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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636890/memory-t-cells-a-helpful-guard-for-allogeneic-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-without-causing-graft-versus-host-disease
#1
REVIEW
Wei Huang, Nelson J Chao
Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a major complication of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (AHSCT) and the major cause of nonrelapse morbidity and mortality of AHSCT. In AHSCT, donor T cells facilitate hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) engraftment, contribute to anti-infection immunity, and mediate graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) responses. However, activated alloreactive T cells also attack recipient cells in vital organs, leading to GVHD. Different T-cell subsets, including naïve T (TN) cells, memory T (TM) cells, and regulatory T (Treg) cells mediate different forms of GVHD and GVL; TN cells mediate severe GVHD, whereas TM cells do not cause GVHD, but preserve T-cell function including GVL...
June 13, 2017: Hematology/oncology and Stem Cell Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634451/berberine-ameliorates-diabetes-associated-cognitive-decline-through-modulation-of-aberrant-inflammation-response-and-insulin-signaling-pathway-in-dm-rats
#2
Qingjie Chen, Ran Mo, Ninghua Wu, Xin Zou, Cai Shi, Jing Gong, Jingbin Li, Ke Fang, Dingkun Wang, Deshen Yang, Kaifu Wang, Juan Chen
Background: Memory-impairment was one of the common characteristics in patients with diabetes mellitus. The release of chronic inflammation mediators and insulin resistance in diabetic brain gave rise to the generation of toxic factor Aβ42 which was the marker of Alzheimer's disease. In addition, the impairment of memory in diabetes mellitus was also correlated predominantly with uptake/metabolism of glucose in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Previously, anti-inflammation and hypoglycemic effects of berberine (BBr) have been described in peripheral tissues...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632163/melatonin-as-a-novel-interventional-candidate-for-fragile-x-syndrome-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-in-humans
#3
REVIEW
Jinyoung Won, Yunho Jin, Jeonghyun Choi, Sookyoung Park, Tae Ho Lee, Sang-Rae Lee, Kyu-Tae Chang, Yonggeun Hong
Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common monogenic form of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). FXS with ASD results from the loss of fragile X mental retardation (fmr) gene products, including fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP), which triggers a variety of physiological and behavioral abnormalities. This disorder is also correlated with clock components underlying behavioral circadian rhythms and, thus, a mutation of the fmr gene can result in disturbed sleep patterns and altered circadian rhythms. As a result, FXS with ASD individuals may experience dysregulation of melatonin synthesis and alterations in melatonin-dependent signaling pathways that can impair vigilance, learning, and memory abilities, and may be linked to autistic behaviors such as abnormal anxiety responses...
June 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631969/cognitive-functions-among-predominantly-minority-urban-adolescents-with-metabolic-syndrome
#4
Alexander Mangone, Kathy F Yates, Victoria Sweat, Adriana Joseph, Antonio Convit
The rise in the rate of adolescent obesity has led to a concurrent rise in the rate of metabolic syndrome (MetS) among young people. In addition to diabetes and cardiovascular disease, MetS has also been linked to cognitive dysfunction. The goal of this study was to assess whether cognitive differences exist between minority urban adolescents carrying excess weight who meet criteria for MetS as compared to their peers without MetS. Two hundred and ninety-six urban adolescents, predominantly Hispanic and carrying excess weight as defined by a BMI above 25 kg/m(2), were screened for MetS and divided into MetS and no MetS groups...
February 22, 2017: Applied Neuropsychology. Child
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629587/microparticles-in-chronic-heart-failure
#5
Alexander E Berezin
Heart failure (HF) continues to have a sufficient impact on morbidity, mortality, and disability in developed countries. Growing evidence supports the hypothesis that microparticles (MPs) might contribute to the pathogenesis of the HF development playing a pivotal role in the regulation of the endogenous repair system, thrombosis, coagulation, inflammation, immunity, and metabolic memory phenomenon. Therefore, there is a large body of data clarifying the predictive value of MP numerous in circulation among subjects with HF...
2017: Advances in Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626065/metabolic-reprogramming-commits-differentiation-of-human-cd27-igd-b-cells-to-plasmablasts-or-cd27-igd-cells
#6
Masataka Torigoe, Shigeru Iwata, Shingo Nakayamada, Kei Sakata, Mingzeng Zhang, Maiko Hajime, Yusuke Miyazaki, Manabu Narisawa, Koji Ishii, Hirotaka Shibata, Yoshiya Tanaka
B cells play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). However, the relevance of the metabolic pathway in the differentiation of human B cell subsets remains unknown. In this article, we show that the combination of CpG/TLR9 and IFN-α markedly induced the differentiation of CD27(+)IgD(+) unswitched memory B cells into CD27(hi)CD38(hi) plasmablasts. The response was accompanied by mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) activation and increased lactate production, indicating a shift to glycolysis...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624654/insulin-signaling-an-opportunistic-target-to-minify-risk-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#7
REVIEW
Rohit Pardeshi, Nityanand Bolshette, Kundlik Gadhave, Ashutosh Ahire, Sahabuddin Ahmed, Tommaso Cassano, Veer Bala Gupta, Mangala Lahkar
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by accumulation of senile plaques, neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) and neurodegeneration. The diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the risk factors for AD pathogenesis by impairment in insulin signaling and glucose metabolism in central as well as peripheral system. Insulin resistance, impaired glucose and lipid metabolism lead to the Aβ (Aβ) aggregation, Tau phosphorylation, mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, protein misfolding, memory impairment and also mark over Aβ transport through central to peripheral and vice versa...
May 30, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624434/brain-glucose-metabolism-role-of-wnt-signaling-in-the-metabolic-impairment-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#8
REVIEW
Pedro Cisternas, Nibaldo C Inestrosa
The brain is an organ that has a high demand for glucose. In the brain, glucose is predominantly used in energy production, with almost 70% of the energy used by neurons. The importance of the energy requirement in neurons is clearly demonstrated by the fact that all neurodegenerative disorders exhibit a critical metabolic impairment that includes decreased glucose uptake/utilization and decreased mitochondrial activity, with a consequent diminution in ATP production. In fact, in Alzheimer's disease, the measurement of the general metabolic rate of the brain has been reported to be an accurate tool for diagnosis...
June 14, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623617/decrease-in-adult-neurogenesis-and-neuroinflammation-are-involved-in-spatial-memory-impairment-in-the-streptozotocin-induced-model-of-sporadic-alzheimer-s-disease-in-rats
#9
Taysa Bervian Bassani, Jéssica M Bonato, Meira M F Machado, Valentín Cóppola-Segovia, Eric L R Moura, Silvio M Zanata, Rúbia M M W Oliveira, Maria A B F Vital
Early impairments in cerebral glucose metabolism and insulin signaling pathways may participate in the pathogenesis of the sporadic form of Alzheimer's disease (sAD). Intracerebroventricular (ICV) injections of low doses of streptozotocin (STZ) are used to mimic sAD and study these alterations in rodents. Streptozotocin causes impairments in insulin signaling and has been reported to trigger several alterations in the brain, such as oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, and dysfunctions in adult neurogenesis, which may be involved in cognitive decline and are features of human AD...
June 16, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623167/the-ketogenic-diet-affects-the-social-behavior-of-young-male-rats
#10
Daniela Kasprowska-Liśkiewicz, Arkadiusz D Liśkiewicz, Marta M Nowacka-Chmielewska, Joanna Nowicka, Andrzej Małecki, Jarosław J Barski
The positive effects of the ketogenic diet (KD) on social behavior have been recently reported in patients and rodent models of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Given the beneficial effects of the KD on epilepsy, mitochondrial function, carbohydrate metabolism, and inflammation, treatment based on the KD has the potential to reduce some of the ASD-associated symptoms, including abnormal social interactions. It is not known whether the KD influences sociability by reducing the pathological processes underlying ASD or through some independent mechanism...
June 13, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621826/cerebral-metabolic-alterations-and-cognitive-dysfunction-in-children-with-chronic-kidney-disease-using-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-and-wechsler-intelligence-scale
#11
Doaa Mohammed Youssef, Ahmed Hosny Mohamed, Wafaa Mahmoud Kamel Attia, Faten Fawzy Mohammad, Nelly Rafaat Abd El Fatah, Amal Saeed Elshal
BACKGROUND: Many studies described Impaired intelligence, attention, memory and executive function in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) dialyzed and non-dialyzed, but there is still lacking the early and sensitive method of detection of these deficits. The purpose of this study is to investigate relation between the brain metabolic alteration [measured by magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS)] and cognitive dysfunction in CKD children (detected by psychometric analysis). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: One hundred and forty patients with CKD were included [ 40 patients with stage 5 CKD on dialysis, 30 patients with stage 4 to 5 CKD without dialysis, and 70 patients with stage 1 to 3 CKD]...
June 16, 2017: Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621759/a-high-fructose-high-coconut-oil-diet-induces-dysregulating-expressions-of-hippocampal-leptin-and-stearoyl-coa-desaturase-and-spatial-memory-deficits-in-rats
#12
Ching-I Lin, Chu-Fu Shen, Tsui-Han Hsu, Shyh-Hsiang Lin
We investigated the effects of high-fructose-high-fat diets with different fat compositions on metabolic parameters, hippocampal-dependent cognitive function, and brain leptin (as well as stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD1) mRNA expressions). Thirty-two male Wistar rats were divided into 3 groups, a control group (n = 8), a high-fructose soybean oil group (37.5% of fat calories, n = 12), and a high-fructose coconut oil group (37.5% of fat calories, n = 12) for 20 weeks. By the end of the study, the coconut oil group exhibited significantly higher serum fasting glucose, fructosamine, insulin, leptin, and triglyceride levels compared to those of the control and soybean oil groups...
June 16, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616381/anosognosia-for-memory-deficits-in-mild-cognitive-impairment-insight-into-the-neural-mechanism-using-functional-and-molecular-imaging
#13
Patrizia Vannini, Bernard Hanseeuw, Catherine E Munro, Rebecca E Amariglio, Gad A Marshall, Dorene M Rentz, Alvaro Pascual-Leone, Keith A Johnson, Reisa A Sperling
Anosognosia, or loss of insight of memory deficits, is a common and striking symptom in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Previous findings in AD dementia patients suggest that anosognosia is due to both functional metabolic changes within cortical midline structures involved in self-referential processes, as well as functional disconnection between these regions. The present study aims to extend these findings by investigating the neural correlates of anosognosia in the prodromal stage of AD. Here, we used regional brain metabolism (resting state 18-F fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET)) to unravel the metabolic correlates of anosognosia in subjects with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and subsequently resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) to investigate the intrinsic connectivity disruption between brain regions...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611211/metabolic-and-neuroprotective-effects-of-dapagliflozin-and-liraglutide-in-diabetic-mice
#14
Paul Millar, Nupur Pathak, Vadivel Parthsarathy, Tony Bjourson, Maurice O'Kane, Varun Pathak, R Charlotte Moffett, Peter R Flatt, Victor A Gault
This study assessed the metabolic and neuroprotective actions of the sodium glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitor dapagliflozin in combination with the GLP-1 agonist liraglutide in dietary-induced diabetic mice. Mice administered low-dose streptozotocin (STZ) on a high fat diet received dapagliflozin, liraglutide, dapagliflozin-plus-liraglutide (DAPA-Lira) or vehicle once-daily over 28 days. Energy intake, body weight, glucose and insulin concentrations were measured at regular intervals. Glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, hormone and biochemical analysis, dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry densitometry, novel object recognition, islet and brain histology were examined...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611064/cytoplasmic-poly-a-binding-protein-1-pabpc1-interacts-with-the-rna-binding-protein-hnrnpll-and-thereby-regulates-immunoglobulin-secretion-in-plasma-cells
#15
Yuanzheng Peng, Juanjuan Yuan, Zhenchao Zhang, Xing Chang
Increasing evidence indicates that alternative processing of mRNA, including alternative splicing, 3' alternative polyadenylation, and regulation of mRNA stability/translation, represents a major mechanism contributing to protein diversification. For example, in alternative polyadenylation, the 3' end of the immunoglobulin heavy chain mRNA is processed during B cell differentiation, and this processing involves RNA binding proteins (RBPs). Heterogeneous nuclear RNA nucleoside protein L-like (hnRNPLL) is an RBP expressed in terminally differentiated lymphocytes, such as memory T cells and plasma cells...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606939/transcriptional-and-epigenetic-regulation-of-t-cell-hyporesponsiveness
#16
REVIEW
Renata M Pereira, Patrick G Hogan, Anjana Rao, Gustavo J Martinez
Naive CD8(+) T cells differentiate into effector and memory cytolytic T cells (CTLs) during an acute infection. In contrast, in scenarios of persistent antigen stimulation, such as chronic infections and cancer, antigen-specific CTLs show a gradual decrease in effector function, a phenomenon that has been termed CD8(+) T cell "exhaustion" or "dysfunction." Another hyporesponsive state, termed anergy, is observed when T cells are activated in the absence of positive costimulatory signals. Among the many negative regulators induced in hyporesponsive T cells are inhibitory cell-surface receptors, such as PD-1, LAG-3, CTLA-4, and TIM-3; "checkpoint blockade" therapies that involve treatment of patients with cancer with blocking antibodies to those receptors show considerable promise in the clinic because the blocking antibodies can mitigate hyporesponsiveness and promote tumor rejection...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603675/contribution-of-underlying-processes-to-improved-visuospatial-working-memory-associated-with-physical-activity
#17
Qingchun Ji, Yingying Wang, Wei Guo, Chenglin Zhou
BACKGROUND: Working memory is critical for various cognitive processes and can be separated into two stages: short-term memory storage and manipulation processing. Although previous studies have demonstrated that increased physical activity (PA) improves working memory and that males outperform females on visuospatial working memory tasks, few studies have determined the contribution of the two underlying stages to the visuospatial working memory improvement associated with PA. Thus, the aims of the present study were to verify the relationship between physical activity and visuospatial working memory, determine whether one or both stages were affected by PA, and investigate any sex differences...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602152/physical-activity-and-cognitive-function-of-long-distance-walkers-studying-four-days-marches-participants
#18
Hans Wouters, Teun Aalbers, Martijn Maessen, André Verbeek, Marcel Olde Rikkert, Roy Kessels, Maria Hopman, Thijs Eijsvogels
OBJECTIVE: Studies show physical activity to be beneficial for cognitive function. However, studies usually included individuals who were not particularly inclined to exercise. Following research among master athletes, we examined associations between physical activity and cognitive function in participants of the International Nijmegen Four Days Marches. These individuals are also inclined to exercise. On 4 consecutive days > 40,000 participants walk a daily distance of 30-50 km (120-200 km or 75-125 miles in total)...
June 10, 2017: Rejuvenation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600802/mtorc1-and-mtorc2-as-regulators-of-cell-metabolism-in-immunity
#19
REVIEW
Monika Linke, Stephanie Deborah Fritsch, Nyamdelger Sukhbaatar, Markus Hengstschläger, Thomas Weichhart
The mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway is an evolutionarily conserved signaling pathway that senses intra- and extracellular nutrients, growth factors, and pathogen-associated molecular patterns to regulate the function of innate and adaptive immune cell populations. In this Review, we focus on the role of the mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) and mTORC2 in the regulation of the cellular energy metabolism of these immune cells to regulate and support immune responses. In this regard, mTORC1 and mTORC2 generally promote an anabolic response by stimulating protein synthesis, glycolysis, mitochondrial functions, and lipid synthesis to influence proliferation and survival, effector and memory responses, innate training and tolerance as well as hematopoietic stem cell maintenance and differentiation...
June 10, 2017: FEBS Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599949/quetiapine-extended-release-versus-aripiprazole-in-children-and-adolescents-with-first-episode-psychosis-the-multicentre-double-blind-randomised-tolerability-and-efficacy-of-antipsychotics-tea-trial
#20
Anne Katrine Pagsberg, Pia Jeppesen, Dea Gowers Klauber, Karsten Gjessing Jensen, Ditte Rudå, Marie Stentebjerg-Olesen, Peter Jantzen, Simone Rasmussen, Eva Ann-Sofie Saldeen, Maj-Britt Glenn Lauritsen, Niels Bilenberg, Anne Dorte Stenstrøm, Louise Nyvang, Sarah Madsen, Thomas M Werge, Theis Lange, Christian Gluud, Maria Skoog, Per Winkel, Jens Richardt M Jepsen, Birgitte Fagerlund, Christoph U Correll, Anders Fink-Jensen
BACKGROUND: Head-to-head trials to guide antipsychotic treatment choices for paediatric psychosis are urgently needed because extrapolations from adult studies might not be implementable. In this superiority trial with two-sided significance testing, we aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of quetiapine-extended release (quetiapine-ER) versus aripiprazole in children and adolescents with first-episode psychosis, to determine whether differences between the two treatments were sufficient to guide clinicians in their choice of one drug over the other...
June 6, 2017: Lancet Psychiatry
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