knowledge of the mechanisms of blue light signaling is still limited. Chemical genetics involves the use of diverse small active or synthetic molecules to evaluate biological processes. By combining chemicals and analyzing the effects they have on plant morphology, we identified a chemical, 3-bromo-7-nitroindazole (3B7N), that promotes hypocotyl elongation of wild-type Arabidopsis only under continuous blue light...
December 22, 2016: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997226/dysregulation-of-metallothionein-and-circadian-genes-in-human-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#7
Huan Li, Yuan-Fu Lu, Hong Chen, Jie Liu
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the major threat to human health, and disruption of circadian clock genes is implicated in hepatocarcinogenesis. This study examined the dysregulation of metallothioneins and circadian genes in achieved human HCC (n = 24), peri-HCC tissues (n = 24) as compared with normal human livers (n = 36). Total RNA was extracted and reverse transcribed. Real-time RT-qPCR was performed to determine the expression of genes of interest. The results demonstrated the downregulation of metallothionein-1 (MT-1), MT-2, and metal transcription factor-1 (MFT-1) in human HCC as compared with Peri-HCC and normal tissues...
December 20, 2016: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992646/divalent-cations-increase-dna-repair-activities-of-bacterial-6-4-photolyases
#8
Hongju Ma, Fan Zhang, Elisabeth Ignatz, Martin Suehnel, Peng Xue, Patrick Scheerer, LarsOliver Essen, Norbert Krauß, Tilman Lamparter
The (6-4) photolyases of the FeS-BCP group can be considered as the most ancient type among the large family of cryptochrome and photolyase flavoproteins. In contrast to other photolyases they contain an Fe-S cluster of unknown function, a DMRL chromophore, an interdomain loop which could interact with DNA, and a long C-terminal extension. We compared DNA repair and photoreduction of two members of the FeS-BCP family, Agrobacterium fabrum PhrB and Rhodobacter sphaeroides RsCryB, with a eukaryotic (6-4) photolyase from Ostreococcus, OsCPF, and a member of the class III CPD photolyases, PhrA from A...
December 19, 2016: Photochemistry and Photobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27991674/photolyase-dynamics-and-mechanisms-of-repair-of-sun-induced-dna-damage
#9
Meng Zhang, Lijuan Wang, Dongping Zhong
Photolyase, a photomachine discovered half a century ago for repair of sun-induced DNA damage of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) and pyrimidine (6-4) pyrimidone photoproducts (6-4PPs), has been characterized extensively in biochemistry (function), structure and dynamics since 1980s. The molecular mechanism and repair photocycle have been revealed at the most fundamental level. Using femtosecond spectroscopy, we have mapped out the entire dynamical evolution and determined all actual timescales of the catalytic processes...
December 19, 2016: Photochemistry and Photobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27958724/engineering-an-artificial-flavoprotein-magnetosensor
#10
Chris Bialas, Lauren E Jarocha, Kevin B Henbest, Tilo M Zollitsch, Goutham Kodali, Christiane R Timmel, Stuart R Mackenzie, P Leslie Dutton, Christopher C Moser, P J Hore
Migratory birds use the Earth's magnetic field as a source of navigational information. This light-dependent magnetic compass is thought to be mediated by cryptochrome proteins in the retina. Upon light activation, electron transfer between the flavin adenine dinucleotide cofactor and tryptophan residues leads to the formation of a spin-correlated radical pair, whose subsequent fate is sensitive to external magnetic fields. To learn more about the functional requirements of this complex chemical compass, we have created a family of simplified, adaptable proteins-maquettes-that contain a single tryptophan residue at different distances from a covalently bound flavin...
December 28, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925276/conformational-and-intermolecular-interaction-dynamics-of-photolyase-cryptochrome-proteins-monitored-by-the-time-resolved-diffusion-technique
#11
Masato Kondoh, Masahide Terazima
Cryptochrome (CRY), a blue light sensor protein, possesses a similar domain structure to photolyase (PHR) that, upon absorption of light, repairs DNA damage. In this review, we compare the reaction dynamics of these systems by monitoring the reaction kinetics of conformation change and intermolecular interaction change based on time-dependent diffusion coefficient measurements obtained by using the pulsed laser-induced transient grating technique. Using this method, time-dependent biomolecular interactions, such as transient dissociation reactions in solution, have been successfully detected in real time...
December 7, 2016: Photochemistry and Photobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891621/animal-cryptochromes-divergent-roles-in-light-perception-circadian-timekeeping-and-beyond
#12
REVIEW
Alicia K Michael, Jennifer L Fribourgh, Russell N Van Gelder, Carrie L Partch
Cryptochromes are evolutionarily related to the light-dependent DNA repair enzyme photolyase, serving as major regulators of circadian rhythms in insects and vertebrate animals. There are two types of cryptochromes in the animal kingdom: Drosophila-like CRYs that act as nonvisual photopigments linking circadian rhythms to the environmental light/dark cycle, and vertebrate-like CRYs that do not appear to sense light directly, but control the generation of circadian rhythms by acting as transcriptional repressors...
November 28, 2016: Photochemistry and Photobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891613/a-review-of-spectroscopic-and-biophysical-chemical-studies-of-the-complex-of-cpd-photolyase-and-cryptochrome-dash-with-substrate-dna
#13
Johannes P M Schelvis, Yvonne M Gindt
CPD photolyase (PL) is a structure-specific DNA repair enzyme that uses blue light to repair cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPD) on DNA. Cryptochrome (CRY) DASH enzymes use blue light for the repair of CPD lesions on single-stranded (ss) DNA, though some may also repair these lesions on double-stranded (ds) DNA. In addition, CRY DASH may be involved in blue-light signaling, similar to cryptochromes. The focus of this review is on spectroscopic and biophysical chemical experiments of the enzyme-substrate complex that have contributed to a more detailed understanding of all the aspects of the CPD repair mechanism of CPD photolyase and CRY DASH...
November 28, 2016: Photochemistry and Photobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889265/integration-of-phytochrome-and-cryptochrome-signals-determines-plant-growth-during-competition-for-light
#14
Mieke de Wit, Diederik H Keuskamp, Franca J Bongers, Patricia Hornitschek, Charlotte M M Gommers, Emilie Reinen, Carmen Martínez-Cerón, Christian Fankhauser, Ronald Pierik
Plants in dense vegetation perceive their neighbors primarily through changes in light quality. Initially, the ratio between red (R) and far-red (FR) light decreases due to reflection of FR by plant tissue well before shading occurs. Perception of low R:FR by the phytochrome photoreceptors induces the shade avoidance response [1], of which accelerated elongation growth of leaf-bearing organs is an important feature. Low R:FR-induced phytochrome inactivation leads to the accumulation and activation of the transcription factors PHYTOCHROME-INTERACTING FACTORs (PIFs) 4, 5, and 7 and subsequent expression of their growth-mediating targets [2, 3]...
December 19, 2016: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864885/phylogenetic-and-functional-classification-of-the-photolyase-cryptochrome-family
#15
REVIEW
Nuri Ozturk
The photolyase/cryptochrome (PHR/CRY) family is a large group of proteins with similar structure but very diverge functions such as DNA repair, circadian clock resetting and regulation of transcription. As a result of advances in the biochemistry of the CRY/PHR family and identification of new members, several adjustments have been made to the classification of this protein family. For example, a new class of PHRs, Class III, has been proposed. Furthermore, CRYs have been suggested to function as photosensory proteins in the primordial eye of sponge larvae...
November 19, 2016: Photochemistry and Photobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863243/the-c-%C3%A2-elegans-taste-receptor-homolog-lite-1-is-a-photoreceptor
#16
Jianke Gong, Yiyuan Yuan, Alex Ward, Lijun Kang, Bi Zhang, Zhiping Wu, Junmin Peng, Zhaoyang Feng, Jianfeng Liu, X Z Shawn Xu
Many animal tissues/cells are photosensitive, yet only two types of photoreceptors (i.e., opsins and cryptochromes) have been discovered in metazoans. The question arises as to whether unknown types of photoreceptors exist in the animal kingdom. LITE-1, a seven-transmembrane gustatory receptor (GR) homolog, mediates UV-light-induced avoidance behavior in C. elegans. However, it is not known whether LITE-1 functions as a chemoreceptor or photoreceptor. Here, we show that LITE-1 directly absorbs both UVA and UVB light with an extinction coefficient 10-100 times that of opsins and cryptochromes, indicating that LITE-1 is highly efficient in capturing photons...
November 17, 2016: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861979/targeted-inactivation-of-dna-photolyase-genes-in-medaka-fish-oryzias-latipes
#17
Tomoko Ishikawa-Fujiwara, Eri Shiraishi, Yoshihiro Fujikawa, Toshio Mori, Tohru Tsujimura, Takeshi Todo
Proteins of the cryptochrome/photolyase family (CPF) exhibit sequence and structural conservation, but their functions are divergent. Photolyase is a DNA repair enzyme that catalyzes the light-dependent repair of ultraviolet (UV)-induced photoproducts, whereas cryptochrome acts as a photoreceptor or circadian clock protein. Two types of DNA photolyase exist: CPD photolyase, which repairs cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs), and 6-4 photolyase, which repairs 6-4 pyrimidine-pyrimidone photoproducts (6-4PPs)...
November 10, 2016: Photochemistry and Photobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861974/solving-blue-light-riddles-new-lessons-from-flavin-binding-lov-photoreceptors
#18
Aba Losi, Wolfgang Gärtner
Detection of blue light (BL) via flavin-binding photoreceptors (Fl-Blues) has evolved throughout all three domains of life. Although the main BL players, i.e. LOV (Light, Oxygen and Voltage), BLUF (Blue Light Sending using Flavins) and Cry (Cryptochrome) proteins have been characterized in great detail with respect to structure and function, still several unresolved issues at different levels of complexity remain and novel unexpected findings were reported. Here, we review the most prevailing riddles of LOV-based photoreceptors, for example: the relevance of water and/or small metabolites for the dynamics of the photocycle; molecular details of light-to-signal transduction events; the interplay of BL sensing by LOV domains with other environmental stimuli, such as BL plus oxygen mediating photodamage and its impact on microbial life-styles; the importance of the cell or chromophore redox state in determining the fate of BL-driven reactions; the evolutionary pathways of LOV-based BL sensing and associated functions through the diverse phyla...
November 18, 2016: Photochemistry and Photobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861972/cryptochromes-orchestrate-transcription-regulation-of-diverse-blue-light-responses-in-plants
#19
Zhaohe Yang, Bobin Liu, Jun Su, Jiakai Liao, Chentao Lin, Yoshito Oka
Blue light affects many aspects of plant growth and development throughout the plant lifecycle. Plant cryptochromes (CRYs) are UV-A/blue light photoreceptors that play pivotal roles in regulating blue light-mediated physiological responses via the regulated expression of more than one thousand genes. Photoactivated CRYs regulate transcription via two distinct mechanisms: indirect promotion of the activity of transcription factors by inactivation of the COP1/SPA E3 ligase complex or direct activation or inactivation of at least two sets of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor families by physical interaction...
November 12, 2016: Photochemistry and Photobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858334/identification-of-medaka-magnetoreceptor-and-cryptochromes
#20
Yunzhi Wang, Jianbin Chen, Feng Zhu, Yunhan Hong
Magnetoreception is a hallmark ability of animals for orientation and migration via sensing and utilizing geomagnetic fields. Magnetoreceptor (MagR) and cryptochromes (Cry) have recently been identified as the basis for magnetoreception in Drosophila. However, it has remained unknown whether MagR and Cry have conserved roles in diverse animals. Here we report the identification and expression of magr and cry genes in the fish medaka (Oryzias latipes). Cloning and sequencing identified a single magr gene, four cry genes and one cry-like gene in medaka...
November 17, 2016: Science China. Life Sciences
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