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metabolic memory

V S Kokhan, M I Matveeva, A S Bazyan, V S Kudrin, A Mukhametov, A S Shtemberg
Space flight factors (SFF) significantly affect the operating activity of astronauts during deep space missions. In contrast to an orbital flight, leaving the Earth's magnetic field is fraught with the dangers of exposure to ionizing radiation and more specifically, the high-energy nuclei component of galactic cosmic rays. Microgravity, just another critical non-radiation factor, significantly affects the normal functioning of the CNS. Some morphological structures of the brain, such as the prefrontal cortex and the hippocampus, that are rich in monoaminergic and acetylcholinergic neurones, are the most sensitive to the effects of ionizing radiation and non-radiation spaceflight factors (SFF)...
October 21, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
Yi Xing, Yi Tang, Lina Zhao, Qi Wang, Wei Qin, Xiaojuan Ji, Jinlan Zhang, Jianping Jia
BACKGROUND: The abnormal metabolism of ceramides may account for the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD). However, the effect of ceramides on cognitive domain impairments and neuropsychiatric symptoms of PDD remains unknown. METHODS: A total of 38 PDD, 40 PD with no cognitive impairment (PD-NC) and 40 normal controls were included. A series of cognitive tests and the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) were used to assess cognitive domains and neuropsychiatric symptoms...
November 15, 2016: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
Y H Cho, M E Craig, A S Januszewski, P Benitez-Aguirre, S Hing, A J Jenkins, K C Donaghue
AIM: To test the hypothesis that non-invasive skin autofluorescence, a measure of advanced glycation end products, would provide a surrogate measure of long-term glycaemia and be associated with early markers of microvascular complications in adolescents with Type 1 diabetes. METHODS: Forearm skin autofluorescence (arbitrary units) was measured in a cross-sectional study of 135 adolescents with Type 1 diabetes [mean ± sd age 15.6 ± 2.1 years, diabetes duration 8...
October 22, 2016: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
Xi Chen, Heng Qiu, Chao Wang, Yu Yuan, Jennifer Tickner, Jiake Xu, Jun Zou
Choline, a hydrophilic cation, has versatile physiological roles throughout the body, including cholinergic neurotransmission, memory consolidation and membrane biosynthesis and metabolism. Choline kinases possess enzyme activity that catalyses the conversion of choline to phosphocholine, which is further converted to cytidine diphosphate-coline (CDP-choline) in the biosynthesis of phosphatidylcholine (PC). PC is a major constituent of the phospholipid bilayer which constitutes the eukaryotic cell membrane, and regulates cell signal transduction...
October 8, 2016: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
Terry C Lairmore
BACKGROUND: The last 200 years have seen remarkable achievements in the art and clinical practice of surgery. These advances include the introduction of antisepsis, anesthesia, vascular anastomosis, antimicrobials, organ transplantation, and the widespread application of minimally invasive operative procedures. Very recently, a surgical procedure has been shown to cure diabetes, representing the most effective treatment of a metabolic disorder by surgeons. METHODS: The author reviewed the major surgical milestones in the modern surgical era and prepared this monograph for presentation as the Claude H...
September 30, 2016: American Journal of Surgery
Víctor Resco de Dios, Arthur Gessler, Juan Pedro Ferrio, Josu G Alday, Michael Bahn, Jorge Del Castillo, Sébastien Devidal, Sonia García-Muñoz, Zachary Kayler, Damien Landais, Paula Martín-Gómez, Alexandru Milcu, Clément Piel, Karin Pirhofer-Walzl, Olivier Ravel, Serajis Salekin, David T Tissue, Mark G Tjoelker, Jordi Voltas, Jacques Roy
BACKGROUND: Molecular clocks drive oscillations in leaf photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, and other cell and leaf-level processes over ~24 h under controlled laboratory conditions. The influence of such circadian regulation over whole-canopy fluxes remains uncertain; diurnal CO2 and H2O vapor flux dynamics in the field are currently interpreted as resulting almost exclusively from direct physiological responses to variations in light, temperature and other environmental factors. We tested whether circadian regulation would affect plant and canopy gas exchange at the Montpellier European Ecotron...
October 20, 2016: GigaScience
Xue-Yuan Li, Wei-Wei Men, Hua Zhu, Jian-Feng Lei, Fu-Xing Zuo, Zhan-Jing Wang, Zhao-Hui Zhu, Xin-Jie Bao, Ren-Zhi Wang
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a leading cause of dementia worldwide, associated with cognitive deficits and brain glucose metabolic alteration. However, the associations of glucose metabolic changes with cognitive dysfunction are less detailed. Here, we examined the brains of APP/presenilin 1 (PS1) transgenic (Tg) mice aged 2, 3.5, 5 and 8 months using (18)F-labed fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) microPET to assess age- and brain region-specific changes of glucose metabolism. FDG uptake was calculated as a relative standardized uptake value (SUVr)...
October 18, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Mariana Moreira Coutinho Arroja, Emma Reid, Christopher McCabe
The renin angiotensin system (RAS) consists of the systemic hormone system, critically involved in regulation and homeostasis of normal physiological functions [i.e. blood pressure (BP), blood volume regulation], and an independent brain RAS, which is involved in the regulation of many functions such as memory, central control of BP and metabolic functions. In general terms, the RAS consists of two opposing axes; the 'classical axis' mediated primarily by Angiotensin II (Ang II), and the 'alternative axis' mediated mainly by Angiotensin-(1-7) (Ang-(1-7))...
2016: Experimental & Translational Stroke Medicine
Roger Geiger, Jan C Rieckmann, Tobias Wolf, Camilla Basso, Yuehan Feng, Tobias Fuhrer, Maria Kogadeeva, Paola Picotti, Felix Meissner, Matthias Mann, Nicola Zamboni, Federica Sallusto, Antonio Lanzavecchia
Metabolic activity is intimately linked to T cell fate and function. Using high-resolution mass spectrometry, we generated dynamic metabolome and proteome profiles of human primary naive T cells following activation. We discovered critical changes in the arginine metabolism that led to a drop in intracellular L-arginine concentration. Elevating L-arginine levels induced global metabolic changes including a shift from glycolysis to oxidative phosphorylation in activated T cells and promoted the generation of central memory-like cells endowed with higher survival capacity and, in a mouse model, anti-tumor activity...
October 20, 2016: Cell
Fan Wang, Fei Liu, Haifang Liu
Neurotoxicity in Kunming mice caused by Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Particulate matter (PM) as individual matter and mixtures was studied in this paper. Male Kunming mice were instilled intratracheally with PM at doses of 0.2mg/mouse and S. aureus at doses of 5.08×10(6) CFU/mouse as individual matter and mixtures two times at 5-day intervals. Morris water maze (MWM) test was performed during the exposure experiment. One day following the exposure experiment, the expression of neurotrophins, neurotransmitters, cholinergic system enzymes, oxidative damage levels, and pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β) in the brain of mice were determined...
August 30, 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
A Minami, H Matsushita, D Ieno, Y Matsuda, Y Horii, A Ishii, T Takahashi, H Kanazawa, A Wakatsuki, T Suzuki
OBJECTIVE: Royal jelly (RJ) from honeybees (Apis mellifera) has estrogenic activity. Estrogen deficiency after menopause leads to a high risk of memory impairment and depression as well as metabolic syndrome and osteoporosis. We here investigated the effect of RJ on memory impairment and depression-like behaviors in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. METHODS: OVX rats were administered with RJ for 82 days. Hippocampus-dependent spatial memory and depression-like behaviors were assessed by the Morris water maze test and the forced swimming test, respectively...
October 13, 2016: Climacteric: the Journal of the International Menopause Society
Siroon Bekkering, Bastiaan A Blok, Leo A B Joosten, Niels P Riksen, Reinout van Crevel, Mihai G Netea
BACKGROUND: Innate immune memory or 'trained immunity' has recently been described as an important property of cells of the innate immune system. Due to the increased interest in this important new field of immunological investigation we sought to determine the optimal conditions for an in-vitro experimental protocol of monocyte training using three of the most commonly used training stimuli from the literature: β-glucan, the Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine, and oxidized LDL (oxLDL)...
October 12, 2016: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
Mirjam A Lips, Jan Bert van Klinken, Hanno Pijl, Ignace Janssen, Ko Willems van Dijk, Frits Koning, Vanessa van Harmelen
INTRODUCTION: Weight loss interventions such as Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and very low calorie diets (VLCD) lead to improvement of glucose metabolism in obese individuals with type-2 diabetes. Weight loss can also positively influence the unfavorable inflammatory profile associated with obesity. However, a direct comparison of the effect of VLCD and RYGB on systemic inflammation is lacking. METHODS: Systemic inflammation was investigated in age- and BMI-matched morbidly obese T2DM women by determining the number and activation- or memory status of peripheral blood leukocytes by flow cytometry, in addition to measuring circulating levels of cytokines and CRP...
November 2016: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
Freddy J Alfaro, Vasileios-Arsenios Lioutas, Daniela A Pimentel, Chen-Chih Chung, Francisco Bedoya, Woo-Kyoung Yoo, Vera Novak
Subjects with metabolic syndrome (MetS) often show worse cognitive performance compared with the healthy population. We investigated whether microstructural white matter abnormalities are associated with cognitive performance in adults with MetS using diffusion tensor MR imaging. A total of 32 subjects with MetS (age 64.8 ± 7.8, 56.25 % female) and 23 age-, gender-, and education-matched healthy controls completed a battery of neuropsychological tests and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) at 3-T MRI. Brain global and regional volumes, white matter fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), radial diffusivity (RD), and axial diffusivity (LD) were calculated...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Neurology
Elissa C McIntosh, Aaron Jacobson, Nobuko Kemmotsu, Ekarin Pongpipat, Erin Green, Lori Haase, Claire Murphy
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of cardiovascular and metabolic abnormalities that together may increase the risk of developing cognitive decline and dementia; however, the neural substrate is incompletely understood. We investigated cortical thickness in the medial temporal lobe (MTL), hippocampal volume, as well as relationships among metabolic risk factor burden, structure and memory performance. Path-analytic models were tested to explore the relations between MetS risk factor, structure and memory performance...
October 4, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
Hesbon Z Amenya, Chiharu Tohyama, Seiichiroh Ohsako
The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (Ahr) is a highly conserved nuclear receptor that plays an important role in the manifestation of toxicity induced by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. As a xenobiotic sensor, Ahr is involved in chemical biotransformation through activation of drug metabolizing enzymes. The activated Ahr cooperates with coactivator complexes to induce epigenetic modifications at target genes. Thus, it is conceivable that 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), a potent Ahr ligand, may elicit robust epigenetic changes in vivo at the Ahr target gene cytochrome P450 1a1 (Cyp1a1)...
October 7, 2016: Scientific Reports
Erin E Sundermann, Pauline M Maki, Leah H Rubin, Richard B Lipton, Susan Landau, Anat Biegon
OBJECTIVE: We investigated sex differences in verbal memory across different levels of neural dysfunction, measured by temporal lobe glucose metabolic rates (TLGluMR). METHODS: Three hundred ninety controls and 672 participants with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and 254 with Alzheimer disease (AD) dementia from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative completed the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) and [(18)F]-fluorodeoxyglucose-PET. Cross-sectional analyses were conducted using linear regression to examine the sex by TLGluMR interaction on RAVLT performance in the overall sample and within diagnostic groups adjusting for age, education, and APOE ε4 genotype...
October 5, 2016: Neurology
Laura Rich, Angus M Brown
The historically neurocentric view of astrocytes as Styrofoam cushioning that rigidly clad neurons within the brain parenchyma has been superseded in the past 30 years by an increasing appreciation of the myriad roles astrocytes contribute to supporting physiological brain function. It is widely recognized that the continuous support provided by astrocytes, from prenatal development to maturity, is vital for neuronal function. Indeed, the numerous and diverse roles furnished by astrocytes contrasts with the vital but restricted transmission of action potentials that is the neuron's primary role...
October 5, 2016: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
Cara C Schafer, Yong Wang, Kenneth P Hough, Anandi Sawant, Stefan C Grant, Victor J Thannickal, Jaroslaw Zmijewski, Selvarangan Ponnazhagan, Jessy S Deshane
Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) has been implicated in immune evasion by tumors. Upregulation of this tryptophan (Trp)-catabolizing enzyme, in tumor cells and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) within the tumor microenvironment (TME), leads to Trp depletion that impairs cytotoxic T cell responses and survival; however, exact mechanisms remain incompletely understood. We previously reported that a combination therapy of gemcitabine and a superoxide dismutase mimetic promotes anti-tumor immunity in a mouse model of lung cancer by inhibiting MDSCs, enhancing polyfunctional response of CD8+ memory T cells, and extending survival...
September 26, 2016: Oncotarget
Mariana Gomez-Smith, Sudhir Karthikeyan, Matthew S Jeffers, Rafal Janik, Lynsie A Thomason, Bojana Stefanovic, Dale Corbett
Many promising findings from pre-clinical research have failed to translate to the clinic due to their inability to incorporate human disease co-morbidity. A variety of rodent diets and feeding durations are currently used in models of human metabolic syndrome, obesity and diabetes. One model, the Cafeteria (CAF) diet, makes use of grocery store-purchased food items that more closely approximate the human ultra-processed diet than commercial high-fat or high-sugar rodent diets. The present study describes the development of metabolic syndrome in rats fed a CAF diet as well as the recovery of metabolic syndrome following a healthy "lifestyle" change...
October 2, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
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