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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317918/vertebrate-cryptochromes-are-vestigial-flavoproteins
#1
Roger J Kutta, Nataliya Archipowa, Linus O Johannissen, Alex R Jones, Nigel S Scrutton
All cryptochromes are currently classified as flavoproteins. In animals their best-described role is as components of the circadian clock. This circadian function is variable, and can be either light-dependent or -independent; the molecular origin of this difference is unknown. Type I animal cryptochromes are photoreceptors that entrain an organism's clock to its environment, whereas Type II (including mammals) regulate circadian timing in a light-independent manner. Here, we reveal that, in contrast to Type I, Type II animal cryptochromes lack the structural features to securely bind the photoactive flavin cofactor...
March 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296939/can-a-hybrid-chemical-ferromagnetic-model-of-the-avian-compass-explain-its-outstanding-sensitivity-to-magnetic-noise
#2
Kirill Kavokin
While many properties of the magnetic compass of migratory birds are satisfactory explained within the chemical model of magnetoreception, its extreme sensitivity to radio-frequency magnetic fields remains a mystery. Apparently, this difficulty could be overcome if the magnetoreceptor model were augmented with a magnetite nanoparticle, which would amplify the magnetic field at the position of the magneto-sensitive cryptochrome molecule. However, comparison of the radio-frequency power used in the experiment with intrinsic magnetization noise of such a particle, estimated from the theory of fluctuations, shows that the required sensitivity cannot be reached with realistic parameters of iron-oxide nanocrystals...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296892/blue-light-induced-accumulation-of-reactive-oxygen-species-is-a-consequence-of-the-drosophila-cryptochrome-photocycle
#3
Louis-David Arthaut, Nathalie Jourdan, Ali Mteyrek, Maria Procopio, Mohamed El-Esawi, Alain d'Harlingue, Pierre-Etienne Bouchet, Jacques Witczak, Thorsten Ritz, André Klarsfeld, Serge Birman, Robert J Usselman, Ute Hoecker, Carlos F Martino, Margaret Ahmad
Cryptochromes are evolutionarily conserved blue-light absorbing flavoproteins which participate in many important cellular processes including in entrainment of the circadian clock in plants, Drosophila and humans. Drosophila melanogaster cryptochrome (DmCry) absorbs light through a flavin (FAD) cofactor that undergoes photoreduction to the anionic radical (FAD•-) redox state both in vitro and in vivo. However, recent efforts to link this photoconversion to the initiation of a biological response have remained controversial...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293892/light-regulated-protein-kinases-based-on-the-cry2-cib1-system
#4
Wignand W D Mühlhäuser, Maximilian Hörner, Wilfried Weber, Gerald Radziwill
Optogenetic approaches enable the control of biological processes in a time- and space-resolved manner. These light-based methods are noninvasive and by using light as sole activator minimize side effects in contrast to chemical inducers. Here, we provide a protocol for the targeted control of the activity of protein kinases in mammalian cells based on the photoreceptor cryptochrome 2 (CRY2) of Arabidopsis thaliana and its interaction partner CIB1. Blue light (450 nm)-induced binding of CRY2 to CIB1 allows the recruitment of a chimeric cytosolic protein kinase AKT1 to the plasma membrane accompanied with stimulation of its kinase activity...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273503/resistance-of-arabidopsis-thaliana-l-photosynthetic-apparatus-to-uv-b-is-reduced-by-deficit-of-phytochromes-b-and-a
#5
Aleksandra Yu Khudyakova, Vladimir D Kreslavski, Galina N Shirshikova, Sergey K Zharmukhamedov, Anatoly A Kosobryukhov, Suleyman I Allakhverdiev
The photosynthetic responses of 25-day-old Arabidopsis phyA phyB double mutant (DM) compared with the wild type (WT) to UV-B radiation (1Wm(-2), 30min) were investigated. UV-B irradiation led to reduction of photosystem 2 (PS-2) activity and the photosynthetic rate. In plants grown under both white and red light (λm - 660nm) the reduction was greater in DM plants compared to the WT. Without UV-B irradiation a decrease in PS-2 activity was observed in DM grown under RL only. It is assumed that the lower content of UV-absorbing pigments and carotenoids observed in DM may be one of the reasons of reduced PS-2 resistance to UV-B...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272509/optogenetic-control-of-the-dab1-signaling-pathway
#6
Liang Wang, Jonathan A Cooper
The Reelin-Dab1 signaling pathway regulates development of the mammalian brain, including neuron migrations in various brain regions, as well as learning and memory in adults. Extracellular Reelin binds to cell surface receptors and activates phosphorylation of the intracellular Dab1 protein. Dab1 is required for most effects of Reelin, but Dab1-independent pathways may contribute. Here we developed a single-component, photoactivatable Dab1 (opto-Dab1) by using the blue light-sensitive dimerization/oligomerization property of A...
March 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271102/switching-from-adduct-formation-to-electron-transfer-in-a-light-oxygen-voltage-domain-containing-the-reactive-cysteine
#7
Kathrin Magerl, Ivan Stambolic, Bernhard Dick
LOV (light-, oxygen- or voltage-sensitive) domains act as photosensory units of many prokaryotic and eukaryotic proteins. Upon blue light excitation they undergo a photocycle via the excited triplet state of their flavin chromophore yielding the flavin-cysteinyl adduct. Adduct formation is highly conserved among all LOV domains and constitutes the primary step of LOV domain signaling. But recently, it has been shown that signal propagation can also be triggered by flavin photoreduction to the neutral semiquinone offering new prospects for protein engineering...
March 8, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262491/adaptation-of-circadian-neuronal-network-to-photoperiod-in-high-latitude-european-drosophilids
#8
Pamela Menegazzi, Elena Dalla Benetta, Marta Beauchamp, Matthias Schlichting, Ingolf Steffan-Dewenter, Charlotte Helfrich-Förster
The genus Drosophila contains over 2,000 species that, stemming from a common ancestor in the Old World Tropics, populate today very different environments [1, 2] (reviewed in [3]). We found significant differences in the activity pattern of Drosophila species belonging to the holarctic virilis group, i.e., D. ezoana and D. littoralis, collected in Northern Europe, compared to that of the cosmopolitan D. melanogaster, collected close to the equator. These behavioral differences might have been of adaptive significance for colonizing high-latitude habitats and hence adjust to long photoperiods...
March 20, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224616/critical-cholangiocarcinogenesis-control-by-cryptochrome-clock-genes
#9
Ali Mteyrek, Elisabeth Filipski, Catherine Guettier, Malgorzata Oklejewicz, Gijsbertus T J van der Horst, Alper Okyar, Francis Lévi
A coordinated network of molecular circadian clocks in individual cells generates 24-hour rhythms in liver metabolism and proliferation. Circadian disruption through chronic jet lag or Per2 clock gene mutation was shown to accelerate hepatocarcinoma development in mice. Since divergent effects were reported for clock genes Per and Cry regarding xenobiotic toxicity, we questioned the role of Cry1 and Cry2 in liver carcinogenesis. Male WT and Cry1(-/-) Cry2(-/-) mice (C57Bl/6 background) were chronically exposed to diethylnitrosamine (DEN) at ZT11...
February 22, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216039/molecular-cloning-and-function-analysis-of-clcry1a-and-clcry1b-two-genes-in-chrysanthemum-lavandulifolium-that-play-vital-roles-in-promoting-floral-transition
#10
Liwen Yang, Jianxin Fu, Shuai Qi, Yan Hong, He Huang, Silan Dai
Cryptochrome (CRY), a vital photoreceptor which mediates light signals, controls photomorphogenesis in higher plants. However, the function of CRY in mediating light to regulate growth and development of ornamental plants is still unclear. In this study, we identified two CRY1 homologous genes, ClCRY1a and ClCRY1b, from Chrysanthemum lavandulifolium, a diploid wild chrysanthemum species. Expression analysis demonstrated that these two ClCRY1 genes showed the highest expression levels in seedlings leaves that were transferred to short day (SD) conditions for eight days...
February 16, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211124/in-planta-expression-searching-for-the-genuine-chromophores-of-cryptochrome-3-from-arabidopsis-thaliana
#11
Wolfgang Gärtner
Göbel et al. present in this issue an exemplary study of identification of chromophores from Arabidopsis thaliana cryptochrome-3. Usually taken for granted, proteins and cofactors, respective chromophores, from heterologous expression are considered identical to material isolated from their genuine host. Cryptochromes carry two chromophores, an antenna cofactor and a functional flavin chromophore, both noncovalently embedded into the protein. In particular the antenna chromophore is loosely bound and often lost during protein purification...
January 2017: Photochemistry and Photobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176875/millitesla-magnetic-field-effects-on-the-photocycle-of-an-animal-cryptochrome
#12
Dean M W Sheppard, Jing Li, Kevin B Henbest, Simon R T Neil, Kiminori Maeda, Jonathan Storey, Erik Schleicher, Till Biskup, Ryan Rodriguez, Stefan Weber, P J Hore, Christiane R Timmel, Stuart R Mackenzie
Drosophila have been used as model organisms to explore both the biophysical mechanisms of animal magnetoreception and the possibility that weak, low-frequency anthropogenic electromagnetic fields may have biological consequences. In both cases, the presumed receptor is cryptochrome, a protein thought to be responsible for magnetic compass sensing in migratory birds and a variety of magnetic behavioural responses in insects. Here, we demonstrate that photo-induced electron transfer reactions in Drosophila melanogaster cryptochrome are indeed influenced by magnetic fields of a few millitesla...
February 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143926/formation-of-a-repressive-complex-in-the-mammalian-circadian-clock-is-mediated-by-the-secondary-pocket-of-cry1
#13
Alicia K Michael, Jennifer L Fribourgh, Yogarany Chelliah, Colby R Sandate, Greg L Hura, Dina Schneidman-Duhovny, Sarvind M Tripathi, Joseph S Takahashi, Carrie L Partch
The basic helix-loop-helix PAS domain (bHLH-PAS) transcription factor CLOCK:BMAL1 (brain and muscle Arnt-like protein 1) sits at the core of the mammalian circadian transcription/translation feedback loop. Precise control of CLOCK:BMAL1 activity by coactivators and repressors establishes the ∼24-h periodicity of gene expression. Formation of a repressive complex, defined by the core clock proteins cryptochrome 1 (CRY1):CLOCK:BMAL1, plays an important role controlling the switch from repression to activation each day...
February 14, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131343/uv-a-radiation-effects-on-higher-plants-exploring-the-known-unknown
#14
REVIEW
Dolors Verdaguer, Marcel A K Jansen, Laura Llorens, Luis O Morales, Susanne Neugart
Ultraviolet-A radiation (UV-A: 315-400nm) is a component of solar radiation that exerts a wide range of physiological responses in plants. Currently, field attenuation experiments are the most reliable source of information on the effects of UV-A. Common plant responses to UV-A include both inhibitory and stimulatory effects on biomass accumulation and morphology. UV-A effects on biomass accumulation can differ from those on root: shoot ratio, and distinct responses are described for different leaf tissues...
February 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100634/cryptochromes-regulate-igf-1-production-and-signaling-through-control-jak2-dependent-stat5b-phosphorylation
#15
Amol Chaudhari, Richa Gupta, Sonal Patel, Nikkhil Velingkaar, Roman Kondratov
Insulin like growth factor (IGF) signaling plays an important role in cell growth and proliferation and implicated in regulation of cancer, metabolism and aging. Here we report that IGF-1 level in blood and IGF-1 signaling demonstrates circadian rhythms. Circadian control occurs through Cryptochromes (CRYs), transcriptional repressors and components of the circadian clock. IGF-1 rhythms are disrupted in Cry deficient mice and IGF-1 level is reduced by 80% in these mice, which leads to reduced IGF signaling...
January 18, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100053/the-grateful-infrared-sequential-protein-structural-changes-resolved-by-infrared-difference-spectroscopy
#16
Tilman Kottke, Víctor A Lórenz-Fonfría, Joachim Heberle
The catalytic activity of proteins is a function of structural changes. Very often these are as minute as protonation changes, hydrogen bonding changes, and amino acid side chain reorientations. To resolve these, a methodology is afforded that not only provides the molecular sensitivity but allows for tracing the sequence of these hierarchical reactions at the same time. This feature article showcases results from time-resolved IR spectroscopy on channelrhodopsin (ChR), light-oxygen-voltage (LOV) domain protein, and cryptochrome (CRY)...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072861/identification-of-the-molecular-clockwork-of-the-oyster-crassostrea-gigas
#17
Mickael Perrigault, Damien Tran
Molecular clock system constitutes the origin of biological rhythms that allow organisms to anticipate cyclic environmental changes and adapt their behavior and physiology. Components of the molecular clock are largely conserved across a broad range of species but appreciable diversity in clock structure and function is also present especially in invertebrates. The present work aimed at identify and characterize molecular clockwork components in relationship with the monitoring of valve activity behavior in the oyster Crassostrea gigas...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067410/the-photolyase-cryptochrome-family-of-proteins-as-dna-repair-enzymes-and-transcriptional-repressors
#18
REVIEW
Ibrahim Halil Kavakli, Ibrahim Baris, Mehmet Tardu, Şeref Gül, Haşimcan Öner, Sibel Çal, Selma Bulut, Darya Yarparvar, Çağlar Berkel, Pınar Ustaoğlu, Cihan Aydın
Light is a very important environmental factor that governs many cellular responses in organisms. As a consequence, organisms possess different kinds of light-sensing photoreceptors to regulate their physiological variables and adapt to a given habitat. The cryptochrome/photolyase family (CPF) includes photoreceptors that perform different functions in different organisms. Photolyases repair ultraviolet-induced DNA damage by a process known as photoreactivation using photons absorbed from the blue end of the light spectrum...
November 16, 2016: Photochemistry and Photobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062690/cryptochrome-mediates-behavioral-executive-choice-in-response-to-uv-light
#19
Lisa S Baik, Keri J Fogle, Logan Roberts, Alexis M Galschiodt, Joshua A Chevez, Yocelyn Recinos, Vinh Nguy, Todd C Holmes
Drosophila melanogaster CRYPTOCHROME (CRY) mediates behavioral and electrophysiological responses to blue light coded by circadian and arousal neurons. However, spectroscopic and biochemical assays of heterologously expressed CRY suggest that CRY may mediate functional responses to UV-A (ultraviolet A) light as well. To determine the relative contributions of distinct phototransduction systems, we tested mutants lacking CRY and mutants with disrupted opsin-based phototransduction for behavioral and electrophysiological responses to UV light...
January 24, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011868/chemical-induced-inhibition-of-blue-light-mediated-seedling-development-caused-by-disruption-of-upstream-signal-transduction-involving-cryptochromes-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#20
Wen-Dee Ong, Emiko Okubo-Kurihara, Yukio Kurihara, Setsuko Shimada, Yuko Makita, Mika Kawashima, Kaori Honda, Yasumitsu Kondoh, Nobumoto Watanabe, Hiroyuki Osada, Sean R Cutler, Kumar Sudesh, Minami Matsui
Plants have a remarkable ability to perceive and respond to various wavelengths of light and initiate regulation of different cascades of light signaling and molecular components. While the perception of red light and the mechanisms of its signaling involving phytochromes are largely known, knowledge of the mechanisms of blue light signaling is still limited. Chemical genetics involves the use of diverse small active or synthetic molecules to evaluate biological processes. By combining chemicals and analyzing the effects they have on plant morphology, we identified a chemical, 3-bromo-7-nitroindazole (3B7N), that promotes hypocotyl elongation of wild-type Arabidopsis only under continuous blue light...
December 22, 2016: Plant & Cell Physiology
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