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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802828/photolyase-dynamics-and-electron-transfer-mechanisms-of-dna-repair
#1
REVIEW
Meng Zhang, Lijuan Wang, Dongping Zhong
Photolyase, a flavoenzyme containing flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) molecule as a catalytic cofactor, repairs UV-induced DNA damage of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD) and pyrimidine-pyrimidone (6-4) photoproduct using blue light. The FAD cofactor, conserved in the whole protein superfamily of photolyase/cryptochromes, adopts a unique folded configuration at the active site that plays a critical functional role in DNA repair. Here, we review our comprehensive characterization of the dynamics of flavin cofactor and its repair photocycles by different classes of photolyases on the most fundamental level...
August 9, 2017: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790135/ddb1-mediated-cry1-degradation-promotes-foxo1-driven-gluconeogenesis-in-liver
#2
Xin Tong, Deqiang Zhang, Nicholas Charney, Ethan Jin, Kyle Vandommelon, Kenneth Stamper, Neil Gupta, Johnny Saldate, Lei Yin
Targeted protein degradation through ubiquitination is an important step in the regulation of glucose metabolism. Here we present evidence that the DDB1-CUL4A ubiquitin E3 ligase functions as a novel metabolic regulator that promotes FOXO1-driven hepatic gluconeogenesis. In vivo, hepatocyte-specific Ddb1 deletion leads to impaired hepatic gluconeogenesis in the mouse liver but protects mice from high-fat diet (HFD)-induced hyperglycemia. Lack of Ddb1 downregulates FOXO1 protein expression and impairs FOXO1-driven gluconeogenic response...
August 8, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781048/drosophila-cry-entrains-clocks-in-body-tissues-to-light-and-maintains-passive-membrane-properties-in-a-non-clock-body-tissue-independent-of-light
#3
Parul Agrawal, Jerry H Houl, Kushan L Gunawardhana, Tianxin Liu, Jian Zhou, Mark J Zoran, Paul E Hardin
Circadian (∼24 hr) clocks regulate daily rhythms in physiology, metabolism, and behavior via cell-autonomous transcriptional feedback loops. In Drosophila, the blue-light photoreceptor CRYPTOCHROME (CRY) synchronizes these feedback loops to light:dark cycles by binding to and degrading TIMELESS (TIM) protein. CRY also acts independently of TIM in Drosophila to alter potassium channel conductance in arousal neurons after light exposure, and in many animals CRY acts independently of light to repress rhythmic transcription...
July 24, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780826/-influence-of-extremely-low-frequency-magnetic-field-on-circadian-rhythm-of-cryptochrome-in-mouse-embryonic-fibroblasts
#4
Z Y Sun, D Y Geng, C F Chen, P P Wang, T Song
Objective: To investigate the influence of extremely low-frequency magnetic field on periodical expression of cryptochrome (Cry) gene in mouse embryonic fibroblast NIH3T3 cells. Methods: The NIH3T3 cells were divided into magnetic field group and sham-exposure group. The NIH3T3 cells in the magnetic field group were stimulated by horse serum and then exposed to an extremely low-frequency magnetic field (50 Hz and 0.3 mT) for 48 hours, and those in the sham-exposure group were also stimulated by horse serum and then exposed to a coil for 48 hours...
June 20, 2017: Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776258/a-model-of-the-fad-redox-cycle-describes-the-dynamics-of-the-effect-of-the-geomagnetic-field-on-the-human-visual-system
#5
Franz Thoss, Bengt Bartsch
In experimental studies, we could show that the visual threshold of man is influenced by the geomagnetic field. One of the results was that the threshold shows periodic fluctuations when the vertical component of the field is reversed periodically. The maximum of these oscillations occurred at a period duration of 110 s. To explain this phenomenon, we chose the process that likely underlies the navigation of birds in the geomagnetic field: the light reaction of the FAD component of cryptochrome in the retina...
August 3, 2017: Biological Cybernetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756992/structural-and-evolutionary-aspects-of-algal-blue-light-receptors-of-the-cryptochrome-and-aureochrome-type
#6
REVIEW
Lars-Oliver Essen, Sophie Franz, Ankan Banerjee
Blue-light reception plays a pivotal role for algae to adapt to changing environmental conditions. In this review we summarize the current structural and mechanistic knowledge about flavin-dependent algal photoreceptors. We especially focus on the cryptochrome and aureochrome type photoreceptors in the context of their evolutionary divergence. Despite similar photochemical characteristics to orthologous photoreceptors from higher plants and animals the algal blue-light photoreceptors have developed a set of unique structural and mechanistic features that are summarized below...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755004/a-simple-method-using-ex-vivo-culture-of-hair-follicle-tissue-to-investigate-intrinsic-circadian-characteristics-in-humans
#7
Ai Yamaguchi, Ritsuko Matsumura, Takashi Matsuzaki, Wataru Nakamura, Koichi Node, Makoto Akashi
Almost all organisms maintain a circadian clock from birth to death to synchronize their own physiology and behavior with the earth's rotation. Because the in vivo evaluation of human circadian characteristics is labor-intensive, in vitro or ex vivo approaches could provide advantages. In this study, to enable the simple and non-invasive evaluation of autonomous circadian oscillation, we established a method for monitoring clock gene expression by performing ex vivo culture of whole hair root tissue. This method is extremely simple and imposes little burden on subjects...
July 28, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751364/circadian-repressors-cry1-and-cry2-broadly-interact-with-nuclear-receptors-and-modulate-transcriptional-activity
#8
Anna Kriebs, Sabine D Jordan, Erin Soto, Emma Henriksson, Colby R Sandate, Megan E Vaughan, Alanna B Chan, Drew Duglan, Stephanie J Papp, Anne-Laure Huber, Megan E Afetian, Ruth T Yu, Xuan Zhao, Michael Downes, Ronald M Evans, Katja A Lamia
Nuclear hormone receptors (NRs) regulate physiology by sensing lipophilic ligands and adapting cellular transcription appropriately. A growing understanding of the impact of circadian clocks on mammalian transcription has sparked interest in the interregulation of transcriptional programs. Mammalian clocks are based on a transcriptional feedback loop featuring the transcriptional activators circadian locomotor output cycles kaput (CLOCK) and brain and muscle ARNT-like 1 (BMAL1), and transcriptional repressors cryptochrome (CRY) and period (PER)...
August 15, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744290/photoreceptor-mediated-plant-growth-responses-implications-for-photoreceptor-engineering-toward-improved-performance-in-crops
#9
REVIEW
Ophilia I L Mawphlang, Eros V Kharshiing
Rising temperatures during growing seasons coupled with altered precipitation rates presents a challenging task of improving crop productivity for overcoming such altered weather patterns and cater to a growing population. Light is a critical environmental factor that exerts a powerful influence on plant growth and development ranging from seed germination to flowering and fruiting. Higher plants utilize a suite of complex photoreceptor proteins to perceive surrounding red/far-red (phytochromes), blue/UV-A (cryptochromes, phototropins, ZTL/FKF1/LKP2), and UV-B light (UVR8)...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732105/shining-a-light-on-the-arabidopsis-circadian-clock
#10
REVIEW
Rachael J Oakenfull, Seth J Davis
The circadian clock provides essential timing information to ensure optimal growth to prevailing external environmental conditions. A major time-setting mechanism (zeitgeber) in clock synchronisation is light. Differing light wavelengths, intensities and photoperiodic duration are processed for the clock-setting mechanism. Many studies on light-input pathways to the clock have focused on Arabidopsis thaliana. Photoreceptors are specific chromic proteins that detect light signals and transmit this information to the central circadian oscillator through a number of different signalling mechanisms...
July 21, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731140/integrated-analysis-of-genome%C3%A2-wide-gene-expression-and-dna-methylation-microarray-of-diffuse-large-b%C3%A2-cell-lymphoma-with-tet-mutations
#11
Pengfei Liu, Wenhua Jiang, Jinkun Zhao, Huilai Zhang
Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), the most frequently occurring type of lymphoid malignancy, has been demonstrated to be associated with mutations of Ten‑Eleven Translocation (TET). In order to explore the association between DLBCL and TET mutations, the present study analyzed the gene expression and methylation profiles in human DLBCL biopsy tissues with wildtype and mutated TET2. The microarray dataset GSE37365, containing two subseries: the genome‑wide gene expression dataset GSE37362 and the DNA methylation microarray dataset GSE37363, was downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database...
July 21, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720252/the-cryptochrome-photolyase-protein-family-in-diatoms
#12
Sarah König, Matthias Juhas, Stefanie Jäger, Tilman Kottke, Claudia Büchel
The cryptochrome - photolyase family (CPF) consists of homologous flavoproteins having completely different functions involving DNA repair, circadian rhythm and/or photoreception. From the original photolyases, working either as (6-4) or cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer photolyases, the animal- and plant-type cryptochromes, respectively, evolved and also the more intermediate DASH cryptochromes. Whereas animal cryptochromes work mostly in clock-related functions, plant cryptochromes are also directly involved in developmental processes such as hypocotyl elongation or flower induction...
July 8, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701782/haeme-oxygenase-protects-against-uv-light-dna-damages-in-the-retina-in-clock-dependent-manner
#13
Milena Damulewicz, Agnieszka Loboda, Alicja Jozkowicz, Jozef Dulak, Elzbieta Pyza
In the present study, we showed that in the retina of Drosophila, the expression of the ho gene, encoding haeme oxygenase (HO), is regulated by light but only at the beginning of the day. This timing must be set by the circadian clock as light pulses applied at other time points during the day do not increase the ho mRNA level. Moreover, light-induced activation of HO does not depend on the canonical phototransduction pathway but instead involves cryptochrome and is enhanced by ultraviolet (UV) light. Interestingly, the level of DNA damage in the retina after UV exposure was inversely related to the circadian oscillation of the ho mRNA level during the night, being the highest when the HO level was low and reversed during the day...
July 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698388/delayed-cryptochrome-degradation-asymmetrically-alters-the-daily-rhythm-in-suprachiasmatic-clock-neuron-excitability
#14
Sven Wegner, Mino D C Belle, Alun T L Hughes, Casey O Diekman, Hugh D Piggins
Suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) neurons contain an intracellular molecular circadian clock and the Cryptochromes (CRY1/2), key transcriptional repressors of this molecular apparatus, are subject to post-translational modification through ubiquitination and targeting for proteosomal degradation by the ubiquitin E3 ligase complex. Loss-of-function point mutations in a component of this ligase complex, Fbxl3, delay CRY1/2 degradation, reduce circadian rhythm strength, and lengthen the circadian period by ∼2.5h...
July 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667107/the-two-cryptochrome-photolyase-family-proteins-fulfill-distinct-roles-in-dna-photorepair-and-regulation-of-conidiation-in-the-gray-mold-fungus-botrytis-cinerea
#15
Kim C Cohrs, Julia Schumacher
The plant pathogenic Leotiomycete Botrytis cinerea is known for the strict regulation of its asexual differentiation programs by the environmental light conditions. Sclerotia are formed in constant darkness, black/near-UV (NUV) light induces conidiation and blue light represses both differentiation programs. Sensing of black/NUV light is attributed to proteins of the cryptochrome/photolyase family (CPF). To elucidate the molecular basis of the photoinduction of conidiation, we functionally characterized the two CPF proteins encoded in the genome of B...
June 30, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654043/light-mediated-reversible-modulation-of-the-mitogen-activated-protein-kinase-pathway-during-cell-differentiation-and-xenopus-embryonic-development
#16
Vishnu V Krishnamurthy, Aurora J Turgeon, John S Khamo, Payel Mondal, Savanna R Sharum, Wenyan Mei, Jing Yang, Kai Zhang
Kinase activity is crucial for a plethora of cellular functions, including cell proliferation, differentiation, migration, and apoptosis. During early embryonic development, kinase activity is highly dynamic and widespread across the embryo. Pharmacological and genetic approaches are commonly used to probe kinase activities. Unfortunately, it is challenging to achieve superior spatial and temporal resolution using these strategies. Furthermore, it is not feasible to control the kinase activity in a reversible fashion in live cells and multicellular organisms...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646204/optogenetic-protein-clustering-through-fluorescent-protein-tagging-and-extension-of-cry2
#17
Hyerim Park, Na Yeon Kim, Sangkyu Lee, Nury Kim, Jihoon Kim, Won Do Heo
Protein homo-oligomerization is an important molecular mechanism in many biological processes. Therefore, the ability to control protein homo-oligomerization allows the manipulation and interrogation of numerous cellular events. To achieve this, cryptochrome 2 (CRY2) from Arabidopsis thaliana has been recently utilized for blue light-dependent spatiotemporal control of protein homo-oligomerization. However, limited knowledge on molecular characteristics of CRY2 obscures its widespread applications. Here, we identify important determinants for efficient cryptochrome 2 clustering and introduce a new CRY2 module, named ''CRY2clust'', to induce rapid and efficient homo-oligomerization of target proteins by employing diverse fluorescent proteins and an extremely short peptide...
June 23, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636933/drosophila-neuropeptide-f-signaling-independently-regulates-feeding-and-sleep-wake-behavior
#18
Brian Y Chung, Jennifer Ro, Sabine A Hutter, Kylie M Miller, Lakshmi S Guduguntla, Shu Kondo, Scott D Pletcher
Proper regulation of sleep-wake behavior and feeding is essential for organismal health and survival. While previous studies have isolated discrete neural loci and substrates important for either sleep or feeding, how the brain is organized to coordinate both processes with respect to one another remains poorly understood. Here, we provide evidence that the Drosophila Neuropeptide F (NPF) network forms a critical component of both adult sleep and feeding regulation. Activation of NPF signaling in the brain promotes wakefulness and adult feeding, likely through its cognate receptor NPFR...
June 20, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636777/biological-effects-related-to-geomagnetic-activity-and-possible-mechanisms
#19
REVIEW
Viacheslav V Krylov, Margaret Larkin
This review presents contemporary data on the biological effects of geomagnetic activity. Correlations between geomagnetic indices and biological parameters and experimental studies that used simulated geomagnetic storms to detect possible responses of organisms to these events in nature are discussed. Possible mechanisms by which geomagnetic activity influences organisms are also considered. Special attention is paid to the idea that geomagnetic activity is perceived by organisms as a disruption of diurnal geomagnetic variation...
June 21, 2017: Bioelectromagnetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636018/fluorescence-lifetime-microscopy-reveals-the-biologically-related-photophysical-heterogeneity-of-oxyblepharismin-in-light-adapted-blue-blepharisma-japonicum-cells
#20
G Checcucci, B Storti, F Ghetti, G Signore, R Bizzarri
The step-up photophobic response of the heterotrich ciliate Blepharisma japonicum is mediated by a hypericinic pigment, blepharismin, which is not present in any of the known six families of photoreceptors, namely rhodopsins, phytochromes, xanthopsins, cryptochromes, phototropins, and BLUF proteins. Upon irradiation, native cells become light-adapted (blue) by converting blepharismin into the photochemically stable oxyblepharismin (OxyBP). So far, OxyBP has been investigated mainly from a photophysical point of view in vitro, either alone or complexed with proteins...
June 21, 2017: Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences
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