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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731433/the-effects-of-cardiotrophin-1-on-early-synaptic-mitochondrial-dysfunction-and-synaptic-pathology-in-appswe-ps1de9-mice
#1
Dongmei Wang, Xiaozhuan Liu, Yumei Liu, Sanqiang Li, Chenying Wang
The coexistence of neuronal mitochondrial pathology and synaptic dysfunction is an early pathological feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Cardiotrophin-1 (CT-1) has been shown to exhibit impressive neuroprotective effects. Previous studies have shown positive effects of CT-1 on brain glucose metabolism and cognition in APPswe/PS1dE9 transgenic mice; however, little is known about the effects of CT-1 on early synaptic mitochondrial dysfunction and resultant synaptic pathology in the brain. In this study, 4-month-old transgenic mice with brain tissue-specific CT-1 expression were used alone or in combination with APPswe/PS1dE9 transgenic mice to evaluate the effect of CT-1 on synaptic mitochondrial dysfunction and resultant synaptic pathology, and cryptic memory deficits in the APPswe/PS1dE9 transgenic mice...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730152/zebrafish-get-connected-investigating-neurotransmission-targets-and-alterations-in-chemical-toxicity
#2
Katharine A Horzmann, Jennifer L Freeman
Neurotransmission is the basis of neuronal communication and is critical for normal brain development, behavior, learning, and memory. Exposure to drugs and chemicals can alter neurotransmission, often through unknown pathways and mechanisms. The zebrafish (Danio rerio) model system is increasingly being used to study the brain and chemical neurotoxicity. In this review, the major neurotransmitter systems, including glutamate, GABA, dopamine, norepinephrine, serotonin, acetylcholine, histamine, and glutamate are surveyed and pathways of synthesis, transport, metabolism, and action are examined...
September 2016: Toxics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729191/hypothermia-pretreatment-improves-cognitive-impairment-via-enhancing-synaptic-plasticity-in-a-traumatic-brain-injury-model
#3
Bingjin Liu, Lin Wang, Yun Cao, Weiqi Xu, Fangxiao Shi, Qing Tian, Xinwen Zhou
PosttraumatichypothermiaattenuatescognitivedeficitscausedbyTBIwhen it is administered at an early stage. However, little is known regarding the effect of hypothermia pretreatment on cognitive deficits one month after TBI. In the current study, the behavior test revealed that hypothermia pretreatment mitigates the learning and memory impairment induced by TBI in mice. Hypothermia treatment significantly increased the expression of PSD93, PSD95 and NR2B one month after TBI in the cortex and hippocampus compared with the normothermia group...
July 17, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715685/metabolic-profile-study-of-7-8-dihydroxyflavone-in-monkey-plasma-using-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#4
Taoping Sun, Sijing Chen, Hao Huang, Tianqing Li, Wei Yang, Liegang Liu
7, 8-Dihydroxyflavone, as a high-affinity tropomyosin-receptor-kinase B agonist, can mimic the physiological actions of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and exert a variety of neurological actions in numerous models including Parkinsońs disease, depression, learning and memory. Nonetheless, a limited number of studies have been focused on its metabolism in mammal and no methodology has been reported for the determination of 7, 8-DHF and its metabolites. Herein, we developed a rapid, sensitive and accurate method using high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy for the determination of 7, 8-DHF and its metabolites in monkey plasma...
July 4, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715094/drosophila-mutants-lacking-octopamine-exhibit-impairment-in-aversive-olfactory-associative-learning
#5
Konstantin G Iliadi, Natalia Iliadi, Gabrielle L Boulianne
Octopamine is a biogenic amine in invertebrates that is considered a functional homolog of vertebrate norepinephrine, acting as a neurotransmitter, neuromodulator and neurohormone. Octopamine regulates many physiological processes such as metabolism, reproduction and different types of behaviour including learning and memory. Previous studies in insects led to the notion that acquisition of an olfactory memory depends on the octopaminergic system during appetitive (reward-based) learning, but not in the case of aversive (punishment-based) learning...
July 17, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714266/potential-biotechnological-capabilities-of-cultivable-mycobiota-from-carwash-effluents
#6
Timothy Sibanda, Ramganesh Selvarajan, Memory Tekere, Hlengilizwe Nyoni, Stephen Meddows-Taylor
Urban life has created man-made extreme environments like carwashes. These environments have, however, not been sufficiently explored for mycobiota that can be sources of biotechnologically useful products, as has been the case with natural extreme environments. Using a combination of culture and molecular techniques, fungi from carwash effluents was characterized for production of lipase and cellulase enzymes, nonpolar and polar biotechnologically relevant secondary metabolites and hydrocarbon utilization...
July 17, 2017: MicrobiologyOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713392/il-15-harnesses-pro-inflammatory-function-of-temra-cd8-in-kidney-transplant-recipients
#7
Gaëlle Tilly, Tra-My Doan-Ngoc, Michelle Yap, Aurélie Caristan, Lola Jacquemont, Richard Danger, Marion Cadoux, Sarah Bruneau, Magali Giral, Pierrick Guerif, Bryan Nicol, Alexandra Garcia, David-Axel Laplaud, Sophie Brouard, Claire Pecqueur Hellman, Nicolas Degauque
The involvement of TEMRA CD8 is evident in a large array of immunological conditions ranging from auto- to allo-immunity. Nevertheless, the factors leading to their accumulation and activation remain ill-defined and, efficient therapeutics to control their inflammatory response is lacking. Here, we show that IL-15-stimulated TEMRA from kidney-transplant (KT) recipients promote inflammation by inducing the expression of CX3CL1 by endothelial cells in an IFN-γ- and TNF-α-dependent manner. The responsiveness of TEMRA to IL-15 is not restricted to chronic stimulation, as TEMRA from healthy volunteers respond earlier and faster when compared to effector memory (EM)...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711308/the-impact-of-scopolamine-pretreatment-on-3-iodothyronamine-t1am-effects-on-memory-and-pain-in-mice
#8
Annunziatina Laurino, Ersilia Lucenteforte, Gaetano De Siena, Laura Raimondi
We previously demonstrated that 3-iodothyronamine (T1AM), a by-product of thyroid hormone metabolism, pharmacologically administered to mice acutely stimulated learning and memory acquisition and provided hyperalgesia with a mechanism which remains to be defined. We now aimed to investigate whether the T1AM effect on memory and pain was maintained in mice pre-treated with scopolamine, a non-selective muscarinic antagonist expected to induce amnesia and, possibly, hyperalgesia. Mice were pre-treated with scopolamine and, after 20min, injected intracerebroventricularly (i...
July 12, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710347/effects-of-lipoic-acid-on-high-fat-diet-induced-alteration-of-synaptic-plasticity-and-brain-glucose-metabolism-a-pet-ct-and-13-c-nmr-study
#9
Zhigang Liu, Ishan Patil, Harsh Sancheti, Fei Yin, Enrique Cadenas
High-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity is accompanied by insulin resistance and compromised brain synaptic plasticity through the impairment of insulin-sensitive pathways regulating neuronal survival, learning, and memory. Lipoic acid is known to modulate the redox status of the cell and has insulin mimetic effects. This study was aimed at determining the effects of dietary administration of lipoic acid on a HFD-induced obesity model in terms of (a) insulin signaling, (b) brain glucose uptake and neuronal- and astrocytic metabolism, and (c) synaptic plasticity...
July 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709449/a-novel-alzheimer-s-disease-drug-candidate-targeting-inflammation-and-fatty-acid-metabolism
#10
Daniel Daugherty, Joshua Goldberg, Wolfgang Fischer, Richard Dargusch, Pamela Maher, David Schubert
BACKGROUND: CAD-31 is an Alzheimer's disease (AD) drug candidate that was selected on the basis of its ability to stimulate the replication of human embryonic stem cell-derived neural precursor cells as well as in APPswe/PS1ΔE9 AD mice. To move CAD-31 toward the clinic, experiments were undertaken to determine its neuroprotective and pharmacological properties, as well as to assay its therapeutic efficacy in a rigorous mouse model of AD. RESULTS: CAD-31 has potent neuroprotective properties in six distinct nerve cell assays that mimic toxicities observed in the old brain...
July 14, 2017: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703318/ft-artifacts-and-power-function-resolution-filter-in-fourier-transform-mass-spectrometry
#11
Basem Kanawati, Theresa Bader, Karl-Peter Wanczek, Yan Li, Philippe Schmitt-Kopplin
RATIONALE: Peak picking algorithms in mass spectrometry face the challenge of picking the correct signals from a mass spectrum. In some cases signal wiggles (side lobes) are also chosen in the produced mass list as if they were real signals. Constraints which are defined in such algorithms do not always guarantee wiggle free accurate mass list generation out of raw mass spectra. This problem intensifies with acquisitions, which are accompanied with longer transients. Thus, the problem represents a contemporary issue, which propagates with modern high memory digitizers and exists in both MS and MS/MS spectra...
July 13, 2017: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701731/bloc-1-deficiency-causes-alterations-in-amino-acid-profile-and-in-phospholipid-and-adenosine-metabolism-in-the-postnatal-mouse-hippocampus
#12
S M van Liempd, D Cabrera, F Y Lee, E González, E C Dell'Angelica, C A Ghiani, J M Falcon-Perez
Biogenesis of lysosome-related organelles complex-1 (BLOC-1) is a protein complex involved in the formation of endosomal tubular structures that mediates the sorting of protein cargoes to specialised compartments. In this study, we present insights into the metabolic consequences caused by BLOC-1 deficiency in pallid mice, which carry a null mutation in the Bloc1s6 gene encoding an essential component of this complex. The metabolome of the hippocampus of pallid mice was analysed using an untargeted, liquid chromatography-coupled mass spectrometric approach...
July 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700951/diabetic-retinopathy-metabolic-memory-and-epigenetic-modifications
#13
Renu A Kowluru
Retinopathy, a sight-threatening disease, remains one of the most feared complications of diabetes. Although hyperglycemia is the main initiator progression of diabetic retinopathy continues even after re-institution of normal glycemic control in diabetic patients, and the deleterious effects of prior hyperglycemic insult depend on the duration and the severity of this insult, suggesting a 'metabolic memory' phenomenon. Metabolic memory phenomenon is successfully duplicated in the experimental models of diabetic retinopathy...
July 9, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689763/remodeling-of-brain-lipidome-in-methamphetamine-sensitized-mice
#14
Linhong Jiang, Hui Gu, Yiyun Lin, Wei Xu, Ruiming Zhu, Jueying Kong, Li Luo, Hailei Long, Bing Liu, Bo Chen, Yinglan Zhao, Xiaobo Cen
Lipids are predominant components of the brain and key regulators for neural structure and function. The effect of methamphetamine (METH) on behavior, cognition as well as memory has been intensively investigated; however, the impact of METH on brain lipid profiles is largely unknown. Here, we used a global lipidomic approach to investigate brain lipidome of METH-sensitized mice. We found that repeated METH significantly modified the lipidome in the hippocampus, prefrontal cortex (PFC) and striatum. Interestingly, nucleus accumbens showed no obvious alteration in lipidomic profiling...
July 6, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686542/polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-and-endocannabinoids-in-health-and-disease
#15
Hércules Rezende Freitas, Alinny Rosendo Isaac, Renato Malcher-Lopes, Bruno Lourenço Diaz, Isis Hara Trevenzoli, Ricardo Augusto De Melo Reis
Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are lipid derivatives of omega-3 (docosahexaenoic acid, DHA, and eicosapentaenoic acid, EPA) or of omega-6 (arachidonic acid, ARA) synthesized from membrane phospholipids and used as a precursor for endocannabinoids (ECs). They mediate significant effects in the fine-tune adjustment of body homeostasis. Phyto- and synthetic cannabinoids also rule the daily life of billions worldwide, as they are involved in obesity, depression and drug addiction. Consequently, there is growing interest to reveal novel active compounds in this field...
July 7, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685239/a-biodesign-approach-to-obtain-high-yields-of-biosimilars-by-anti-apoptotic-cell-engineering-a-case-study-to-increase-the-production-yield-of-anti-tnf-alpha-producing-recombinant-cho-cells
#16
Sultan Gulce Iz, Muge Anil Inevi, Pelin Saglam Metiner, Duygu Ayyildiz Tamis, Nazli Kisbet
Recent developments in medical biotechnology have facilitated to enhance the production of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and recombinant proteins in mammalian cells. Human mAbs for clinical applications have focused on three areas, particularly cancer, immunological disorders, and infectious diseases. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), which has both proinflammatory and immunoregulatory functions, is an important target in biopharmaceutical industry. In this study, a humanized anti-TNF-α mAb producing stable CHO cell line which produces a biosimilar of Humira (adalimumab) was used...
July 6, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685102/autism-like-behaviours-and-memory-deficits-result-from-a-western-diet-in-mice
#17
Ekaterina Veniaminova, Raymond Cespuglio, Chi Wai Cheung, Alexei Umriukhin, Nataliia Markova, Elena Shevtsova, Klaus-Peter Lesch, Daniel C Anthony, Tatyana Strekalova
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, induced by a Western diet (WD), evokes central and peripheral inflammation that is accompanied by altered emotionality. These changes can be associated with abnormalities in social behaviour, hippocampus-dependent cognitive functions, and metabolism. Female C57BL/6J mice were fed with a regular chow or with a WD containing 0.2% of cholesterol and 21% of saturated fat for three weeks. WD-treated mice exhibited increased social avoidance, crawl-over and digging behaviours, decreased body-body contacts, and hyperlocomotion...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684513/metabolic-memory-in-mycobacterium
#18
Caroline Ash
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 7, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681245/an-overview-on-d-amino-acids
#19
REVIEW
Giuseppe Genchi
More than half a century ago researchers thought that D-amino acids had a minor function compared to L-enantiomers in biological processes. Many evidences have shown that D-amino acids are present in high concentration in microorganisms, plants, mammals and humans and fulfil specific biological functions. In the brain of mammals, D-serine (D-Ser) acts as a co-agonist of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-type glutamate receptors, responsible for learning, memory and behaviour. D-Ser metabolism is relevant for disorders associated with an altered function of the NMDA receptor, such as schizophrenia, ischemia, epilepsy and neurodegenerative disorders...
July 5, 2017: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681110/recent-advances-in-cmv-tropism-latency-and-diagnosis-during-aging
#20
Sean X Leng, Jeremy Kamil, John G Purdy, Niels A Lemmermann, Matthias J Reddehase, Felicia D Goodrum
Human cytomegalovirus (CMV) is one of the largest viruses known to cause human diseases. Chronic CMV infection, as defined by anti-CMV IgG serology, increases with age and is highly prevalent in older adults. It has complex biology with significant immunologic and health consequences. This article aims to summarize research findings presented at the 6th International Workshop on CMV and Immunosenescence that relate to advances in the areas of CMV tropism, latency, CMV manipulation of cell metabolism, and T cell memory inflation, as well as novel diagnostic evaluation and translational research of chronic CMV infection in older adults...
July 5, 2017: GeroScience
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