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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213663/a-historical-glance-at-the-arabo-islamic-surgical-instruments-during-the-ages
#1
Gregory Tsoucalas, Markos Sgantzos
Arabo-Islamic physicians demonstrated exceptional skill and innovation in surgery, by having used the instruments introduced by ancient Greeks and Greco-Roman surgeons. In many cases they have manufactured their own innovative designs promoting further the success of the difficult surgical operations of their era. The surgical instruments and the surgeon's boxes, used to regularise the plethora of the metallic items, were decorated with fine designs, in order to depict the Arab civilisation. For the first time surgery became a separate medical art, while Arabo-Islamic medicine re-introduced ancient Greek and Byzantine surgery to the world...
February 17, 2017: World Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212290/defining-clinical-response-criteria-and-early-response-criteria-for-precision-oncology-current-state-of-the-art-and-future-perspectives
#2
Vivek Subbiah, Hubert H Chuang, Dhiraj Gambhire, Kalevi Kairemo
In this era of precision oncology, there has been an exponential growth in the armamentarium of genomically targeted therapies and immunotherapies. Evaluating early responses to precision therapy is essential for "go" versus "no go" decisions for these molecularly targeted drugs and agents that arm the immune system. Many different response assessment criteria exist for use in solid tumors and lymphomas. We reviewed the literature using the Medline/PubMed database for keywords "response assessment" and various known response assessment criteria published up to 2016...
February 15, 2017: Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203120/international-lessons-in-new-methods-for-grading-and-integrating-cost-effectiveness-evidence-into-clinical-practice-guidelines
#3
REVIEW
Kathryn M Antioch, Michael F Drummond, Louis W Niessen, Hindrik Vondeling
Economic evidence is influential in health technology assessment world-wide. Clinical Practice Guidelines (CPG) can enable economists to include economic information on health care provision. Application of economic evidence in CPGs, and its integration into clinical practice and national decision making is hampered by objections from professions, paucity of economic evidence or lack of policy commitment. The use of state-of-art economic methodologies will improve this. Economic evidence can be graded by 'checklists' to establish the best evidence for decision making given methodological rigor...
2017: Cost Effectiveness and Resource Allocation: C/E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198683/evidence-helps-but-some-decisions-remain-within-the-art-of-medicine
#4
EDITORIAL
Brian F Mandell
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196511/antiretroviral-therapy-related-adverse-effects-can-sub-saharan-africa-cope-with-the-new-test-and-treat-policy-of-the-world-health-organization
#5
Jobert Richie N Nansseu, Jean Joel R Bigna
BACKGROUND: Recent studies have shown that early antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation results in significant HIV transmission reduction. This is the rationale behind the "test and treat" policy of the World Health Organization (WHO). Implementation of this policy will lead to an increased incidence of ART-related adverse effects, especially in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Is the region yet ready to cope with such a challenging issue? MAIN BODY: The introduction and widespread use of ART have drastically changed the natural history of HIV/AIDS, but exposure to ART leads to serious medication-related adverse effects mainly explained by mitochondrial toxicities, and the situation will get worse in the near future...
February 15, 2017: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195249/building-blocks-of-the-gipu-italian-group-of-ultrastructural-pathology
#6
V Papa, R Costa, G Cenacchi
The Italian Group of Ultrastructural Pathology, GIPU, is a scientific organization committed to promote the art and science of Electron Microscopy (EM) in the pathology field in Italy, sharing its professional work with a public audience. The history of the GIPU goes back to 1990s when a founder group set up the Italian Group of Ultrastructural Diagnostic (GIDU) in Milan. The central focus of annual meetings was on EM, transmission and scanning one, about interesting cases in which it was instrumental in diagnosis...
June 2016: Pathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191592/what-is-the-clinical-evidence-on-regenerative-medicine-in-intervertebral-disc-degeneration
#7
REVIEW
M Basso, L Cavagnaro, A Zanirato, S Divano, C Formica, M Formica, L Felli
PURPOSE: This review aims to explore and summarize the current clinical evidence about the use of regenerative medicine such as mesenchymal stem cells or platelet-rich plasma in intervertebral disc regeneration, in order to clarify the state of art of these novel approaches. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a research of the available literature about regenerative medicine strategies aiming to prevent intervertebral disc degeneration. All preclinical trials and in vitro studies were excluded...
February 13, 2017: Musculoskeletal Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184087/learning-to-look-from-different-perspectives-what-can-dental-undergraduates-learn-from-an-arts-and-humanities-based-teaching-approach
#8
F Smyth Zahra, K Dunton
By its nature, clinical teaching involves supporting small groups of dental students at the chairside as they treat their own patients. Scaffolding their learning in this way enables observation at close quarters of the various stages of development from early novice, just commencing clinical treatment of patients, to those approaching qualification. The students' main concerns throughout are not primarily with the technical skills required, which they have already been taught in the clinical skills laboratories, but dealing with the complex realities and ambiguities of clinical practice; the 'hidden curriculum' of decision making, judgement calls, issues of communication and what it actually means to be professional...
February 10, 2017: British Dental Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182577/expressing-analytical-performance-from-multi-sample-evaluation-in-laboratory-eqa
#9
Marc H M Thelen, Rob T P Jansen, Cas W Weykamp, Herman Steigstra, Ron Meijer, Christa M Cobbaert
BACKGROUND: To provide its participants with an external quality assessment system (EQAS) that can be used to check trueness, the Dutch EQAS organizer, Organization for Quality Assessment of Laboratory Diagnostics (SKML), has innovated its general chemistry scheme over the last decade by introducing fresh frozen commutable samples whose values were assigned by Joint Committee for Traceability in Laboratory Medicine (JCTLM)-listed reference laboratories using reference methods where possible...
February 9, 2017: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28180201/thyroid-ultrasound-state-of-the-art-part-1-thyroid-ultrasound-reporting-and-diffuse-thyroid-diseases
#10
REVIEW
Manjiri Dighe, Richard Barr, Jörg Bojunga, Vito Cantisani, Maria Cristina Chammas, David Cosgrove, Xin Wu Cui, Yi Dong, Franziska Fenner, Maija Radzina, Sudhir Vinayak, Jun Mei Xu, Christoph F Dietrich
Accurate differentiation of focal thyroid nodules (FTL) and thyroid abnormalities is pivotal for proper diagnostic and therapeutic work-up. In these two part articles, the role of ultrasound techniques in the characterization of FTL and evaluation of diffuse thyroid diseases is described to expand on the recently published World Federation in Ultrasound and Medicine (WFUMB) thyroid elastography guidelines and review how this guideline fits into a complete thyroid ultrasound exam.
January 31, 2017: Medical Ultrasonography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28180024/ciliopathies-genetics-in-pediatric-medicine
#11
REVIEW
Machteld M Oud, Ideke J C Lamers, Heleen H Arts
Ciliary disorders, which are also referred to as ciliopathies, are a group of hereditary disorders that result from dysfunctional cilia. The latter are cellular organelles that stick up from the apical plasma membrane. Cilia have important roles in signal transduction and facilitate communications between cells and their surroundings. Ciliary disruption can result in a wide variety of clinically and genetically heterogeneous disorders with overlapping phenotypes. Because cilia occur widespread in our bodies many organs and sensory systems can be affected when they are dysfunctional...
March 2017: Journal of Pediatric Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178729/re-examining-physical-findings-with-point-of-care-ultrasound-a-narrative-review
#12
William Diprose, Francois Verster, Cameron Schauer
The art of physical examination has continued to be practised by physicians largely unchanged for over 200 years. Ultrasound, once the domain of the radiologist, is now being increasingly used by emergency physicians and intensivists to make rapid, accurate diagnoses at the point-of-care. We review the growing body of evidence supporting point-of-care ultrasound (PoCUS) as the preferred alternative to many aspects of the cardiovascular, respiratory, abdominal and neurological examinations in internal medicine...
January 27, 2017: New Zealand Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176637/personalized-medicine-applied-to-forensic-sciences-new-advances-and-perspectives-for-a-tailored-forensic-approach
#13
Alessandro Santurro, Anna Maria Vullo, Marina Borro, Giovanna Gentile, Raffaele La Russa, Maurizio Simmaco, Paola Frati, Vittorio Fineschi
Personalized medicine (PM), included in P5 medicine (Personalized, Predictive, Preventive, Participative and Precision medicine) is an innovative approach to the patient, emerging from the need to tailor and to fit the profile of each individual. PM promises to dramatically impact also on forensic sciences and justice system in ways we are only beginning to understand. The application of omics (genomic, transcriptomics, epigenetics/imprintomics, proteomic and metabolomics) is ever more fundamental in the so called "molecular autopsy"...
February 7, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167246/performance-specifications-for-the-extra-analytical-phases-of-laboratory-testing-why-and-how
#14
REVIEW
Mario Plebani
An important priority in the current healthcare scenario should be to address errors in laboratory testing, which account for a significant proportion of diagnostic errors. Efforts made in laboratory medicine to enhance the diagnostic process have been directed toward improving technology, greater volumes and more accurate laboratory tests being achieved, but data collected in the last few years highlight the need to re-evaluate the total testing process (TTP) as the unique framework for improving quality and patient safety...
February 3, 2017: Clinical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166081/the-art-of-pharmacotherapy-reflections-on-pharmacophobia
#15
Jose de Leon, Carlos De Las Cuevas
PURPOSE/BACKGROUND: This commentary deals with the neglected issue of the art of psychopharmacology by recounting the authors' journeys. METHODS/PROCEDURES: First, a model of medical science situated within the history of medicine is described including (1) a limitation of the mathematical model of science, (2) the distinction between mechanistic science and mathematical science, (3) how this distinction is applied to medicine, and (4) how this distinction is applied to explain pharmacology to psychiatrists...
February 3, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163015/a-pragmatic-approach-to-sample-acceptance-and-rejection
#16
Janne Cadamuro, Ana-Maria Simundic, Eva Ajzner, Sverre Sandberg
Sample rejection due to preanalytical errors is very common in many medical laboratories worldwide, though the decision when and how to refrain from analyzing such samples is handled very heterogeneously. As a rational, it is mostly stated that it is done to prevent the patient from being harmed by wrong medical decisions based on such values. But when thinking of the consequences of laboratory results instead of their quality being important per se, the rejection of preanalytically altered samples might be harming the patient by the need of re-collection and timely delay...
February 2, 2017: Clinical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162776/the-future-of-psychiatry-brain-devices
#17
Jorge Alberto Costa E Silva, Ricardo Ewbank Steffen
Recent advances in deep brain stimulators and brain-machine interfaces have greatly expanded the possibilities of neuroprosthetics and neuromodulation. Together with advances in neuroengineering, nanotechnology, molecular biology and material sciences, it is now possible to address fundamental questions in neuroscience in new, more powerful ways. It is now possible to apply these new technologies in ways that range from augmenting and restoring function to neuromodulation modalities that treat neuropsychiatric disorders...
January 11, 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155639/inferring-new-indications-for-approved-drugs-via-random-walk-on-drug-disease-heterogenous-networks
#18
Hui Liu, Yinglong Song, Jihong Guan, Libo Luo, Ziheng Zhuang
BACKGROUND: Since traditional drug research and development is often time-consuming and high-risk, there is an increasing interest in establishing new medical indications for approved drugs, referred to as drug repositioning, which provides a relatively low-cost and high-efficiency approach for drug discovery. With the explosive growth of large-scale biochemical and phenotypic data, drug repositioning holds great potential for precision medicine in the post-genomic era. It is urgent to develop rational and systematic approaches to predict new indications for approved drugs on a large scale...
December 23, 2016: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153370/understanding-the-use-of-sigma-metrics-in-hemoglobin-a1c-analysis
#19
REVIEW
Erna Lenters-Westra, Emma English
This study uses three unique data sets to show the state of the art of hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) analyzers in a range of settings and compares their performance against the international guidance set by the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine task force for HbA1c standardization. The data are used to show the effect of tightening those criteria, and the study serves as a guide to the practical implementation of the sigma-metrics approach in a range of clinical settings.
March 2017: Clinics in Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149265/progress-in-metabolomics-standardisation-and-its-significance-in-future-clinical-laboratory-medicine
#20
Daniel A Dias, Therese Koal
Today, the technology of 'targeted' based metabolomics is pivotal in the clinical analysis workflow as it provides information of metabolic phenotyping (metabotypes) by enhancing our understanding of metabolism of complex diseases, biomarker discovery for disease development, progression, treatment, and drug function and assessment. This review is focused on surveying and providing a gap analysis on metabolic phenotyping with a focus on targeted based metabolomics from an instrumental, technical point-of-view discussing the state-of-the-art instrumentation, pre- to post- analytical aspects as well as an overall future necessity for biomarker discovery and future (pre-) clinical routine application...
December 2016: EJIFCC
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