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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528080/toxicological-aspects-of-interesterified-fat-brain-damages-in-rats
#1
Lívia Ferraz D'avila, Verônica Tironi Dias, Luciana Taschetto Vey, Laura Hautrive Milanesi, Karine Roversi, Tatiana Emanuelli, Marilise Escobar Bürger, Fabíola Trevizol
In recent years, interesterified fat (IF) has been used to replace hydrogenated vegetable fat (HVF), rich in trans isomers, being found in processed foods. Studies involving IF have shown deleterious influences on the metabolic system, similarly to HVF, whereas no studies regarding its influence on the central nervous system (CNS) were performed. Rats from first generation born and maintained under supplementation (3g/Kg, p.o.) of soybean-oil or IF until adulthood were assessed on memory, biochemical and molecular markers in the hippocampus...
May 17, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526279/an-emerging-role-for-mitochondrial-dynamics-in-schizophrenia
#2
REVIEW
Kyle H Flippo, Stefan Strack
Abnormal brain development has long been thought to contribute to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Impaired dendritic arborization, synaptogenesis, and long term potentiation and memory have been demonstrated in animal models of schizophrenia. In addition to aberrant nervous system development, altered brain metabolism and mitochondrial function has long been observed in schizophrenic patients. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the mitochondrial genome as well as impaired mitochondrial function have both been associated with increased risk for developing schizophrenia...
May 16, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522608/altered-learning-memory-and-social-behavior-in-type-1-taste-receptor-subunit-3-knockout-mice-is-associated-with-neuronal-dysfunction
#3
Bronwen Martin, Rui Wang, Wei-Na Cong, Caitlin M Daimon, Wells W Wu, Bin Ni, Kevin G Becker, Elin Lehrmann, William H Wood, Yongqing Zhang, Harmonie Etienne, Jaana van Gastel, Abdelkrim Azmi, Jonathan Janssens, Stuart Maudsley
The type 1 taste receptor member 3 (T1R3) is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) involved in sweet taste perception. Besides the tongue, the T1R3 receptor is highly expressed in brain areas implicated in cognition, including the hippocampus and cortex. As cognitive decline is often preceded by significant metabolic or endocrinological dysfunctions, regulated by the sweet taste perception system, we hypothesized that a disruption of the sweet taste perception in the brain could have a key role in the development of cognitive dysfunction...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511119/effects-of-breviscapine-on-amyloid-beta-1-42-induced-alzheimer-s-disease-mice-a-hplc-qtof-ms-based-plasma-metabonomics-study
#4
Hongjun Xia, Lingling Wu, Mengying Chu, Huimin Feng, Chunliang Lu, Qinghe Wang, Minghai He, Xiaoqun Ge
Herba Erigerontis has long been used to cure apoplexy hemiplegia and precordial pain in China. In addition, the bioactivities of its total flavonoids-breviscapine included inhibiting amyloid beta (Aβ) fibril formation, antioxidation and metal chelating, which are beneficial to treat Alzheimer's disease (AD). Hence, A HPLC-QTOF-MS based plasma metabonomics approach was applied to investigate the neuroprotective effects of breviscapine on intracerebroventricular injection of aggregated Aβ 1-42 induced AD mice for the first time in the study...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508995/l-carnitine-and-acetyl-l-carnitine-roles-and-neuroprotection-in-developing-brain
#5
Gustavo C Ferreira, Mary C McKenna
L-Carnitine functions to transport long chain fatty acyl-CoAs into the mitochondria for degradation by β-oxidation. Treatment with L-carnitine can ameliorate metabolic imbalances in many inborn errors of metabolism. In recent years there has been considerable interest in the therapeutic potential of L-carnitine and its acetylated derivative acetyl-L-carnitine (ALCAR) for neuroprotection in a number of disorders including hypoxia-ischemia, traumatic brain injury, Alzheimer's disease and in conditions leading to central or peripheral nervous system injury...
May 16, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507526/behavioral-and-neural-manifestations-of-reward-memory-in-carriers-of-low-expressing-versus-high-expressing-genetic-variants-of-the-dopamine-d2-receptor
#6
Anni Richter, Adriana Barman, Torsten Wüstenberg, Joram Soch, Denny Schanze, Anna Deibele, Gusalija Behnisch, Anne Assmann, Marieke Klein, Martin Zenker, Constanze Seidenbecher, Björn H Schott
Dopamine is critically important in the neural manifestation of motivated behavior, and alterations in the human dopaminergic system have been implicated in the etiology of motivation-related psychiatric disorders, most prominently addiction. Patients with chronic addiction exhibit reduced dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) availability in the striatum, and the DRD2 TaqIA (rs1800497) and C957T (rs6277) genetic polymorphisms have previously been linked to individual differences in striatal dopamine metabolism and clinical risk for alcohol and nicotine dependence...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507319/longitudinal-changes-of-tau-pet-imaging-in-relation-to-hypometabolism-in-prodromal-and-alzheimer-s-disease-dementia
#7
K Chiotis, L Saint-Aubert, E Rodriguez-Vieitez, A Leuzy, O Almkvist, I Savitcheva, M Jonasson, M Lubberink, A Wall, G Antoni, A Nordberg
The development of tau-specific positron emission tomography (PET) tracers allows imaging in vivo the regional load of tau pathology in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other tauopathies. Eighteen patients with baseline investigations enroled in a 17-month follow-up study, including 16 with AD (10 had mild cognitive impairment and a positive amyloid PET scan, that is, prodromal AD, and six had AD dementia) and two with corticobasal syndrome. All patients underwent PET scans with [(18)F]THK5317 (tau deposition) and [(18)F]FDG (glucose metabolism) at baseline and follow-up, neuropsychological assessment at baseline and follow-up and a scan with [(11)C]PIB (amyloid-β deposition) at baseline only...
May 16, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499310/ellagic-acid-administration-negated-the-development-of-streptozotocin-induced-memory-deficit-in-rats
#8
Nitin Bansal, Pushplata Yadav, Manish Kumar
Rampant production of pro-oxidants and inadequate antioxidant availability in brain exert oxidative stress, which in synergism with impaired glucose metabolism and inflammation leads to neurodegeneration and cognitive deficits. Ellagic acid (EGA) is a phenolic compound present in various fruits and is reported to possess robust antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The present study investigated the effect of EGA administration on streptozotocin (STZ) induced dementia in rats. Bilateral intracerebroventricle (ICV) injection of STZ (3 mg/kg) was given to Wistar rats (200 g) on day 1 and 3...
May 12, 2017: Drug Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498826/divergent-influences-of-cardiovascular-disease-risk-factor-domains-on-cognition-grey-and-white-matter-morphology
#9
Mitzi M Gonzales, Olusola Ajilore, Rebecca C Charlton, Jamie Cohen, Shaolin Yang, Erica Sieg, Dulal K Bhaumik, Anand Kumar, Melissa Lamar
OBJECTIVE: Hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, and obesity are associated with preclinical alterations in cognition and brain structure; however, this often comes from studies of comprehensive risk scores or single isolated factors. We examined associations of empirically-derived cardiovascular disease risk factor domains with cognition and brain structure. METHODS: 124 adults (age~59.8±13.1;41% African American;50% women) underwent neuropsychological and cardiovascular assessments and structural MRI...
January 16, 2017: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494460/persistently-altered-metabolic-phenotype-following-perinatal-excitotoxic-brain-injury
#10
Benjamin J Blaise, Leslie Schwendimann, Vibol Chhor, Vincent Degos, Mark P Hodson, Guido Dallmann, Matthias Keller, Pierre Gressens, Bobbi Fleiss
Excitotoxicity plays a key role during insults to the developing brain such as neonatal encephalopathy, stroke, and encephalopathy of prematurity. Such insults affect many thousands of infants each year. Excitotoxicity causes frank lesions due to cell death and gliosis and disturbs normal developmental process, leading to deficits in learning, memory, and social integration that persist into adulthood. Understanding the underlying processes of the acute effects of excitotoxicity and its persistence during brain maturation provides an opportunity to identify mechanistic or diagnostic biomarkers, thus enabling and designing possible therapies...
May 12, 2017: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485476/necroptosis-resumes-apoptosis-in-hippocampus-but-not-in-frontal-cortex
#11
Sara Nikseresht, Fariba Khodagholi, Leila Dargahi, Abolhassan Ahmadiani
Cell death subsequent to concurrent with neuroinflammation results in some damages like neuron loss and spatial memory impairment. In this study we demonstrate the temporal pattern of neuroinflammation, necroptotic and apoptotic cell deaths in hippocampus and frontal cortex following intracerebroventricular administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). We evaluated receptor interacting protein kinase 1 (RIP1), RIP3 and two related metabolic enzymes including glutamate-ammonia ligase (GLUL) and glutamate dehydrogenase (GLUD) as necroptosis factors...
May 9, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483447/therapeutic-targeting-of-the-hif-oxygen-sensing-pathway-lessons-learned-from-clinical-studies
#12
Volker H Haase
The oxygen-sensitive hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) pathway plays a central role in the control of erythropoiesis and iron metabolism. The discovery of prolyl hydroxylase domain (PHD) proteins as key regulators of HIF activity has led to the development of inhibitory compounds that are now in phase 3 clinical development for the treatment of renal anemia, a condition that is commonly found in patients with advanced chronic kidney disease. This review provides a concise overview of clinical effects associated with pharmacologic PHD inhibition and was written in memory of Professor Lorenz Poellinger...
May 5, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479553/a-two-layer-method-for-sedentary-behaviors-classification-using-smartphone-and-bluetooth-beacons
#13
Jesús D Cerón, Diego M López, Christian Hofmann
BACKGROUND: Among the factors that outline the health of populations, person's lifestyle is the more important one. This work focuses on the caracterization and prevention of sedentary lifestyles. A sedentary behavior is defined as "any waking behavior characterized by an energy expenditure of 1.5 METs (Metabolic Equivalent) or less while in a sitting or reclining posture". OBJECTIVE: To propose a method for sedentary behaviors classification using a smartphone and Bluetooth beacons considering different types of classification models: personal, hybrid or impersonal...
2017: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475603/the-impact-of-obesity-on-neuropsychological-functioning-in-adults-with-and-without-major-depressive-disorder
#14
Maria R Restivo, Margaret C McKinnon, Benicio N Frey, Geoffrey B Hall, Wasimuddin Syed, Valerie H Taylor
BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests obesity exerts a negative impact on cognition. Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is also linked to problems in cognitive functioning. Obesity is highly prevalent in individuals with MDD and is linked to a failure to return to a full level of functioning. The study's objective was to investigate the effect of obesity on cognitive impairment in participants with MDD. METHODS: This study compared cognitive performance in obese individuals with MDD and two control populations (obese individuals without a psychiatric illness and non-obese controls)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475283/cd69-from-activation-marker-to-metabolic-gatekeeper
#15
REVIEW
Danay Cibrián, Francisco Sánchez-Madrid
CD69 is a membrane-bound, type II C-lectin receptor. It is a classical early marker of lymphocyte activation due to its rapid appearance on the surface of the plasma membrane after stimulation. CD69 is expressed by several subsets of tissue resident immune cells, including resident memory T (TRM) cells and gamma delta (γδ) T cells, and is therefore considered a marker of tissue retention. Recent evidence has revealed that CD69 regulates some specific functions of selected T-cell subsets, determining the migration-retention ratio as well as the acquisition of effector or regulatory phenotypes...
May 5, 2017: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474570/targeting-pparalpha-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#16
Barbara D Orio, Anna Fracassi, Maria Paola Cerù, Sandra Moreno
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the result of a combination of genetic and environmental risk factors and the molecular mechanisms underlying cognitive decline are yet to be fully elucidated. The so-called "amyloid cascade hypothesis" has long been the prevailing paradigm for causation of disease, and today being revisited in relation to other pathogenic pathways, such as oxidative stress, neuroinflammation and lipid and glucose dysmetabolism. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are expressed in the CNS and regulate many physiological processes, such as energy metabolism, neurotransmission, redox homeostasis, autophagy and cell cycle...
May 4, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467900/label-free-analysis-of-cd8-t-cell-subset-proteomes-supports-a-progressive-differentiation-model-of-human-virus-specific-t-cells
#17
Michiel C van Aalderen, Maartje van den Biggelaar, Ester B M Remmerswaal, Floris P J van Alphen, Alexander B Meijer, Ineke J M Ten Berge, René A W van Lier
Pathogens trigger T cells to express distinct sets of effector proteins. To better understand the molecular mechanisms that drive functional specification, we used high-resolution mass spectrometry and label-free protein quantification to measure proteomic differences between the seven largest circulating human CD8(+) T cell subsets. Hierarchical clustering of the proteomes placed naive and CD45RA-expressing effector-type T cells at the extremes of the spectrum, with central memory and other effector memory stages located in between...
May 2, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463531/hypoxia-favors-the-generation-of-human-plasma-cells
#18
Matthieu Schoenhals, Michel Jourdan, Angélique Bruyer, Alboukadel Kassambara, Bernard Klein, Jérôme Moreaux
Plasma cells (PCs) generation occurs in hypoxic conditions in vivo, whereas the relevance of O2 pressure in PC differentiation remains unknown. Using our in vitro PC differentiation model, we investigated the role of hypoxia in PC generation. Hypoxia increases the generation of plasmablasts (PBs) starting from memory B cells, by increasing cell cycle and division number. Reactome analysis demonstrated a significant enrichment of genes involved in HIF1α and HIF2α transcription factor network, metabolism and MYC related pathways in hypoxic compared with normoxic PBs...
May 2, 2017: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460345/the-role-of-ampk-in-t-cell-metabolism-and-function
#19
REVIEW
Eric H Ma, Maya C Poffenberger, Alison H-T Wong, Russell G Jones
The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a key metabolic regulator that both senses changes in cellular energy levels and activates pathways to maintain cellular energy balance. AMPK achieves this by stimulating catabolic pathways that generate ATP and inhibiting biological pathways that consume ATP consumption. Recent work has established that AMPK is activated in T cells by both immunological and environmental stimuli, and plays an important role in T cell metabolism, in part by controlling T cell 'metabolic plasticity'...
April 28, 2017: Current Opinion in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458087/reenergizing-t-cell-anti-tumor-immunity-by-harnessing-immunometabolic-checkpoints-and-machineries
#20
REVIEW
Ping-Chih Ho, Susan M Kaech
T cells patrol our bodies preventing pathogenic infections and malignant cell outgrowth. However, T cells must be properly controlled because aberrant or persistent T cell responses can damage tissues and contribute to autoimmune diseases and other chronic inflammatory diseases including metabolic syndrome. One regulatory mechanism utilized in immune cells is immunometabolic regulation, which ensures immune cells properly respond to systemic and peripheral metabolic cues. Recent work has suggested that deregulated metabolism in tumor cells creates a microenvironmental barrier for mounting effective anti-tumor immune responses...
April 27, 2017: Current Opinion in Immunology
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