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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655930/circadian-signaling-in-homarus-americanus-region-specific-de-novo-assembled-transcriptomes-show-that-both-the-brain-and-eyestalk-ganglia-possess-the-molecular-components-of-a-putative-clock-system
#1
Andrew E Christie, Andy Yu, Micah G Pascual, Vittoria Roncalli, Matthew C Cieslak, Amanda N Warner, Tess J Lameyer, Meredith E Stanhope, Patsy S Dickinson, J Joe Hull
Essentially all organisms exhibit recurring patterns of physiology/behavior that oscillate with a period of ~24-h and are synchronized to the solar day. Crustaceans are no exception, with robust circadian rhythms having been documented in many members of this arthropod subphylum. However, little is known about the molecular underpinnings of their circadian rhythmicity. Moreover, the location of the crustacean central clock has not been firmly established, although both the brain and eyestalk ganglia have been hypothesized as loci...
April 11, 2018: Marine Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593090/expression-patterns-of-cryptochrome-genes-in-avian-retina-suggest-involvement-of-cry4-in-light-dependent-magnetoreception
#2
Atticus Pinzon-Rodriguez, Staffan Bensch, Rachel Muheim
The light-dependent magnetic compass of birds provides orientation information about the spatial alignment of the geomagnetic field. It is proposed to be located in the avian retina, and be mediated by a light-induced, biochemical radical-pair mechanism involving cryptochromes as putative receptor molecules. At the same time, cryptochromes are known for their role in the negative feedback loop in the circadian clock. We measured gene expression of Cry1, Cry2 and Cry4 in the retina, muscle and brain of zebra finches over the circadian day to assess whether they showed any circadian rhythmicity...
March 2018: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29581265/circadian-clock-activity-of-cryptochrome-relies-on-tryptophan-mediated-photoreduction
#3
Changfan Lin, Deniz Top, Craig C Manahan, Michael W Young, Brian R Crane
Cryptochromes (CRYs) entrain the circadian clocks of plants and animals to light. Irradiation of the Drosophila cryptochrome (dCRY) causes reduction of an oxidized flavin cofactor by a chain of conserved tryptophan (Trp) residues. However, it is unclear how redox chemistry within the Trp chain couples to dCRY-mediated signaling. Here, we show that substitutions of four key Trp residues to redox-active tyrosine and redox-inactive phenylalanine tune the light sensitivity of dCRY photoreduction, conformational activation, cellular stability, and targeted degradation of the clock protein timeless (TIM)...
March 26, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29572261/clock-dependent-chromatin-topology-modulates-circadian-transcription-and-behavior
#4
Jérôme Mermet, Jake Yeung, Clémence Hurni, Daniel Mauvoisin, Kyle Gustafson, Céline Jouffe, Damien Nicolas, Yann Emmenegger, Cédric Gobet, Paul Franken, Frédéric Gachon, Félix Naef
The circadian clock in animals orchestrates widespread oscillatory gene expression programs, which underlie 24-h rhythms in behavior and physiology. Several studies have shown the possible roles of transcription factors and chromatin marks in controlling cyclic gene expression. However, how daily active enhancers modulate rhythmic gene transcription in mammalian tissues is not known. Using circular chromosome conformation capture (4C) combined with sequencing (4C-seq), we discovered oscillatory promoter-enhancer interactions along the 24-h cycle in the mouse liver and kidney...
March 23, 2018: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29561690/differential-roles-for-cryptochromes-in-the-mammalian-retinal-clock
#5
Jovi C Y Wong, Nicola J Smyllie, Gareth T Banks, Carina A Pothecary, Alun R Barnard, Elizabeth S Maywood, Aarti Jagannath, Steven Hughes, Gijsbertus T J van der Horst, Robert E MacLaren, Mark W Hankins, Michael H Hastings, Patrick M Nolan, Russell G Foster, Stuart N Peirson
Cryptochromes 1 and 2 (CRY1/2) are key components of the negative limb of the mammalian circadian clock. Like many peripheral tissues, Cry1 and -2 are expressed in the retina, where they are thought to play a role in regulating rhythmic physiology. However, studies differ in consensus as to their localization and function, and CRY1 immunostaining has not been convincingly demonstrated in the retina. Here we describe the expression and function of CRY1 and -2 in the mouse retina in both sexes. Unexpectedly, we show that CRY1 is expressed throughout all retinal layers, whereas CRY2 is restricted to the photoreceptor layer...
March 21, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29556064/an-evolutionary-hotspot-defines-functional-differences-between-cryptochromes
#6
Clark Rosensweig, Kimberly A Reynolds, Peng Gao, Isara Laothamatas, Yongli Shan, Rama Ranganathan, Joseph S Takahashi, Carla B Green
Mammalian circadian clocks are driven by a transcription/translation feedback loop composed of positive regulators (CLOCK/BMAL1) and repressors (CRYPTOCHROME 1/2 (CRY1/2) and PER1/2). To understand the structural principles of regulation, we used evolutionary sequence analysis to identify co-evolving residues within the CRY/PHL protein family. Here we report the identification of an ancestral secondary cofactor-binding pocket as an interface in repressive CRYs, mediating regulation through direct interaction with CLOCK and BMAL1...
March 19, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29554865/transcriptome-profiling-of-genes-related-to-light-induced-anthocyanin-biosynthesis-in-eggplant-solanum-melongena-l-before-purple-color-becomes-evident
#7
Jing Li, Yong-Jun He, Lu Zhou, Yang Liu, Mingmin Jiang, Li Ren, Huoying Chen
BACKGROUND: The anthocyanins are highly enriched in eggplants (Solanum melongena L.) with purple peel. However, our previous study showed that anthocyanins biosynthesis in eggplant cultivar 'Lanshan Hexian' was completely regulated by light and color becomes evident at most 2 days after exposure to light. In the present investigation, transcriptome study was made to explore the underlying molecular mechanisms of light-induced anthocyanin biosynthesis in eggplant (Solanum melongena L...
March 20, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29541184/a-role-for-the-clock-period-circadian-regulator-2-gene-in-regulating-the-clock-gene-network-in-human-oral-squamous-cell-carcinoma-cells
#8
Yiran Ao, Qin Zhao, Kai Yang, Gang Zheng, Xiaoqing Lv, Xiaoli Su
Clock genes are the core of the circadian rhythms in the human body and are important in regulating normal physiological functions. To date, research has indicated that the clock gene, period circadian clock 2 ( PER2 ), is downregulated in numerous types of cancer, and that it is associated with cancer occurrence and progression via the regulation of various downstream cell cycle genes. However, it remains unclear whether the decreased expression of PER2 influences the expression of other clock genes in cancer cells...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29541034/-cryptochrome-regulates-circadian-locomotor-rhythms-in-the-small-brown-planthopper-laodelphax-striatellus-fall%C3%A3-n
#9
Yan-Dong Jiang, Xin Yuan, Wen-Wu Zhou, Yue-Liang Bai, Gui-Yao Wang, Zeng-Rong Zhu
Most living organisms have developed internal circadian clocks to anticipate the daily environmental changes. The circadian clocks are composed of several transcriptional-translational feedback loops, in which cryptochromes (CRYs) serve as critical elements. In insects, some CRYs act as photopigments to control circadian photoentrainment, while the others act as transcriptional regulators. We cloned and characterized two cryptochrome genes, the Drosophila -like ( lscry1 ) and vertebrate-like ( lscry2 ) genes, in a rice pest Laodelphax striatellus ...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29539272/photoreceptors-take-charge-emerging-principles-for-light-sensing
#10
Tilman Kottke, Aihua Xie, Delmar S Larsen, Wouter D Hoff
The first stage in biological signaling is based on changes in the functional state of a receptor protein triggered by interaction of the receptor with its ligand(s). The light-triggered nature of photoreceptors allows studies on the mechanism of such changes in receptor proteins using a wide range of biophysical methods and with superb time resolution. Here, we critically evaluate current understanding of proton and electron transfer in photosensory proteins and their involvement both in primary photochemistry and subsequent processes that lead to the formation of the signaling state...
March 14, 2018: Annual Review of Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29537313/predicted-effect-of-circadian-clock-modulation-of-nhe3-of-a-proximal-tubule-cell-on-sodium-transport
#11
Ning Wei, Michelle L Gumz, Anita T Layton
Major renal functions such as renal blood flow, glomerular filtration rate, and urinary excretion are known to exhibit circadian oscillations. However, the underlying mechanisms that govern these variations have yet to be fully elucidated. To better understand the impact of the circadian clock on renal solute and water transport, we have developed a computational model of the renal circadian clock, and coupled that model to an epithelial transport model of the proximal convoluted cell of the rat kidney. The activity of the Na$^+$-H$^+$ exchanger 3 (NHE3) is assumed to be regulated by changes in transcription of the NHE3 mRNA due to regulation by circadian clock proteins...
March 14, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29534992/the-cryptochrome-inhibitor-ks15-enhances-e-box-mediated-transcription-by-disrupting-the-feedback-action-of-a-circadian-transcription-repressor-complex
#12
Jaebong Jang, Sooyoung Chung, Youjeong Choi, Hye Young Lim, Yeongeon Son, Sung Kook Chun, Gi Hoon Son, Kyungjin Kim, Young-Ger Suh, Jong-Wha Jung
AIMS: We have previously identified a chemical scaffold possessing 2-ethoxypropanoic acid (designated as KS15) that directly binds to the C-terminal region of cryptochromes (CRYs: CRY1 and CRY2) and enhances E-box-mediated transcription. However, it is still unclear how KS15 impairs the feedback actions of the CRYs and which chemical moieties are functionally important for its actions. MAIN METHODS: The E-box-mediated transcriptional activities were mainly used to examine the effects of KS15 and its derivatives...
March 10, 2018: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29495862/time-resolved-optical-absorption-microspectroscopy-of-magnetic-field-sensitive-flavin-photochemistry
#13
Lewis M Antill, Joshua P Beardmore, Jonathan R Woodward
The photochemical reactions of blue-light receptor proteins have received much attention due to their very important biological functions. In addition, there is also growing evidence that the one particular class of such proteins, the cryptochromes, may be associated with not only a biological photo-response but also a magneto-response, which may be responsible for the mechanism by which many animals can respond to the weak geomagnetic field. Therefore, there is an important scientific question over whether it is possible to directly observe such photochemical processes, and indeed the effects of weak magnetic fields thereon, taking place both in purified protein samples in vitro and in actual biochemical cells and tissues...
February 2018: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29491873/low-light-dependence-of-the-magnetic-field-effect-on-cryptochromes-possible-relevance-to-plant-ecology
#14
Jacques Vanderstraeten, Philippe Gailly, E Pascal Malkemper
Various responses to static magnetic fields (MF) have been reported in plants, and it has been suggested that the geomagnetic field influences plant physiology. Accordingly, diverse mechanisms have been proposed to mediate MF effects in plants. The currently most probable sensor candidates are cryptochromes (Cry) which are sensitive to submillitesla MF. Here, we propose a quantitative approach of the MF effect on Cry depending on light intensity, and try to link it to a possible functional role for magnetic sensitivity in plants...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450111/the-binding-structure-and-affinity-of-photodamaged-duplex-dna-with-members-of-the-photolyase-cryptochrome-family-a-computational-study
#15
Ryuma Sato, Ryuhei Harada, Yasuteru Shigeta
Photolyases (PHRs) and cryptochromes (CRYs) belong to the same family known as blue-light photoreceptors. Although their amino acid sequences and corresponding structures are similar to each other, they exert different functions. PHRs function as an enzyme to repair UV-induced deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) lesions such as a cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD) and a (6-4) photoproduct ((6-4)pp), whereas CRYs are a circadian photoreceptor in plants and animals and at the same time they control the photoperiodic induction of flowering in plants...
2018: Biophysics and Physicobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29411926/cry1-deficiency-leads-to-testicular-dysfunction-and-altered-expression-of-genes-involved-in-cell-communication-chromatin-reorganization-spermatogenesis-and-immune-response-in-mouse-testis
#16
Chong Li, Shiwei Xiao, Jie Hao, Xiaogang Liao, Gang Li
Cryptochrome (Cry)1 is essential for generating circadian rhythm in central and many peripheral oscillators; however, its role in male reproduction remains unclear. We investigated this question using Cry1 knockout (KO) mice. We found that Cry1 is necessary for normal testicular function: Cry1 deficiency increased testicular germ cell apoptosis and decreased sperm count. A transcriptome analysis showed that the expression levels of 375 genes-including 12 encoding micro (mi)RNAs-were altered in the testis of Cry1 KO mice relative to wild-type controls...
February 7, 2018: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29377895/the-non-classical-nuclear-import-carrier-transportin-1-modulates-circadian-rhythms-through-its-effect-on-per1-nuclear-localization
#17
Sandra Korge, Bert Maier, Franziska Brüning, Lea Ehrhardt, Thomas Korte, Matthias Mann, Andreas Herrmann, Maria S Robles, Achim Kramer
Circadian clocks are molecular timekeeping mechanisms that allow organisms to anticipate daily changes in their environment. The fundamental cellular basis of these clocks is delayed negative feedback gene regulation with PERIOD and CRYPTOCHROME containing protein complexes as main inhibitory elements. For a correct circadian period, it is essential that such clock protein complexes accumulate in the nucleus in a precisely timed manner, a mechanism that is poorly understood. We performed a systematic RNAi-mediated screen in human cells and identified 15 genes associated with the nucleo-cytoplasmic translocation machinery, whose expression is important for circadian clock dynamics...
January 2018: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353016/pyrosequencing-analysis-of-methylation-levels-of-clock-genes-in-leukocytes-from-parkinson-s-disease-patients
#18
Wei Mao, Chunsong Zhao, Hui Ding, Kuo Liang, Jinhua Xue, Piu Chan, Yanning Cai
DNA methylation of neuronal PAS domain protein 2 (NPAS2) and cryptochrome circadian clock 1 (CRY1) promoters may be associated with Parkinson's disease (PD). However, there is no simple and cost-effective method to quantify DNA methylation in these regions. Additionally, it is not clear whether DNA methylation of NPAS2 and CRY1 promoters is altered in peripheral blood of PD patients, especially newly diagnosed drug-naïve PD patients, and thus can be used as a PD biomarker. In the present study, we utilized bisulfite pyrosequencing assays to examine DNA methylation levels of six CpG sites in the NPAS2 promoter and five CpG sites in the CRY1 promoter...
March 6, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330504/unique-roles-of-%C3%AE-arrestin-in-gpcr-trafficking-revealed-by-photoinducible-dimerizers
#19
Osamu Takenouchi, Hideaki Yoshimura, Takeaki Ozawa
Intracellular trafficking of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) controls their localization and degradation, which affects a cell's ability to adapt to extracellular stimuli. Although the perturbation of trafficking induces important diseases, these trafficking mechanisms are poorly understood. Herein, we demonstrate an optogenetic method using an optical dimerizer, cryptochrome (CRY) and its partner protein (CIB), to analyze the trafficking mechanisms of GPCRs and their regulatory proteins. Temporally controlling the interaction between β-arrestin and β2-adrenergic receptor (ADRB2) reveals that the duration of the β-arrestin-ADRB2 interaction determines the trafficking pathway of ADRB2...
January 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29261746/piriformospora-indica-promotes-early-flowering-in-arabidopsis-through-regulation-of-the-photoperiod-and-gibberellin-pathways
#20
Rui Pan, Le Xu, Qiao Wei, Chu Wu, Wenlin Tang, Ralf Oelmüller, Wenying Zhang
Flowering in plants is synchronized by both environmental cues and internal regulatory factors. Previous studies have shown that the endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica promotes the growth and early flowering in Coleus forskohlii (a medicinal plant) and Arabidopsis. To further dissect the impact of P. indica on pathways responsible for flowering time in Arabidopsis, we co-cultivated Arabidopsis with P. indica and used RT-qPCR to analyze the main gene regulation networks involved in flowering. Our results revealed that the symbiotic interaction of Arabidopsis with P...
2017: PloS One
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