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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917115/switching-adolescent-high-fat-diet-to-adult-control-diet-restores-neurocognitive-alterations
#1
Chloé Boitard, Shauna L Parkes, Amandine Cavaroc, Frédéric Tantot, Nathalie Castanon, Sophie Layé, Sophie Tronel, Gustavo Pacheco-Lopez, Etienne Coutureau, Guillaume Ferreira
In addition to metabolic and cardiovascular disorders, obesity is associated with adverse cognitive and emotional outcomes. Its growing prevalence in adolescents is particularly alarming since this is a period of ongoing maturation for brain structures (including the hippocampus and amygdala) and for the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) stress axis, which is required for cognitive and emotional processing. We recently demonstrated that adolescent, but not adult, high-fat diet (HF) exposure leads to impaired hippocampal function and enhanced amygdala function through HPA axis alteration (Boitard et al...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916687/a-unique-combination-of-micronutrients-rejuvenates-cognitive-performance-in-aged-mice
#2
Sam D Perez, Kristy Du, Catarina Rendeiro, Lin Wang, Qian Wu, Stanislav S Rubakhin, Rema Vazhappilly, Jeffrey H Baxter, Jonathan V Sweedler, Justin S Rhodes
It is widely believed that diet can influence the onset and severity of cognitive aging, but the optimal combination of micronutrients and molecular and cellular mechanisms remain elusive. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of eight distinct diets, consisting of various concentrations of selected micronutrients, on learning and memory as well as markers of neuronal plasticity, and metabolic and neuro-immune status of the aged hippocampus. Eighteen-month-old male and female C57BL/6J mice were fed the diets for 16 weeks, followed by learning and memory trials on the active avoidance task...
December 1, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916196/adaptive-activation-of-a-stress-response-pathway-improves-learning-and-memory-through-gs-and-%C3%AE-arrestin-1-regulated-lactate-metabolism
#3
Jun-Hong Dong, Yi-Jing Wang, Min Cui, Xiao-Jing Wang, Wen-Shuai Zheng, Ming-Liang Ma, Fan Yang, Dong-Fang He, Qiao-Xia Hu, Dao-Lai Zhang, Shang-Lei Ning, Chun-Hua Liu, Chuan Wang, Yue Wang, Xiang-Yao Li, Fan Yi, Amy Lin, Alem W Kahsai, Thomas Joseph Cahill, Zhe-Yu Chen, Xiao Yu, Jin-Peng Sun
BACKGROUND: Stress is a conserved physiological response in mammals. Whereas moderate stress strengthens memory to improve reactions to previously experienced difficult situations, too much stress is harmful. METHODS: We used specific β-adrenergic agonists, as well as β2-adrenergic receptor (β2AR) and arrestin knockout models, to study the effects of adaptive β2AR activation on cognitive function using Morris water maze and object recognition experiments. We used molecular and cell biological approaches to elucidate the signaling subnetworks...
October 13, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914948/triazolopyridine-ethers-as-potent-orally-active-mglu2-positive-allosteric-modulators-for-treating-schizophrenia
#4
Mendi A Higgins, Lawrence R Marcin, F Christopher Zusi, Robert Gentles, Min Ding, Bradley C Pearce, Amy Easton, Walter A Kostich, Matthew A Seager, Clotilde Bourin, Linda J Bristow, Kim A Johnson, Regina Miller, John Hogan, Valerie Whiterock, Michael Gulianello, Meredith Ferrante, Yanling Huang, Adam Hendricson, Andrew Alt, John E Macor, Joanne J Bronson
Triazolopyridine ethers with mGlu2 positive allosteric modulator (PAM) activity are disclosed. The synthesis, in vitro activity, and metabolic stability data for a series of analogs is provided. The effort resulted in the discovery of a potent, selective, and brain penetrant lead molecule BMT-133218 ((+)-7m). After oral administration at 10mg/kg, BMT-133218 demonstrated full reversal of PCP-stimulated locomotor activity and prevented MK-801-induced working memory deficits in separate mouse models. Also, reversal of impairments in executive function were observed in rat set-shifting studies at 3 and 10mg/kg (p...
November 14, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914942/is-there-a-role-for-ghrelin-in-central-dopaminergic-systems-focus-on-nigrostriatal-and-mesocorticolimbic-pathways
#5
REVIEW
Alicia Stievenard, Mathieu Méquinion, Zane B Andrews, Alain Destée, Marie-Christine Chartier-Harlin, Odile Viltart, Christel C Vanbesien-Mailliot
The gastro-intestinal peptide ghrelin has been assigned many functions. These include appetite regulation, energy metabolism, glucose homeostasis, intestinal motility, anxiety, memory or neuroprotection. In the last decade, this pleiotropic peptide has been proposed as a therapeutic agent in gastroparesis for diabetes and in cachexia for cancer. Ghrelin and its receptor, which is expressed throughout the brain, play an important role in motivation and reward. Ghrelin finely modulates the mesencephalic dopaminergic signaling and is thus currently studied in pathological conditions including dopamine-related disorders...
November 30, 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914009/serum-response-factor-srf-ablation-interferes-with-acute-stress-associated-immediate-and-long-term-coping-mechanisms
#6
Annemarie Zimprich, Gabi Mroz, Christopher Meyer Zu Reckendorf, Sofia Anastasiadou, Philip Förstner, Lillian Garrett, Sabine M Hölter, Lore Becker, Jan Rozman, Cornelia Prehn, Birgit Rathkolb, Kristin Moreth, Wolfgang Wurst, Thomas Klopstock, Martin Klingenspor, Jerzy Adamski, Eckhard Wolf, Raffi Bekeredjian, Helmut Fuchs, Valerie Gailus-Durner, Martin Hrabe de Angelis, Bernd Knöll
Stress experience modulates behavior, metabolism, and energy expenditure of organisms. One molecular hallmark of an acute stress response is a rapid induction of immediate early genes (IEGs) such as c-Fos and Egr family members. IEG transcription in neurons is mediated by the neuronal activity-driven gene regulator serum response factor (SRF). We show a first role of SRF in immediate and long-lasting acute restraint stress (AS) responses. For this, we employed a standardized mouse phenotyping protocol at the German Mouse Clinic (GMC) including behavioral, metabolic, and cardiologic tests as well as gene expression profiling to analyze the consequences of forebrain-specific SRF deletion in mice exposed to AS...
December 2, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911319/autotaxin-is-related-to-metabolic-dysfunction-and-predicts-alzheimer-s-disease-outcomes
#7
Kelsey E McLimans, Auriel A Willette
BACKGROUND: Obesity and insulin resistance are associated with neuropathology and cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease (AD). OBJECTIVE: Ecto-nucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 2, also called autotaxin, is produced by beige adipose tissue, regulates metabolism, and is higher in AD prefrontal cortex (PFC). Autotaxin may be a novel biomarker of dysmetabolism and AD. METHODS: We studied Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative participants who were cognitively normal (CN; n = 86) or had mild cognitive impairment (MCI; n = 135) or AD (n = 66)...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911317/alzheimer-s-disease-histological-and%C3%A2-behavioral-manifestations-in%C3%A2-transgenic-mice-correlate-with%C3%A2-specific%C3%A2-gut-microbiome-state
#8
Liang Shen, Lu Liu, Hong-Fang Ji
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative brain disease and is the most common form of dementia. In recent years, many studies indicated the association of gut microbiota changes with metabolic diseases. However, the gut microbiota of AD has not been investigated. The present study aims to compare the gut microbiota in APP/PS1 transgenic mice of AD and C57/Bl6 wild-type (WT) mice by pyrosequencing the V3 and V4 regions of the bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA genes. The 3-, 6-, and 8-month-old APP/PS1 and WT mice were used to explore the effects of age on the gut microbiota...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908782/adaptive-responses-of-neuronal-mitochondria-to-bioenergetic-challenges-roles-in-neuroplasticity-and-disease-resistance
#9
REVIEW
Sophia M Raefsky, Mark P Mattson
An important concept in neurobiology is "neurons that fire together, wire together" which means that the formation and maintenance of synapses is promoted by activation of those synapses. Very similar to the effects of the stress of exercise on muscle cells, emerging findings suggest that neurons respond to activity by activating signaling pathways (e.g., Ca(2+), CREB, PGC-1α, NF-κB) that stimulate mitochondrial biogenesis and cellular stress resistance. These pathways are also activated by aerobic exercise and food deprivation, two bioenergetic challenges of fundamental importance in the evolution of the brains of all mammals, including humans...
November 29, 2016: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906633/summary-of-the-2015-purine-and-pyrimidine-society-purine-metabolic-patients-association-h-anne-simmonds-memorial-lecture
#10
Michael A Becker
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Nucleosides, Nucleotides & Nucleic Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905657/-toxic-encephalopathy-caused-by-liquefied-gas-exposure-report-of-one-case
#11
Luis Cartier R, Andrés Gallardo V
Liquefied hydrocarbon gas, such as propane is considered safe. However there are reports that voluntary exposure to liquefied gas at least could originate hallucinatory states. We report a 20 years old woman who was found in a coma with extensor muscle hypertonia, brisk tendon reflexes and extensor plantar (Babinski) responses after being exposed to propane gas. The brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed lesions in both hippocampi and white matter in the oval center. The patient had a normal oxygen saturation of 98%, a carboxyhemoglobin of 1...
August 2016: Revista Médica de Chile
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903333/diffusion-tensor-imaging-predictors-of-episodic-memory-decline-in-healthy-elders-at-genetic-risk-for-alzheimer-s-disease
#12
Melissa A Lancaster, Michael Seidenberg, J Carson Smith, Kristy A Nielson, John L Woodard, Sally Durgerian, Stephen M Rao
OBJECTIVES: White matter (WM) integrity within the mesial temporal lobe (MTL) is important for episodic memory (EM) functioning. The current study investigated the ability of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in MTL WM tracts to predict 3-year changes in EM performance in healthy elders at disproportionately higher genetic risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD). METHODS: Fifty-one cognitively intact elders (52% with family history (FH) of dementia and 33% possessing an Apolipoprotein E ε4 allelle) were administered the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) at study entry and at 3-year follow-up...
November 2016: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903296/factors-affecting-long-term-efficacy-of-t-regulatory-cell-based-therapy-in-type-1-diabetes
#13
Natalia Marek-Trzonkowska, Małgorzata Myśliwiec, Dorota Iwaszkiewicz-Grześ, Mateusz Gliwiński, Ilona Derkowska, Magdalena Żalińska, Maciej Zieliński, Marcelina Grabowska, Hanna Zielińska, Karolina Piekarska, Anna Jaźwińska-Curyłło, Radosław Owczuk, Agnieszka Szadkowska, Krystyna Wyka, Piotr Witkowski, Wojciech Młynarski, Przemysława Jarosz-Chobot, Artur Bossowski, Janusz Siebert, Piotr Trzonkowski
BACKGROUND: Recent studies suggest that immunotherapy using T regulatory cells (Tregs) prolongs remission in type 1 diabetes (T1DM). Here, we report factors that possibly affect the efficacy of this treatment. METHODS: The metabolic and immune background of 12 children with recently diagnosed T1DM, as well as that of untreated subjects, during a 2-year follow-up is presented. Patients were treated with up to 30 × 10(6)/kg b.w. of autologous expanded CD3(+)CD4(+)CD25(high)CD127(-) Tregs...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903289/changes-in-cerebral-glucose-metabolism-after-3%C3%A2-weeks-of-noninvasive-electrical-stimulation-of-mild-cognitive-impairment-patients
#14
Kyongsik Yun, In-Uk Song, Yong-An Chung
BACKGROUND: Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a syndrome that disrupts an individual's cognitive function but preserves activities of daily living. MCI is thought to be a prodromal stage of dementia, which disrupts patients' daily lives and causes severe cognitive dysfunction. Although extensive clinical trials have attempted to slow or stop the MCI to dementia conversion, the results have been largely unsuccessful. The purpose of this study was to determine whether noninvasive electrical stimulation of MCI changes glucose metabolism...
December 1, 2016: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901044/fatty-acid-metabolic-reprogramming-via-mtor-mediated-inductions-of-ppar%C3%AE-directs-early-activation-of-t-cells
#15
Mulki Angela, Yusuke Endo, Hikari K Asou, Takeshi Yamamoto, Damon J Tumes, Hirotake Tokuyama, Koutaro Yokote, Toshinori Nakayama
To fulfil the bioenergetic requirements for increased cell size and clonal expansion, activated T cells reprogramme their metabolic signatures from energetically quiescent to activated. However, the molecular mechanisms and essential components controlling metabolic reprogramming in T cells are not well understood. Here, we show that the mTORC1-PPARγ pathway is crucial for the fatty acid uptake programme in activated CD4(+) T cells. This pathway is required for full activation and rapid proliferation of naive and memory CD4(+) T cells...
November 30, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895577/fus1-ko-mouse-as-a-model-of-oxidative-stress-mediated-sporadic-alzheimer-s-disease-circadian-disruption-and-long-term-spatial-and-olfactory-memory-impairments
#16
Guillermo Coronas-Samano, Keeley L Baker, Winston J T Tan, Alla V Ivanova, Justus V Verhagen
Insufficient advances in the development of effective therapeutic treatments of sporadic Alzheimer's Disease (sAD) to date are largely due to the lack of sAD-relevant animal models. While the vast majority of models do recapitulate AD's hallmarks of plaques and tangles by virtue of tau and/or beta amyloid overexpression, these models do not reflect the fact that in sAD (unlike familial AD) these genes are not risk factors per se and that other mechanisms like oxidative stress, metabolic dysregulation and inflammation play key roles in AD etiology...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891075/bace1-rnai-restores-the-composition-of-phosphatidylethanolamine-derivates-related-to-memory-improvement-in-aged-3xtg-ad-mice
#17
Javier G Villamil-Ortiz, Alvaro Barrera-Ocampo, Diego Piedrahita, Claudia M Velásquez-Rodríguez, Julian D Arias-Londoño, Gloria P Cardona-Gómez
β-amyloid (Aβ) is produced by the β-secretase 1 (BACE1)-mediated enzymatic cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein through the amyloidogenic pathway, making BACE1 a therapeutic target against Alzheimer's disease (AD). Alterations in lipid metabolism are a risk factor for AD by an unknown mechanism. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of RNA interference against BACE1 (shBACEmiR) on the phospholipid profile in hippocampal CA1 area in aged 3xTg-AD mice after 6 and 12 months of treatment compared to aged PS1KI mice...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887989/quantitative-pet-image-reconstruction-employing-nested-expectation-maximization-deconvolution-for-motion-compensation
#18
Nicolas A Karakatsanis, Charalampos Tsoumpas, Habib Zaidi
Bulk body motion may randomly occur during PET acquisitions introducing blurring, attenuation-emission mismatches and, in dynamic PET, discontinuities in the measured time activity curves between consecutive frames. Meanwhile, dynamic PET scans are longer, thus increasing the probability of bulk motion. In this study, we propose a streamlined 3D PET motion-compensated image reconstruction (3D-MCIR) framework, capable of robustly deconvolving intra-frame motion from a static or dynamic 3D sinogram. The presented 3D-MCIR methods need not partition the data into multiple gates, such as 4D MCIR algorithms, or access list-mode (LM) data, such as LM MCIR methods, both associated with increased computation or memory resources...
November 16, 2016: Computerized Medical Imaging and Graphics: the Official Journal of the Computerized Medical Imaging Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886379/supernatants-of-adipocytes-from-obese-vs-normal-weight-women-and-breast-cancer-cells-in-vitro-impact-on-angiogenesis
#19
L Bougaret, L Delort, H Billard, C Lequeux, N Goncalves-Mendes, A Mojallal, O Damour, M-P Vasson, F Caldefie-Chezet
Breast cancer is correlated with a higher risk of metastasis in obese postmenopausal women. Adipokines, whose plasma concentrations are modulated in obese subjects, surrounds mammary cells, suggesting that adipocyte secretions affect mammary tumorogenesis. We hypothsesis that matures adipocytes secretions from obese women conditioned or not by breast neoplasic cells, increase changes on the stages of angiogenesis. Supernatants of human matures adipocytes differentiated from stem cells of either adipose tissue of normal weight (MA20) or obese (MA30) women or obtained from co-cultures between MA20 or MA30 and breast cancer cell line MCF-7 were collected...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885627/enzyme-complexes-important-for-the-glutamate-glutamine-cycle
#20
Mary C McKenna, Gustavo C Ferreira
Transient multienzyme and/or multiprotein complexes (metabolons) direct substrates toward specific pathways and can significantly influence the metabolism of glutamate and glutamine in the brain. Glutamate is the primary excitatory neurotransmitter in brain. This neurotransmitter has essential roles in normal brain function including learning and memory. Metabolism of glutamate involves the coordinated activity of astrocytes and neurons and high affinity transporter proteins that are selectively distributed on these cells...
2016: Advances in Neurobiology
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