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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450111/the-binding-structure-and-affinity-of-photodamaged-duplex-dna-with-members-of-the-photolyase-cryptochrome-family-a-computational-study
#1
Ryuma Sato, Ryuhei Harada, Yasuteru Shigeta
Photolyases (PHRs) and cryptochromes (CRYs) belong to the same family known as blue-light photoreceptors. Although their amino acid sequences and corresponding structures are similar to each other, they exert different functions. PHRs function as an enzyme to repair UV-induced deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) lesions such as a cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD) and a (6-4) photoproduct ((6-4)pp), whereas CRYs are a circadian photoreceptor in plants and animals and at the same time they control the photoperiodic induction of flowering in plants...
2018: Biophysics and Physicobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29411926/cry1-deficiency-leads-to-testicular-dysfunction-and-altered-expression-of-genes-involved-in-cell-communication-chromatin-reorganization-spermatogenesis-and-immune-response-in-mouse-testis
#2
Chong Li, Shiwei Xiao, Jie Hao, Xiaogang Liao, Gang Li
Cryptochrome (Cry)1 is essential for generating circadian rhythm in central and many peripheral oscillators; however, its role in male reproduction remains unclear. We investigated this question using Cry1 knockout (KO) mice. We found that Cry1 is necessary for normal testicular function: Cry1 deficiency increased testicular germ cell apoptosis and decreased sperm count. A transcriptome analysis showed that the expression levels of 375 genes-including 12 encoding micro (mi)RNAs-were altered in the testis of Cry1 KO mice relative to wild-type controls...
February 7, 2018: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29377895/the-non-classical-nuclear-import-carrier-transportin-1-modulates-circadian-rhythms-through-its-effect-on-per1-nuclear-localization
#3
Sandra Korge, Bert Maier, Franziska Brüning, Lea Ehrhardt, Thomas Korte, Matthias Mann, Andreas Herrmann, Maria S Robles, Achim Kramer
Circadian clocks are molecular timekeeping mechanisms that allow organisms to anticipate daily changes in their environment. The fundamental cellular basis of these clocks is delayed negative feedback gene regulation with PERIOD and CRYPTOCHROME containing protein complexes as main inhibitory elements. For a correct circadian period, it is essential that such clock protein complexes accumulate in the nucleus in a precisely timed manner, a mechanism that is poorly understood. We performed a systematic RNAi-mediated screen in human cells and identified 15 genes associated with the nucleo-cytoplasmic translocation machinery, whose expression is important for circadian clock dynamics...
January 2018: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353016/pyrosequencing-analysis-of-methylation-levels-of-clock-genes-in-leukocytes-from-parkinson-s-disease-patients
#4
Wei Mao, Chunsong Zhao, Hui Ding, Kuo Liang, Jinhua Xue, Piu Chan, Yanning Cai
DNA methylation of neuronal PAS domain protein 2 (NPAS2) and cryptochrome circadian clock 1 (CRY1) promoters may be associated with Parkinson's disease (PD). However, there is no simple and cost-effective method to quantify DNA methylation in these regions. Additionally, it is not clear whether DNA methylation of NPAS2 and CRY1 promoters is altered in peripheral blood of PD patients, especially newly diagnosed drug-naïve PD patients, and thus can be used as a PD biomarker. In the present study, we utilized bisulfite pyrosequencing assays to examine DNA methylation levels of six CpG sites in the NPAS2 promoter and five CpG sites in the CRY1 promoter...
January 17, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330504/unique-roles-of-%C3%AE-arrestin-in-gpcr-trafficking-revealed-by-photoinducible-dimerizers
#5
Osamu Takenouchi, Hideaki Yoshimura, Takeaki Ozawa
Intracellular trafficking of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) controls their localization and degradation, which affects a cell's ability to adapt to extracellular stimuli. Although the perturbation of trafficking induces important diseases, these trafficking mechanisms are poorly understood. Herein, we demonstrate an optogenetic method using an optical dimerizer, cryptochrome (CRY) and its partner protein (CIB), to analyze the trafficking mechanisms of GPCRs and their regulatory proteins. Temporally controlling the interaction between β-arrestin and β2-adrenergic receptor (ADRB2) reveals that the duration of the β-arrestin-ADRB2 interaction determines the trafficking pathway of ADRB2...
January 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29261746/piriformospora-indica-promotes-early-flowering-in-arabidopsis-through-regulation-of-the-photoperiod-and-gibberellin-pathways
#6
Rui Pan, Le Xu, Qiao Wei, Chu Wu, Wenlin Tang, Ralf Oelmüller, Wenying Zhang
Flowering in plants is synchronized by both environmental cues and internal regulatory factors. Previous studies have shown that the endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica promotes the growth and early flowering in Coleus forskohlii (a medicinal plant) and Arabidopsis. To further dissect the impact of P. indica on pathways responsible for flowering time in Arabidopsis, we co-cultivated Arabidopsis with P. indica and used RT-qPCR to analyze the main gene regulation networks involved in flowering. Our results revealed that the symbiotic interaction of Arabidopsis with P...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234304/hypothesis-on-the-role-of-cryptochromes-in-inflammation-and-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-outcome
#7
Adriano Barreto Nogueira, Ariel Barreto Nogueira, José Carlos Esteves Veiga, Manoel Jacobsen Teixeira
We have recently found that the temperature variability (TV) in the day-night cycle may predict the mean intracranial pressure in the following 24 h (ICP24) in subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) patients under multimodality monitoring, sedation, and hypothermia (<35°C). Specifically, we found that ICP24 = 6 (4 - TV) mmHg. TV is the ratio between the coefficient of variation of temperature during the nocturnal and the preceding diurnal periods. This result suggests that the circadian clock reflects brain plasticity mechanisms and its malfunctioning leads to deterioration of the neurologic status...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216421/multidimensional-quantum-mechanical-modeling-of-electron-transfer-and-electronic-coherence-in-plant-cryptochromes-the-role-of-initial-bath-conditions
#8
David Mendive-Tapia, Etienne Mangaud, Thiago Firmino, Aurélien de la Lande, Michele Desouter-Lecomte, Hans-Dieter Meyer, Fabien Gatti
A multi-dimensional quantum mechanical protocol is used to describe the photo-induced electron transfer and electronic coherence in plant cryptochromes without any semi-empirical, e.g. experimentally obtained, parameters. Starting from a two-level spin-boson Hamiltonian we look at the effect that the initial photo-induced nuclear bath distribution has on an intermediate step of this biological electron transfer cascade for two idealized cases. The first assumes a slow equilibration of the nuclear bath with respect to the previous electron transfer step that leads to an ultrafast decay with little temperature dependence; whilst the second assumes a prior fast bath equilibration on the donor potential energy surface leading to a much slower decay, which contrarily displays a high temperature dependence and a better agreement with previous theoretical and experimental results...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210583/time-resolved-infrared-spectroscopy-on-plant-cryptochrome-relevance-of-proton-transfer-and-atp-binding-for-signaling
#9
Lea Schroeder, Sabine Oldemeyer, Tilman Kottke
Plant cryptochromes are light receptors in land plants and algae with very diverse functions such as circadian timing and life cycle progression. The receptor consists of a photolyase homology region (PHR) binding the flavin chromophore and a C-terminal extension (CCT) responsible for signaling. The reputed signaling state, the flavin neutral radical, is formed by a femtosecond electron and microsecond proton transfer to the excited, oxidized flavin. Subsequently, a 500 μs loss of β-sheet structure ~25 Å away from flavin was resolved and suggested to be part of the signal conduction to the CCT...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29192250/coupling-optogenetics-and-light-sheet-microscopy-a-method-to-study-wnt-signaling-during-embryogenesis
#10
Prameet Kaur, Timothy E Saunders, Nicholas S Tolwinski
Optogenetics allows precise, fast and reversible intervention in biological processes. Light-sheet microscopy allows observation of the full course of Drosophila embryonic development from egg to larva. Bringing the two approaches together allows unparalleled precision into the temporal regulation of signaling pathways and cellular processes in vivo. To develop this method, we investigated the regulation of canonical Wnt signaling during anterior-posterior patterning of the Drosophila embryonic epidermis. Cryptochrome 2 (CRY2) from Arabidopsis Thaliana was fused to mCherry fluorescent protein and Drosophila β-catenin to form an easy to visualize optogenetic switch...
November 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179610/a-tug-of-war-between-cryptochrome-and-the-visual-system-allows-the-adaptation-of-evening-activity-to-long-photoperiods-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#11
Christa Kistenpfennig, Mayumi Nakayama, Ruri Nihara, Kenji Tomioka, Charlotte Helfrich-Förster, Taishi Yoshii
In many animals, the circadian clock plays a role in adapting to the coming season by measuring day length. The mechanism for measuring day length and its neuronal circuits remains elusive, however. Under laboratory conditions, the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, displays 2 activity peaks: one in the morning and one in the evening. These peaks appear to be regulated by 2 separate circadian oscillators (the morning and evening oscillators) that reside in different subsets of pacemaker clock neurons in the brain...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Biological Rhythms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139123/new-insights-into-the-mechanisms-of-phytochrome-cryptochrome-coaction
#12
REVIEW
Qin Wang, Qing Liu, Xu Wang, Zecheng Zuo, Yoshito Oka, Chentao Lin
Contents I. II. III. IV. SUMMARY: Plants perceive and respond to light signals by multiple sensory photoreceptors, including phytochromes and cryptochromes, which absorb different wavelengths of light to regulate genome expression and plant development. Photophysiological analyses have long revealed the coordinated actions of different photoreceptors, a phenomenon referred to as the photoreceptor coaction. The mechanistic explanations of photoreceptor coactions are not fully understood...
November 15, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113166/expression-of-circadian-clock-genes-in-human-colorectal-adenoma-and-carcinoma
#13
Tomoyuki Momma, Hirokazu Okayama, Masaru Saitou, Hidekazu Sugeno, Nobuhiro Yoshimoto, Yuji Takebayashi, Shinji Ohki, Seiichi Takenoshita
Circadian rhythms are fundamental biological systems in most organisms. Epidemiological and animal studies have demonstrated that disruption of circadian rhythms is linked to tumor progression and mammalian tumorigenesis. However, the clinical significance of in situ clock gene expression in precancerous and cancerous colorectal lesions remains unknown. The present study aimed to investigate mRNA transcript levels of circadian clock genes within human colorectal cancer and adenoma tissue sections. Using in situ hybridization, the expression of key clock genes, including period circadian protein homolog (Per) 1 and 2, cryptochrome 1 (Cry1), circadian locomoter output cycles protein kaput (Clock), brain and muscle ARNT-like protein 1 (Bmal1) and casein kinase 1ε (CK1ε) were retrospectively examined in 51 cases of colorectal carcinoma and 10 cases of adenoma...
November 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109286/circadian-clock-cryptochrome-proteins-regulate-autoimmunity
#14
Qi Cao, Xuan Zhao, Jingwen Bai, Sigal Gery, Haibo Sun, De-Chen Lin, Qi Chen, Zhengshan Chen, Lauren Mack, Henry Yang, Ruishu Deng, Xianping Shi, Ling-Wa Chong, Han Cho, Jianjun Xie, Quan-Zhen Li, Markus Müschen, Annette R Atkins, Christopher Liddle, Ruth T Yu, Serhan Alkan, Jonathan W Said, Ye Zheng, Michael Downes, Ronald M Evans, H Phillip Koeffler
The circadian system regulates numerous physiological processes including immune responses. Here, we show that mice deficient of the circadian clock genes Cry1 and Cry2 [Cry double knockout (DKO)] develop an autoimmune phenotype including high serum IgG concentrations, serum antinuclear antibodies, and precipitation of IgG, IgM, and complement 3 in glomeruli and massive infiltration of leukocytes into the lungs and kidneys. Flow cytometry of lymphoid organs revealed decreased pre-B cell numbers and a higher percentage of mature recirculating B cells in the bone marrow, as well as increased numbers of B2 B cells in the peritoneal cavity of Cry DKO mice...
November 21, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100427/aberrant-rhythmic-expression-of-cryptochrome2-regulates-the-radiosensitivity-of-rat-gliomas
#15
Wang Fan, Li Caiyan, Zhu Ling, Zhao Jiayun
In this study, we investigated the role of the clock regulatory protein cryptochrome 2 (Cry2) in determining the radiosensitivity of C6 glioma cells in a rat model. We observed that Cry2 mRNA and protein levels showed aberrant rhythmic periodicity of 8 h in glioma tissues, compared to 24 h in normal brain tissue. Cry2 mRNA and protein levels did not respond to irradiation in normal tissues, but both were increased at the ZT4 (low Cry2) and ZT8 (high Cry2) time points in gliomas. Immunohistochemical staining of PCNA and TUNEL assays demonstrated that high Cry2 expression in glioma tissues was associated with increased cell proliferation and decreased apoptosis...
September 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098377/overexpression-of-sweet-sorghum-cryptochrome-1a-confers-hypersensitivity-to-blue-light-abscisic-acid-and-salinity-in-arabidopsis
#16
Tingting Zhou, Lingyang Meng, Yue Ma, Qing Liu, Yunyun Zhang, Zhenming Yang, Deguang Yang, Mingdi Bian
This work provides the bioinformatics, expression pattern and functional analyses of cryptochrome 1a from sweet sorghum (SbCRY1a), together with an exploration of the signaling mechanism mediated by SbCRY1a. Sweet sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] is considered to be an ideal candidate for biofuel production due to its high efficiency of photosynthesis and the ability to maintain yield under harsh environmental conditions. Blue light receptor cryptochromes regulate multiple aspects of plant growth and development...
November 2, 2017: Plant Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074139/optogenetic-control-of-focal-adhesion-kinase-signaling
#17
Maximilian Hörner, Claire Chatelle, Wignand W D Mühlhäuser, David R Stocker, Michael Coats, Wilfried Weber, Gerald Radziwill
Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) integrates signaling from integrins, growth factor receptors and mechanical stress to control cell adhesion, motility, survival and proliferation. Here, we developed a single-component, photo-activatable FAK, termed optoFAK, by using blue light-induced oligomerization of cryptochrome 2 (CRY2) to activate FAK-CRY2 fusion proteins. OptoFAK functions uncoupled from physiological stimuli and activates downstream signaling rapidly and reversibly upon blue light exposure. OptoFAK stimulates SRC creating a positive feedback loop on FAK activation, facilitating phosphorylation of paxillin and p130Cas in adherent cells...
October 23, 2017: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066765/computational-reconstruction-reveals-a-candidate-magnetic-biocompass-to-be-likely-irrelevant-for-magnetoreception
#18
Ida Friis, Emil Sjulstok, Ilia A Solov'yov
Birds use the magnetic field of the Earth to navigate during their annual migratory travel. The possible mechanism to explain the biophysics of this compass sense involves electron transfers within the photoreceptive protein cryptochrome. The magnetoreceptive functioning of cryptochromes is supposedly facilitated through an iron rich polymer complex which couples to multiple cryptochromes. The present investigation aims to independently reconstruct this complex and describe its interaction with Drosophila melanogaster cryptochromes...
October 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066723/blue-light-induced-biosynthesis-of-ros-contributes-to-the-signaling-mechanism-of-arabidopsis-cryptochrome
#19
Mohamed El-Esawi, Louis-David Arthaut, Nathalie Jourdan, Alain d'Harlingue, Justin Link, Carlos F Martino, Margaret Ahmad
Cryptochromes are evolutionarily conserved blue light receptors with many roles throughout plant growth and development. They undergo conformational changes in response to light enabling interaction with multiple downstream signaling partners. Recently, it has been shown that cryptochromes also synthesize reactive oxygen species (ROS) in response to light, suggesting the possibility of an alternate signaling mechanism. Here we show by fluorescence imaging and microscopy that H202 and ROS accumulate in the plant nucleus after cryptochrome activation...
October 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063672/molecular-characterization-spatial-temporal-expression-and-magnetic-response-patterns-of-the-iron-sulfur-cluster-assembly1-isca1-in-the-rice-planthopper-nilaparvata-lugens
#20
Jing-Jing Xu, Ying-Chao Zhang, Jian-Qi Wu, Wei-Hong Wang, Yue Li, Gui-Jun Wan, Fa-Jun Chen, Gregory A Sword, Wei-Dong Pan
The mechanisms of magnetoreception have been proposed as the magnetite-based, the chemical radical-pair & biocompass model, in which magnetite particles, the cryptochrome (Cry) or iron-sulfur cluster assembly 1 (IscA1) may be involved. However, little is known about the association among the molecules. Here we investigated the molecular characterization and the mRNA expression of IscA1 in different developmental stages, tissues and magnetic fields in the migratory insect of brown planthoppers (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens...
October 23, 2017: Insect Science
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