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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922698/survival-improvements-with-adjuvant-therapy-in-patients-with-glioblastoma
#1
Dasantha Jayamanne, Helen Wheeler, Raymond Cook, Charles Teo, David Brazier, Geoff Schembri, Marina Kastelan, Linxin Guo, Michael F Back
BACKGROUND: Evaluate survival of patients diagnosed with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) managed with adjuvant intensity modulated radiation therapy and temozolomide since the introduction of the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer and National Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group (EORTC-NCIC) protocol. METHODS: All patients with GBM managed between May 2007 and December 2014 with EORTC-NCIC protocol were entered into a prospective database...
September 18, 2017: ANZ Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921778/alcohol-e-help-study-protocol-for-a-web-based-self-help-program-to-reduce-alcohol-use-in-adults-with-drinking-patterns-considered-harmful-hazardous-or-suggestive-of-dependence-in-middle-income-countries
#2
Michael P Schaub, Marcela Tiburcio, Nora Martinez, Atul Ambekar, Yatan Pal Singh Balhara, Andreas Wenger, André Luiz Monezi Andrade, Dzianis Padruchny, Sergey Osipchik, Elise Gehring, Vladimir Poznyak, Dag Rekve, Maria Lucia Oliveira Souza-Formigoni
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Given the scarcity of alcohol prevention and alcohol use disorder treatments in many low and middle-income countries, the World Health Organization launched an e-health portal on alcohol and health that includes a Web-based self-help program. This paper presents the protocol for a multicenter randomised controlled trial (RCT) to test the efficacy of the Internet-based self-help intervention to reduce alcohol use. DESIGN: Two-arm RCT with follow-up 6 months after randomisation...
September 17, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919243/drugs-do-we-need-them-applications-of-non-pharmaceutical-therapy-in-anterior-eye-disease-a-review
#3
REVIEW
Priyanka Mandal, Mohammad A Khan, Sunil Shah
Natural products have been in use long before the introduction of modern drug therapies and are still used in various communities worldwide for the treatment of anterior eye disease. The aim of this review is to look at the current non-pharmaceutical modalities that have been tried and assess the body of existing evidence behind them. This includes alternative medicine, existing non-pharmaceutical therapy and more recent low and high tech solutions. A detailed search of all available databases including MEDLINE, Pubmed and Google was made to look for English-language studies for complementary and alternative treatment modalities (CAM), natural therapies and new modalities for anterior eye disease such as blepharitis, dry eye and microbial keratitis...
September 14, 2017: Contact Lens & Anterior Eye: the Journal of the British Contact Lens Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918539/accelerating-vaccine-development-during-the-2013-2016-west-african-ebola-virus-disease-outbreak
#4
Elizabeth S Higgs, Sheri A Dubey, Beth A G Coller, Jakub K Simon, Laura Bollinger, Robert A Sorenson, Barthalomew Wilson, Martha C Nason, Lisa E Hensley
The Ebola virus disease outbreak that began in Western Africa in December 2013 was unprecedented in both scope and spread, and the global response was slower and less coherent than was optimal given the scale and pace of the epidemic. Past experience with limited localized outbreaks, lack of licensed medical countermeasures, reluctance by first responders to direct scarce resources to clinical research, community resistance to outside interventions, and lack of local infrastructure were among the factors delaying clinical research during the outbreak...
September 17, 2017: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918422/the-modern-art-of-reading-computed-tomography-images-of-the-lungs-quantitative-ct
#5
Felix J F Herth, Miranda Kirby, Jered Sieren, Jonas Herth, Joshua Schirm, Susan Wood, Maren Schuhmann
Lung diseases are increasing in prevalence and overall burden worldwide. To stem the tide, more and more national and international guidelines are recommending the use of various diagnostic algorithms that are disease specific. There is growing consensus among the respiratory community that although patient histories and lung function testing are the minimum required for clinical examinations, these tests alone are not sufficient for disease characterization. Therefore, the use of computed tomography (CT) imaging is increasing used in clinical decision making for lung diseases...
September 16, 2017: Respiration; International Review of Thoracic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918387/prospective-comparative-effectiveness-cohort-study-comparing-two-models-of-advance-care-planning-provision-for-australian-community-aged-care-clients
#6
Karen Margaret Detering, Rachel Zoe Carter, Marcus William Sellars, Virginia Lewis, Elizabeth Anne Sutton
OBJECTIVES: Conduct a prospective comparative effectiveness cohort study comparing two models of advance care planning (ACP) provision in community aged care: ACP conducted by the client's case manager (CM) ('Facilitator') and ACP conducted by an external ACP service ('Referral') over a 6-month period. METHODS: This Australian study involved CMs and their clients. Eligible CM were English speaking, ≥18 years, had expected availability for the trial and worked ≥3 days per week...
September 16, 2017: BMJ Supportive & Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918120/moment-by-moment-in-women-s-recovery-randomized-controlled-trial-protocol-to-test-the-efficacy-of-a-mindfulness-based-intervention-on-treatment-retention-and-relapse-prevention-among-women-in-residential-treatment-for-substance-use-disorder
#7
Hortensia Amaro, David S Black
Although therapeutic treatments exist for substance use disorder (SUD), about half of individuals who enter treatment leave early and relapse to substance use. Early dropout from residential treatment places individuals at risk of relapse, and women in SUD residential treatment represent a vulnerable population. Evidence gaps persist for the use of mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) among racially and ethnically diverse women with SUDs, especially regarding the efficacy of MBIs adapted to prevent residential dropout and relapse...
September 13, 2017: Contemporary Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916269/the-sterile-controversy-on-the-amyloid-cascade-hypothesis
#8
Marco Canevelli, Giuseppe Bruno, Matteo Cesari
In these last years, several phase III randomized controlled trials testing promising candidates sharing Aβ depots as target of their action have failed, despite showing some reductions of the brain Aβ charge. The announcements of the negative results have heated the discussion in the field and divided the scientific community between the defenders versus the opponents of the Aβ theory. In the present article, we discuss the limits of these drastic, opposite positions and we propose a novel approach to Alzheimer's disease (AD)...
September 12, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915815/designing-an-implementation-intervention-with-the-behaviour-change-wheel-for-health-provider-smoking-cessation-care-for-australian-indigenous-pregnant-women
#9
Gillian S Gould, Yael Bar-Zeev, Michelle Bovill, Lou Atkins, Maree Gruppetta, Marilyn J Clarke, Billie Bonevski
BACKGROUND: Indigenous smoking rates are up to 80% among pregnant women: prevalence among pregnant Australian Indigenous women was 45% in 2014, contributing significantly to the health gap for Indigenous Australians. We aimed to develop an implementation intervention to improve smoking cessation care (SCC) for pregnant Indigenous smokers, an outcome to be achieved by training health providers at Aboriginal Medical Services (AMS) in a culturally competent approach, developed collaboratively with AMS...
September 15, 2017: Implementation Science: IS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914082/characterizing-psychiatric-comorbidity-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-receiving-publicly-funded-mental-health-services
#10
Lauren Brookman-Frazee, Nicole Stadnick, Colby Chlebowski, Mary Baker-Ericzén, William Ganger
Publicly funded mental health programs play a significant role in serving children with autism spectrum disorder. Understanding patterns of psychiatric comorbidity for this population within mental health settings is important to implement appropriately tailored interventions. This study (1) describes patterns of psychiatric comorbidity in children with autism spectrum disorder who present to mental health services with challenging behaviors and (2) identifies child characteristics associated with comorbid conditions...
September 1, 2017: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913882/reducing-disparities-in-cancer-screening-and-prevention-through-community-based-participatory-research-partnerships-with-local-libraries-a-comprehensive-dynamic-trial
#11
Bruce D Rapkin, Elisa Weiss, David Lounsbury, Tamara Michel, Alexis Gordon, Jennifer Erb-Downward, Eilleen Sabino-Laughlin, Alison Carpenter, Carolyn E Schwartz, Linda Bulone, Margaret Kemeny
Reduction of cancer-related disparities requires strategies that link medically underserved communities to preventive care. In this community-based participatory research project, a public library system brought together stakeholders to plan and undertake programs to address cancer screening and risk behavior. This study was implemented over 48 months in 20 large urban neighborhoods, selected to reach diverse communities disconnected from care. In each neighborhood, Cancer Action Councils were organized to conduct a comprehensive dynamic trial, an iterative process of program planning, implementation and evaluation...
September 15, 2017: American Journal of Community Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912825/randomised-and-non-randomised-studies-to-estimate-the-effect-of-community-level-public-health-interventions-definitions-and-methodological-considerations
#12
Wolf-Peter Schmidt
BACKGROUND: The preferred method to evaluate public health interventions delivered at the level of whole communities is the cluster randomised trial (CRT). The practical limitations of CRTs and the need for alternative methods continue to be debated. There is no consensus on how to classify study designs to evaluate interventions, and how different design features are related to the strength of evidence. ANALYSIS: This article proposes that most study designs for the evaluation of cluster-level interventions fall into four broad categories: the CRT, the non-randomised cluster trial (NCT), the controlled before-and-after study (CBA), and the before-and-after study without control (BA)...
2017: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912054/effectiveness-of-pharmacist-interventions-on-cardiovascular-risk-in-patients-with-ckd-a-subgroup-analysis-of-the-randomized-controlled-rxeach-trial
#13
Yazid N Al Hamarneh, Ross T Tsuyuki, Charlotte A Jones, Braden Manns, Marcello Tonelli, Nairne Scott-Douglass, Kailash Jindal, Wendy Tink, Brenda R Hemmelgarn
BACKGROUND: Affecting a substantial proportion of adults, chronic kidney disease (CKD) is considered a major risk factor for cardiovascular (CV) events. It has been reported that patients with CKD are underserved when it comes to CV risk reduction efforts. STUDY DESIGN: Prespecified subgroup analysis of a randomized controlled trial. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS: Adults with CKD and at least 1 uncontrolled CV risk factor were enrolled from 56 pharmacies across Alberta, Canada...
September 11, 2017: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911749/effect-of-participatory-women-s-groups-and-counselling-through-home-visits-on-children-s-linear-growth-in-rural-eastern-india-caring-trial-a-cluster-randomised-controlled-trial
#14
Nirmala Nair, Prasanta Tripathy, H S Sachdev, Hemanta Pradhan, Sanghita Bhattacharyya, Rajkumar Gope, Sumitra Gagrai, Shibanand Rath, Suchitra Rath, Rajesh Sinha, Swati Sarbani Roy, Suhas Shewale, Vijay Singh, Aradhana Srivastava, Anthony Costello, Andrew Copas, Jolene Skordis-Worrall, Hassan Haghparast-Bidgoli, Naomi Saville, Audrey Prost
BACKGROUND: Around 30% of the world's stunted children live in India. The Government of India has proposed a new cadre of community-based workers to improve nutrition in 200 districts. We aimed to find out the effect of such a worker carrying out home visits and participatory group meetings on children's linear growth. METHODS: We did a cluster-randomised controlled trial in two adjoining districts of Jharkhand and Odisha, India. 120 clusters (around 1000 people each) were randomly allocated to intervention or control using a lottery...
October 2017: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910814/feasibility-and-effectiveness-of-intervention-programmes-integrating-functional-exercise-into-daily-life-of-older-adults-a-systematic-review
#15
Michaela Weber, Nacera Belala, Lindy Clemson, Elisabeth Boulton, Helen Hawley-Hague, Clemens Becker, Michael Schwenk
BACKGROUND: Traditionally, exercise programmes for improving functional performance and reducing falls are organised as structured sessions. An alternative approach of integrating functional exercises into everyday tasks has emerged in recent years. OBJECTIVES: Summarising the current evidence for the feasibility and effectiveness of interventions integrating functional exercise into daily life. METHODS: A systematic literature search was conducted including articles based on the following criteria: (1) individuals ≥60 years; (2) intervention studies of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and non-randomised studies (NRS); (3) using a lifestyle-integrated approach; (4) using functional exercises to improve strength, balance, or physical functioning; and (5) reporting outcomes on feasibility and/or effectiveness...
September 15, 2017: Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903804/beyond-the-dinner-table-who-s-having-breakfast-lunch-and-dinner-family-meals-and-which-meals-are-associated-with-better-diet-quality-and-bmi-in-pre-school-children
#16
Jerica M Berge, Kimberly P Truesdale, Nancy E Sherwood, Nathan Mitchell, William J Heerman, Shari Barkin, Donna Matheson, Carolyn E Levers-Landis, Simone A French
OBJECTIVE: Having frequent family dinners is associated with better diet quality in children; however, it is unknown whether the frequency of certain family meal types (i.e. dinner) is more strongly associated with better child weight and diet quality compared with other meal types (i.e. breakfast, lunch). Thus, the current study examined the frequency of eating breakfast, lunch or dinner family meals and associations with pre-school children's overall diet quality (HEI-2010) and BMI percentile...
September 14, 2017: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903767/treatment-of-biofilms-in-bacterial-vaginosis-by-an-amphoteric-tenside-pessary-clinical-study-and-microbiota-analysis
#17
Cornelia Gottschick, Zhi-Luo Deng, Marius Vital, Clarissa Masur, Christoph Abels, Dietmar H Pieper, Manfred Rohde, Werner Mendling, Irene Wagner-Döbler
BACKGROUND: Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is the most common vaginal syndrome among women in their reproductive years. It is associated with an increased risk of acquiring sexually transmitted infections and complications like preterm labor. BV is characterized by a high recurrence rate for which biofilms frequently found on vaginal epithelial cells may be a reason. RESULTS: Here, we report a controlled randomized clinical trial that tested the safety and effectiveness of a newly developed pessary containing an amphoteric tenside (WO3191) to disrupt biofilms after metronidazole treatment of BV...
September 13, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903738/a-randomized-controlled-trial-of-physical-activity-with-individual-goal-setting-and-volunteer-mentors-to-overcome-sedentary-lifestyle-in-older-adults-at-risk-of-cognitive-decline-the-indigo-trial-protocol
#18
Kay L Cox, Elizabeth V Cyarto, Christopher Etherton-Beer, Kathryn A Ellis, Helman Alfonso, Linda Clare, Danny Liew, David Ames, Leon Flicker, Osvaldo P Almeida, Dina LoGiudice, Nicola T Lautenschlager
BACKGROUND: Increasing physical activity (PA) effectively in those who are inactive is challenging. For those who have subjective memory complaints (SMC) or mild cognitive impairment (MCI) this is a greater challenge necessitating the need for more engaging and innovative approaches. The primary aim of this trial is to determine whether a home-based 6-month PA intervention with individual goal-setting and peer mentors (GM-PA) can significantly increase PA levels in insufficiently active older adults at increased risk of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD)...
September 13, 2017: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902144/implementing-low-cost-community-based-exercise-programs-for-middle-aged-and-older-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-what-are-the-benefits-for-glycemic-control-and-cardiovascular-risk
#19
Romeu Mendes, Nelson Sousa, Victor Machado Reis, Jose Luis Themudo-Barata
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of a long-term, community-based, combined exercise program developed with low-cost exercise strategies on glycemic control and cardiovascular risk factors in middle-aged and older patients with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: Participants (n = 124; 63.25 ± 7.20 years old) engaged in either a 9-month supervised exercise program (n = 39; consisting of combined aerobic, resistance, agility/balance, and flexibility exercise; three sessions per week; 70 min per session) or a control group (n = 85) who maintained their usual care...
September 13, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901219/primary-prevention-of-stroke-and-cardiovascular-disease-in-the-community-prevents-methodology-of-a-health-wellness-coaching-intervention-to-reduce-stroke-and-cardiovascular-disease-risk-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#20
Susan Mahon, Rita Krishnamurthi, Alain Vandal, Emma Witt, Suzanne Barker-Collo, Priya Parmar, Alice Theadom, Alan Barber, Bruce Arroll, Elaine Rush, Hinemoa Elder, Jesse Dyer, Valery Feigin
Rationale Stroke is a major cause of death and disability worldwide, yet 80% of strokes can be prevented through modifications of risk factors and lifestyle and by medication. While management strategies for primary stroke prevention in high cardiovascular disease risk individuals are well established, they are underutilized and existing practice of primary stroke prevention are inadequate. Behavioral interventions are emerging as highly promising strategies to improve cardiovascular disease risk factor management...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of Stroke: Official Journal of the International Stroke Society
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