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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211103/impaired-learning-and-memory-in-rats-induced-by-a-high-fat-diet-involvement-with-the-imbalance-of-nesfatin-1-abundance-and-copine-6-expression
#1
Zheng Chen, Ya-Yun Xu, Rui Wu, Yin-Xiu Han, Yue Yu, Jin-Fang Ge, Fei-Hu Chen
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease, resulting not only in liver dysfunction, glucose and lipid metabolism disorder, but also in neuropsychiatric damage. In the present study, a NAFLD rat model was established via feeding of a high-fat diet, and the behavior was observed via the open field test (OFT), the sucrose preference test (SPT), the elevated plus maze (EPM), the forced swimming test (FST), and the Morris water maze (MWM). The plasma concentrations of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), glucose, free fatty acid (FFA), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were detected using chemiluminescence technique...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209604/birth-size-risk-factors-across-life-and-cognition-in-late-life-protocol-of-prospective-longitudinal-follow-up-of-the-mynah-mysore-studies-of-natal-effects-on-ageing-and-health-cohort
#2
Murali Krishna, G Mohan Kumar, S R Veena, G V Krishnaveni, Kalyanaraman Kumaran, Samuel Christaprasad Karat, Patsy Coakley, Clive Osmond, John R M Copeland, Giriraj Chandak, Dattatray Bhat, Mathew Varghese, Martin Prince, Caroline Fall
INTRODUCTION: For late-life neurocognitive disorders, as for other late-life chronic diseases, much recent interest has focused on the possible relevance of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD). Programming by undernutrition in utero, followed by overnutrition in adult life may lead to an increased risk, possibly mediated through cardiovascular and metabolic pathways. This study will specifically examine, if lower birth weight is associated with poorer cognitive functioning in late life in a south Indian population...
February 16, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209135/marv-a-tool-for-genome-wide-multi-phenotype-analysis-of-rare-variants
#3
Marika Kaakinen, Reedik Mägi, Krista Fischer, Jani Heikkinen, Marjo-Riitta Järvelin, Andrew P Morris, Inga Prokopenko
BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association studies have enabled identification of thousands of loci for hundreds of traits. Yet, for most human traits a substantial part of the estimated heritability is unexplained. This and recent advances in technology to produce high-dimensional data cost-effectively have led to method development beyond standard common variant analysis, including single-phenotype rare variant and multi-phenotype common variant analysis, with the latter increasing power for locus discovery and providing suggestions of pleiotropic effects...
February 16, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199832/age-related-changes-in-insulin-like-signaling-lead-to-intermediate-term-memory-impairment-in-drosophila
#4
Kento Tanabe, Motoyuki Itoh, Ayako Tonoki
Insulin and insulin-growth-factor-like signaling (IIS) plays important roles in the regulation of development, growth, metabolic homeostasis, and aging, as well as in brain functions such as learning and memory. The temporal-spatial role of IIS in learning and memory and its effect on age-dependent memory impairment remain unclear. Here, we report that intermediate-term memory (ITM), but not short-term memory (STM), in Drosophila aversive olfactory memory requires transient IIS during adulthood. The expression of Drosophila insulin-like peptide 3 (Dilp3) in insulin-producing cells and insulin receptor function in the fat body are essential for ITM...
February 14, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198817/dynamic-properties-of-calcium-activated-chloride-currents-in-xenopus-laevis-oocytes
#5
Ildefonso M De la Fuente, Iker Malaina, Alberto Pérez-Samartín, María Dolores Boyano, Gorka Pérez-Yarza, Carlos Bringas, Álvaro Villarroel, María Fedetz, Rogelio Arellano, Jesus M Cortes, Luis Martínez
Chloride is the most abundant permeable anion in the cell, and numerous studies in the last two decades highlight the great importance and broad physiological role of chloride currents mediated anion transport. They participate in a multiplicity of key processes, as for instance, the regulation of electrical excitability, apoptosis, cell cycle, epithelial secretion and neuronal excitability. In addition, dysfunction of Cl(-) channels is involved in a variety of human diseases such as epilepsy, osteoporosis and different cancer types...
February 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195577/hippocampus-glutamate-and-n-acetyl-aspartate-markers-of-excitotoxic-neuronal-compromise-in-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#6
Isabelle M Rosso, David J Crowley, Marisa M Silveri, Scott L Rauch, J Eric Jensen
Hippocampus atrophy is implicated in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and may partly reflect stress-induced glutamate excitotoxicity that culminates in neuron injury and manifests as re-experiencing symptoms and other memory abnormalities. This study used high-field proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) to determine whether PTSD is associated with lower hippocampus levels of the neuron marker N-acetyl aspartate (NAA), along with higher levels of glutamate (Glu) and Glu/NAA. We also predicted that metabolite levels would correlate with re-experiencing symptoms and lifetime trauma load...
February 13, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195555/blood-brain-barrier-supported-neurogenesis-in-healthy-and-diseased-brain
#7
Elena A Pozhilenkova, Olga L Lopatina, Yulia K Komleva, Vladimir V Salmin, Alla B Salmina
Adult neurogenesis is one of the most important mechanisms contributing to brain development, learning, and memory. Alterations in neurogenesis underlie a wide spectrum of brain diseases. Neurogenesis takes place in highly specialized neurogenic niches. The concept of neurogenic niches is becoming widely accepted due to growing evidence of the important role of the microenvironment established in the close vicinity to stem cells in order to provide adequate control of cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis...
February 14, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192878/neuroprotective-effects-of-pretreatment-with-quercetin-as-assessed-by-acetylcholinesterase-assay-and-behavioral-testing-in-poloxamer-407-induced-hyperlipidemic-rats
#8
Josiane B S Braun, Jader B Ruchel, Stephen A Adefegha, Ana Paula V Coelho, Kelly B Trelles, Cristiane Signor, Maribel A Rubin, Juliana S Oliveira, Guilherme L Dornelles, Cinthia M de Andrade, Lívia G Castilhos, Daniela B R Leal
Hyperlipidemia is a group of disorders characterized by excessive lipids in the bloodstream. It is associated with the incidence of cardiovascular diseases and recognized as the most important factor underlying the occurrence of atherosclerosis. This study was conducted to investigate whether pretreatment with quercetin can protect against possible memory impairment and deterioration of the cholinergic system in hyperlipidemic rats. Animals were divided into ten groups (n=7): saline/control, saline/quercetin 5mg/kg, saline/quercetin 25mg/kg, saline/quercetin 50mg/kg, saline/simvastatin (0...
February 7, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190771/obesity-induced-metabolic-stress-leads-to-biased-effector-memory-cd4-t-cell-differentiation-via-pi3k-p110%C3%AE-akt-mediated-signals
#9
Claudio Mauro, Joanne Smith, Danilo Cucchi, David Coe, Hongmei Fu, Fabrizia Bonacina, Andrea Baragetti, Gaia Cermenati, Donatella Caruso, Nico Mitro, Alberico L Catapano, Enrico Ammirati, Maria P Longhi, Klaus Okkenhaug, Giuseppe D Norata, Federica M Marelli-Berg
Low-grade systemic inflammation associated to obesity leads to cardiovascular complications, caused partly by infiltration of adipose and vascular tissue by effector T cells. The signals leading to T cell differentiation and tissue infiltration during obesity are poorly understood. We tested whether saturated fatty acid-induced metabolic stress affects differentiation and trafficking patterns of CD4(+) T cells. Memory CD4(+) T cells primed in high-fat diet-fed donors preferentially migrated to non-lymphoid, inflammatory sites, independent of the metabolic status of the hosts...
January 30, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188306/left-frontal-cortex-connectivity-underlies-cognitive-reserve-in-prodromal-alzheimer-disease
#10
Nicolai Franzmeier, Marco Duering, Michael Weiner, Martin Dichgans, Michael Ewers
OBJECTIVE: To test whether higher global functional connectivity of the left frontal cortex (LFC) in Alzheimer disease (AD) is associated with more years of education (a proxy of cognitive reserve [CR]) and mitigates the association between AD-related fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-PET hypometabolism and episodic memory. METHODS: Forty-four amyloid-PET-positive patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI-Aβ+) and 24 amyloid-PET-negative healthy controls (HC) were included...
February 10, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183874/novel-insights-into-dna-methylation-and-its-critical-implications-in-diabetic-vascular-complications
#11
Jia Zheng, Jing Cheng, Qian Zhang, Xinhua Xiao
Recent epidemiological and clinical studies have shown that type 2 diabetic patients can develop diabetic vascular complications even after intensive glycemic control. It has been suggested that this phenomenon could be explained by the hypothesis of "metabolic memory". The underlying mechanisms between these enduring effects and the prior hyperglycemic state are still not well understood. Preliminary studies demonstrate that hyperglycemia can regulate gene expression by epigenetic modifications, such as DNA methylation, which can persistently exist even after glucose normalization...
February 9, 2017: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181190/distribution-of-alox15-in-the-rat-brain-and-its-role-in-prefrontal-cortical-resolvin-d1-formation-and-spatial-working-memory
#12
Suku-Maran Shalini, Christabel Fung-Yih Ho, Yee-Kong Ng, Jie-Xin Tong, Eng-Shi Ong, Deron R Herr, Gavin S Dawe, Wei-Yi Ong
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is enriched in membrane phospholipids of the central nervous system (CNS) and has a role in aging and neuropsychiatric disorders. DHA is metabolized by the enzyme Alox15 to 17S-hydroxy-DHA, which is then converted to 7S-hydroperoxy,17S-hydroxy-DHA by a 5-lipoxygenase, and thence via epoxy intermediates to the anti-inflammatory molecule, resolvin D1 (RvD1 or 7S,8R,17S-trihydroxy-docosa-Z,9E,11E,13Z,15E,19Z-hexaenoic acid). In this study, we investigated the distribution and function of Alox15 in the CNS...
February 8, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28180075/independent-value-added-by-diffusion-mri-for-prediction-of-cognitive-function-in-older-adults
#13
Julia A Scott, Duygu Tosun, Meredith N Braskie, Pauline Maillard, Paul M Thompson, Michael Weiner, Charles DeCarli, Owen T Carmichael
The purpose of this study was to determine whether white matter microstructure measured by diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) provides independent information about baseline level or change in executive function (EF) or memory (MEM) in older adults with and without cognitive impairment. Longitudinal data was acquired from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) study from phases GO and 2 (2009-2015). ADNI participants included were diagnosed as cognitively normal (n = 46), early mild cognitive impairment (MCI) (n = 48), late MCI (n = 29), and dementia (n = 39) at baseline...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178319/interpretation-of-metabolic-memory-phenomenon-using-a-physiological-systems-model-what-drives-oxidative-stress-following-glucose-normalization
#14
Veronika Voronova, Kirill Zhudenkov, Gabriel Helmlinger, Kirill Peskov
Hyperglycemia is generally associated with oxidative stress, which plays a key role in diabetes-related complications. A complex, quantitative relationship has been established between glucose levels and oxidative stress, both in vitro and in vivo. For example, oxidative stress is known to persist after glucose normalization, a phenomenon described as metabolic memory. Also, uncontrolled glucose levels appear to be more detrimental to patients with diabetes (non-constant glucose levels) vs. patients with high, constant glucose levels...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174611/pterostilbene-ameliorates-intracerebroventricular-streptozotocin-induced-memory-decline-in-rats
#15
Bhagyashree Naik, Abhijit Nirwane, Anuradha Majumdar
There is strong evidence that mitochondrial dysfunction mediated oxidative stress results in aging and energy metabolism deficits thus playing a prime role in pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease, neuronal death and cognitive dysfunction. Evidences accrued in empirical studies suggest the antioxidant, anticancer and anti-inflammatory activities of the phytochemical pterostilbene (PTS). PTS also exhibits favourable pharmacokinetic attributes compared to other stilbenes. Hence, in the present study, we explored the neuroprotective role of PTS in ameliorating the intracerebroventricular administered streptozotocin (STZ) induced memory decline in rats...
February 2017: Cognitive Neurodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174535/emergency-spatiotemporal-shift-the-response-of-protein-kinase-d-to-stress-signals-in-the-cardiovascular-system
#16
REVIEW
Brent M Wood, Julie Bossuyt
Protein Kinase D isoforms (PKD 1-3) are key mediators of neurohormonal, oxidative, and metabolic stress signals. PKDs impact a wide variety of signaling pathways and cellular functions including actin dynamics, vesicle trafficking, cell motility, survival, contractility, energy substrate utilization, and gene transcription. PKD activity is also increasingly linked to cancer, immune regulation, pain modulation, memory, angiogenesis, and cardiovascular disease. This increasing complexity and diversity of PKD function, highlights the importance of tight spatiotemporal control of the kinase via protein-protein interactions, post-translational modifications or targeting via scaffolding proteins...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174534/behavioral-changes-and-hippocampus-glucose-metabolism-in-app-ps1-transgenic-mice-via-electro-acupuncture-at-governor-vessel-acupoints
#17
Jin Cao, Yinshan Tang, Yujie Li, Kai Gao, Xudong Shi, Zhigang Li
Objective: Investigating the effects of electro-acupuncture (EA) treatment on mice with Alzheimer's disease (AD), using Morris water maze (MWM) for spatial learning and memory behavior tests combined with micro-positron emission tomography (micro-PET) imaging for glucose metabolism in hippocampus. Methods: Thirty seven-month-old APP/PS1 mice were randomly divided into AD Model group (AD group), medicine group (M group) and EA group, C57BL/6 mice were used for Normal control group (N group), n = 10 in each group...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169463/relationship-between-epigenetic-regulation-dietary-habits-and-the-developmental-origins-of-health-and-disease-theory
#18
REVIEW
Kazuki Mochizuki, Natsuyo Hariya, Kazue Honma, Toshinao Goda
Environmental stressors during developmental stages are hypothesized to increase the risk of developing metabolic diseases such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and psychiatric diseases during later life. This theory is known as the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD). Recent studies suggest that accumulation of environmental stress, including during developmental stages, is internalized as acquired information designated as "epigenetic memory." This epigenetic memory is generally indicated as DNA methylation and histone modifications in the chromatin...
February 7, 2017: Congenital Anomalies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167496/a-maternal-western-diet-during-gestation-and-lactation-modifies-offspring-s-microbiota-activity-blood-lipid-levels-cognitive-responses-and-hippocampal-neurogenesis-in-yucatan-pigs
#19
David Val-Laillet, Marie Besson, Sylvie Guérin, Nicolas Coquery, Gwénaëlle Randuineau, Ameni Kanzari, Hélène Quesnel, Nathalie Bonhomme, J Elizabeth Bolhuis, Bas Kemp, Sophie Blat, Isabelle Le Huërou-Luron, Caroline Clouard
A suboptimal early nutritional environment (i.e., excess of energy, sugar, and fat intake) can increase susceptibility to diseases and neurocognitive disorders. The purpose of this study was to investigate in nonobese Yucatan minipigs (Sus scrofa) the impact of maternal diet [standard (SD) vs. Western (WD) diet] during gestation and 25 d of lactation on milk composition, blood metabolism, and microbiota activity of sows (n = 17) and their piglets (n = 65), and on spatial cognition (n = 51), hippocampal plasticity (n = 17), and food preferences/motivation (n = 51) in the progeny...
February 6, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163681/app-deletion-accounts-for-age-dependent-changes-in-the-bioenergetic-metabolism-and-in-hyperphosphorylated-camkii-at-stimulated-hippocampal-presynaptic-active-zones
#20
Melanie Laßek, Jens Weingarten, Martin Wegner, Moritz Neupärtl, Tabiwang N Array, Eva Harde, Benedikt Beckert, Vahid Golghalyani, Jörg Ackermann, Ina Koch, Ulrike C Müller, Michael Karas, Amparo Acker-Palmer, Walter Volknandt
Synaptic release sites are characterized by exocytosis-competent synaptic vesicles tightly anchored to the presynaptic active zone (PAZ) whose proteome orchestrates the fast signaling events involved in synaptic vesicle cycle and plasticity. Allocation of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) to the PAZ proteome implicated a functional impact of APP in neuronal communication. In this study, we combined state-of-the-art proteomics, electrophysiology and bioinformatics to address protein abundance and functional changes at the native hippocampal PAZ in young and old APP-KO mice...
2017: Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience
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