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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106548/does-the-female-advantage-in-verbal-memory-contribute-to-underestimating-alzheimer-s-disease-pathology-in-women-versus-men
#1
Erin E Sundermann, Anat Biegon, Leah H Rubin, Richard B Lipton, Susan Landau, Pauline M Maki
There is a growing recognition of sex differences in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Females show an advantage over males on tests of verbal memory, which are used to diagnose AD and its precursor, amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). Women retain this advantage in aMCI despite reduced hippocampal volume and temporal lobe glucose metabolism. Here we examined whether this female advantage endures despite evidence of AD-specific pathology, cortical amyloid-β (Aβ) deposition measured with [18F]AV45 (florbetapir) positron emission tomography...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102888/genetic-polymorphisms-in-estrogen-metabolic-pathway-associated-with-risks-of-alzheimer-s-disease-evidence-from-a-southern-chinese-population
#2
Lu Hua Chen, Yan Hui Fan, Patrick Yu Ping Kao, Deborah Tip Yin Ho, Joyce Cheuk Tung Ha, Leung Wing Chu, You-Qiang Song
OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether genetic variations on the estrogen metabolic pathway would be associated with risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD). DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Individuals were recruited at the Memory Clinic, Queen Mary Hospital, Hong Kong. PARTICIPANTS: Chinese individuals with (n = 426) and without (n = 350) AD. MEASUREMENTS: All subjects underwent a standardized cognitive assessment and genotyping of four candidate genes on the estrogen metabolic pathway (estrogen receptor α gene (ESR1), estrogen receptor β gene (ESR2), cytochrome P450 19A1 gene (CYP19A1), cytochrome P450 11A1 gene (CYP11A1))...
January 19, 2017: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102395/sesamol-ameliorates-high-fat-and-high-fructose-induced-cognitive-defects-via-improving-insulin-signaling-disruption-in-the-central-nervous-system
#3
Zhigang Liu, Yali Sun, Qinglian Qiao, Tong Zhao, Wentong Zhang, Bo Ren, Qian Liu, Xuebo Liu
Sesamol, a nutritional component from sesame, possesses antioxidant, lipid lowering and antidepressant activities. Nonetheless, few studies report its effects on high-energy-dense diet-induced cognitive loss. The present research aimed to elucidate the action of sesamol on high-fat and high-fructose (HFFD) "western"-diet-induced central nervous system insulin resistance and learning and memory impairment, and further determined the possible underlying mechanism. 3 month-old C57BL/6J mice were divided into 3 groups with/without sesamol in the drinking water (0...
January 19, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100076/precuneus-structure-changes-in-amnestic-mild-cognitive-impairment
#4
Robert Haussmann, Annett Werner, Antonia Gruschwitz, Antje Osterrath, Jan Lange, Katharina L Donix, Jennifer Linn, Markus Donix
Patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) are at risk for developing Alzheimer's disease. Due to their prominent memory impairment, structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) often focuses on the hippocampal region. However, recent positron-emission tomography data suggest that within a network of frontal and temporal changes, patients with aMCI show metabolic alterations in the precuneus, a key region for higher cognitive functions. Using high-resolution MRI and whole-brain cortical thickness analyses in 28 patients with aMCI and 25 healthy individuals, we wanted to investigate whether structural changes in the precuneus would be associated with cortical thickness reductions in frontal and temporal brain regions in patients with aMCI...
February 2017: American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099989/effects-of-a-dietary-ketone-ester-on-hippocampal-glycolytic-and-tca-cycle-intermediates-and-amino-acids-in-a-3xtgad-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#5
Robert J Pawlosky, Martin F Kemper, Yoshihero Kashiwaya, M Todd King, Mark P Mattson, Richard L Veech
In patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and in a triple transgenic (3xTgAD) mouse model of AD low glucose metabolism in the brain precedes loss of memory and cognitive decline. The metabolism of ketones in the brain by-passes glycolysis and therefore may correct several deficiencies that are associated with glucose hypometabolism. A dietary supplement composed of an ester of D-β-hydroxybutyrate and R-1,3 butane diol referred to as ketone ester (KE) was incorporated into a rodent diet and fed to 3xTgAD mice for 8 months...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099477/chronic-maternal-low-protein-diet-in-mice-affects-anxiety-night-time-energy-expenditure-and-sleep-patterns-but-not-circadian-rhythm-in-male-offspring
#6
Randy F Crossland, Alfred Balasa, Rajesh Ramakrishnan, Sangeetha K Mahadevan, Marta L Fiorotto, Ignatia B Van den Veyver
Offspring of murine dams chronically fed a protein-restricted diet have an increased risk for metabolic and neurobehavioral disorders. Previously we showed that adult offspring, developmentally exposed to a chronic maternal low-protein (MLP) diet, had lower body and hind-leg muscle weights and decreased liver enzyme serum levels. We conducted energy expenditure, neurobehavioral and circadian rhythm assays in male offspring to examine mechanisms for the body-weight phenotype and assess neurodevelopmental implications of MLP exposure...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097824/mechanisms-of-metabolic-memory-and-renal-hypoxia-as-a-therapeutic-target-in-diabetic-kidney-disease
#7
REVIEW
Yosuke Hirakawa, Tetsuhiro Tanaka, Masaomi Nangaku
Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is a worldwide public health problem. The definition of DKD is being under discussion. Although the term DKD was originally defined as "kidney disease specific to diabetes", DKD frequently means chronic kidney disease (CKD) with diabetes mellitus and includes not only classical diabetic nephropathy, but also kidney dysfunction due to nephrosclerosis and other causes. Metabolic memory plays a crucial role in the progression of various complications of diabetes, including DKD. The mechanisms of metabolic memory in DKD are supposed to include advanced glycation end products, DNA methylation, histone modifications, and non-coding RNA including microRNA...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096348/transcriptomic-proteomic-and-metabolomic-landscape-of-positional-memory-in-the-caudal-fin-of-zebrafish
#8
Jeremy S Rabinowitz, Aaron M Robitaille, Yuliang Wang, Catherine A Ray, Ryan Thummel, Haiwei Gu, Danijel Djukovic, Daniel Raftery, Jason D Berndt, Randall T Moon
Regeneration requires cells to regulate proliferation and patterning according to their spatial position. Positional memory is a property that enables regenerating cells to recall spatial information from the uninjured tissue. Positional memory is hypothesized to rely on gradients of molecules, few of which have been identified. Here, we quantified the global abundance of transcripts, proteins, and metabolites along the proximodistal axis of caudal fins of uninjured and regenerating adult zebrafish. Using this approach, we uncovered complex overlapping expression patterns for hundreds of molecules involved in diverse cellular functions, including development, bioelectric signaling, and amino acid and lipid metabolism...
January 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093992/effects-of-thyroid-hormones-and-their-metabolites-on-learning-and-memory-in-normal-and-pathological-conditions
#9
Alice Accorroni, Grazia Chiellini, Nicola Origlia
BACKGROUND: Classical thyroid hormones have an established necessary role in the normal development of the central nervous system, and they have been recently considered as decisive factors influencing cognitive functions in adult brain and involved in the development of Alzheimer's disease. The picture summarizing thyroid hormone effects on adult brain, however, does not only include classical thyroid hormones but also the products of their peripheral metabolism. These latter have been considered as inactive breakdown products for long but recently were proved to produce significant biological effects...
January 16, 2017: Current Drug Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087280/increased-homocysteine-levels-impair-reference-memory-and-reduce-cortical-levels-of-acetylcholine-in-a-mouse-model-of-vascular-cognitive-impairment
#10
Kevin Dam, Martina Füchtemeier, Tracy D Farr, Philipp Boehm-Sturm, Marco Foddis, Ulrich Dirnagl, Olga Malysheva, Marie A Caudill, Nafisa M Jadavji
Folates are B-vitamins that are vital for normal brain function. Deficiencies in folates either genetic (methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase, MTHFR) or dietary intake of folic acid result in elevated levels of homocysteine. Clinical studies have shown that elevated levels of homocysteine (Hcy) may be associated with the development of dementia, however this link remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of increased Hcy levels on a mouse model of vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) produced by chronic hypoperfusion...
January 11, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080075/cognitive-outcomes-in-early-treated-adults-with-phenylketonuria-pku-a-comprehensive-picture-across-domains
#11
Liana Palermo, Tarekegn Geberhiwot, Anita MacDonald, Ellie Limback, S Kate Hall, Cristina Romani
OBJECTIVE: Phenylketonuria (PKU) is an inherited metabolic disease which affects cognitive functions due to an inability to metabolize phenylalanine which leads to the accumulation of toxic by-products (Phe) in the brain. PKU can be effectively treated with a low phenylalanine diet, but some cognitive deficits remain. Studies have reported impairments, especially for processing speed and executive functions, but there is a lack of comprehensive assessment across cognitive domains. Moreover, it is important to establish outcomes in early treated adults with PKU (AwPKU) who have better metabolic control than groups previously reported in the literature...
January 12, 2017: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079229/the-transcription-factor-xbp1-in-memory-and-cognition-implications-in-alzheimer-disease
#12
Moustapha Cissé, Eric Duplan, Frédéric Checler
X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1) is a unique basic region leucine zipper transcription factor isolated two decades ago in a search for regulators of major histocompatibility complex class II gene expression. XBP1 is a very complex protein regulating many physiological functions, including immune system, inflammatory responses, and lipid metabolism. Evidence over the past few years suggests that XBP1 also plays important roles in pathological settings since its activity as transcription factor has profound effects on the prognosis and progression of diseases such as cancer, neurodegeneration, and diabetes...
January 4, 2017: Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079150/sustained-kidney-biochemical-derangement-in-treated-experimental-diabetes-a-clue-to-metabolic-memory
#13
Antonio Anax F de Oliveira, Tiago F de Oliveira, Larissa L Bobadilla, Camila C M Garcia, Carolina Maria Berra, Nadja C de Souza-Pinto, Marisa H G Medeiros, Paolo Di Mascio, Roberto Zatz, Ana Paula de M Loureiro
The occurrence of biochemical alterations that last for a long period of time in diabetic individuals even after adequate handling of glycemia is an intriguing phenomenon named metabolic memory. In this study, we show that a kidney pathway is gradually altered during the course of diabetes and remains persistently changed after late glycemic control in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. This pathway comprises an early decline of uric acid clearance and pAMPK expression followed by fumarate accumulation, increased TGF-β expression, reduced PGC-1α expression, and downregulation of methylation and hydroxymethylation of mitochondrial DNA...
January 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071704/high-fat-diet-induced-changes-of-mouse-hepatic-transcription-and-enhancer-activity-can-be-reversed-by-subsequent-weight-loss
#14
Majken Siersbæk, Lyuba Varticovski, Shutong Yang, Songjoon Baek, Ronni Nielsen, Susanne Mandrup, Gordon L Hager, Jay H Chung, Lars Grøntved
Epigenetic factors have been suggested to play an important role in metabolic memory by trapping and maintaining initial metabolic changes within the transcriptional regulatory machinery. In this study we fed mice a high fat diet (HFD) for seven weeks followed by additional five weeks of chow, to identify HFD-mediated changes to the hepatic transcriptional program that may persist after weight loss. Mice fed a HFD displayed increased fasting insulin levels, hepatosteatosis and major changes in hepatic gene transcription associated with modulation of H3K27Ac at enhancers, but no significant changes in chromatin accessibility, indicating that HFD-regulated gene transcription is primarily controlled by modulating the activity of pre-established enhancers...
January 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070499/metabolic-relationship-between-diabetes-and-alzheimer-s-disease-affected-by-cyclo-his-pro-plus-zinc-treatment
#15
REVIEW
Moon K Song, David S Bischoff, Albert M Song, Koichi Uyemura, Dean T Yamaguchi
BACKGROUND: Association of Alzheimer's Disease (AD) with Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) has been well established. Cyclo(His-Pro) plus zinc (Cyclo-Z) treatment ameliorated diabetes in rats and similar improvements have been seen in human patients. Treatment of amyloid precursor protein (APP) transgenic mice with Cyclo-Z exhibited memory improvements and significantly reduced Aβ-40 and Aβ-42 protein levels in the brain tissues of the mice. SCOPE OF REVIEW: Metabolic relationship between AD and T2D will be described with particular attention to insulin sensitivity and Aβ degradation in brain and plasma tissues...
June 2017: BBA Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069796/high-dietary-folate-in-pregnant-mice-leads-to-pseudo-mthfr-deficiency-and-altered-methyl-metabolism-with-embryonic-growth-delay-and-short-term-memory-impairment-in-offspring
#16
Renata H Bahous, Nafisa M Jadavji, Liyuan Deng, Marta Cosín-Tomás, Jessica Lu, Olga Malysheva, Kit-Yi Leung, Ming-Kai Ho, Mercè Pallàs, Perla Kaliman, Nicholas DE Greene, Barry J Bedell, Marie A Caudill, Rima Rozen
Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) generates methyltetrahydrofolate for methylation reactions. Severe MTHFR deficiency results in homocystinuria and neurologic impairment. Mild MTHFR deficiency (677C>T polymorphism) increases risk for complex traits, including neuropsychiatric disorders. Although low dietary folate impacts brain development, recent concerns have focused on high folate intake following food fortification and increased vitamin use. Our goal was to determine whether high dietary folate during pregnancy affects brain development in murine offspring...
January 9, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068285/vitamin-k2-improves-anxiety-and-depression-but-not-cognition-in-rats-with-metabolic-syndrome-a-role-of-blood-glucose
#17
Silvia M Gancheva, Maria D Zhelyazkova-Savova
BACKGROUND: The metabolic syndrome is a socially important disorder of energy utilization and storage, recognized as a factor predisposing to the development of depression, anxiety and cognitive impairment in humans. AIM: In the present study we examined the effects of vitamin K2 on the behavior of rats with metabolic syndrome and looked for relationships with the effects on blood sugar. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male Wistar rats were divided in four groups: a control group on a regular rat chow, a metabolic syndrome (MS) group fed a high-fat high-fructose diet, a control group treated with vitamin K2 and a MS group treated with vitamin K2...
December 1, 2016: Folia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063694/post-wbrt-cognitive-impairment-and-hippocampal-neuronal-depletion-measured-by-in-vivo-metabolic-mr-spectroscopy-results-of-prospective-investigational-study
#18
Petr Pospisil, Tomas Kazda, Ludmila Hynkova, Martin Bulik, Marie Dobiaskova, Petr Burkon, Nadia N Laack, Pavel Slampa, Radim Jancalek
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The aim of this prospective study is to evaluate post-whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) changes in hippocampal concentration of N-acetylaspartate (h-tNAA) as a marker of neuronal loss and to correlate those changes to neurocognitive function. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Thirty-five patients with brain metastases underwent baseline single slice multi-voxel MR spectroscopy (MRS) examination for measurement of hippocampal h-tNAA together with baseline battery of neurocognitive tests focused on memory (Auditory Verbal Learning Test and Brief Visuospatial Memory Test - Revised) as well as quality of life questionnaires (EORTC QLQ-C30 a EORTC QLQ-BN20)...
January 4, 2017: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062257/liraglutide-prevents-cognitive-decline-in-a-rat-model-of-streptozotocin-induced-diabetes-independently-from-its-peripheral-metabolic-effects
#19
Caterina Palleria, Antonio Leo, Francesco Andreozzi, Rita Citraro, Michelangelo Iannone, Rosangela Spiga, Giorgio Sesti, Andrew Constanti, Giovambattista De Sarro, Franco Arturi, Emilio Russo
Diabetes has been identified as a risk factor for cognitive dysfunctions. Glucagone like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists have neuroprotective effects in preclinical animal models. We evaluated the effects of GLP-1 receptor agonist, liraglutide (LIR), on cognitive decline associated with diabetes. Furthermore, we studied LIR effects against hippocampal neurodegeneration induced by streptozotocin (STZ), a well-validated animal model of diabetes and neurodegeneration associated with cognitive decline. Diabetes and/or cognitive decline were induced in Wistar rats by intraperitoneal or intracerebroventricular injection of STZ and then rats were treated with LIR (300μg/kg daily subcutaneously) for 6 weeks...
January 3, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058996/intranasal-insulin-treatment-of-an-experimental-model-of-moderate-traumatic-brain-injury
#20
Fiona Brabazon, Colin M Wilson, Shalini Jaiswal, John Reed, William H Frey, Kimberly R Byrnes
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) results in learning and memory dysfunction. Cognitive deficits result from cellular and metabolic dysfunction after injury, including decreased cerebral glucose uptake and inflammation. This study assessed the ability of intranasal insulin to increase cerebral glucose uptake after injury, reduce lesion volume, improve memory and learning function and reduce inflammation. Adult male rats received a controlled cortical impact (CCI) injury followed by intranasal insulin or saline treatment daily for 14 days...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
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