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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049454/identifying-mechanisms-for-facilitating-knowledge-to-action-strategies-targeting-the-built-environment
#1
Ghazal S Fazli, Maria I Creatore, Flora I Matheson, Sara Guilcher, Vered Kaufman-Shriqui, Heather Manson, Ashley Johns, Gillian L Booth
BACKGROUND: In recent years, obesity-related diseases have been on the rise globally resulting in major challenges for health systems and society as a whole. Emerging research in population health suggests that interventions targeting the built environment may help reduce the burden of obesity and type 2 diabetes. However, translation of the evidence on the built environment into effective policy and planning changes requires engagement and collaboration between multiple sectors and government agencies for designing neighborhoods that are more conducive to healthy and active living...
January 3, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025321/national-income-inequality-and-ineffective-health-insurance-in-35-low-and-middle-income-countries
#2
Francisco N Alvarez, Abdulrahman M El-Sayed
Global health policy efforts to improve health and reduce financial burden of disease in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) has fuelled interest in expanding access to health insurance coverage to all, a movement known as Universal Health Coverage (UHC). Ineffective insurance is a measure of failure to achieve the intended outcomes of health insurance among those who nominally have insurance. This study aimed to evaluate the relation between national-level income inequality and the prevalence of ineffective insurance...
December 26, 2016: Health Policy and Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005920/fortified-snack-reduced-anemia-in-rural-school-aged-children-of-haiti-a-cluster-randomized-controlled-trial
#3
Lora Iannotti, Sherlie Jean-Louis Dulience, Saminetha Joseph, Charmayne Cooley, Teresa Tufte, Katherine Cox, Jacob Eaton, Jacques Raymond Delnatus, Patricia B Wolff
BACKGROUND: Nutrition in the school-aged child matters for brain development and public policy investments globally. Our group previously conducted a trial in urban schools of Haiti to examine the effects of a fortified peanut butter snack, Vita Mamba, with limited findings for anemia. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to test the hypothesis that Vita Mamba, with systematic deworming in both study arms, would significantly reduce anemia among rural, school-aged children. METHODS: A cluster, randomized longitudinal study was conducted in two rural communities of the North-East Department of Haiti, 2014-2015...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27938630/health-system-reform-in-peri-urban-communities-an-exploratory-study-of-policy-strategies-towards-healthcare-worker-reform-in-epworth-zimbabwe
#4
Bernard Hope Taderera, Stephen James Heinrich Hendricks, Yogan Pillay
BACKGROUND: Human resources for health (HRH) remains a critical challenge, according to the Kampala Declaration and Agenda for Global Action of 2008 and the 2030 Sustainable Development Agenda. Available literature on health system reforms does not provide a detailed narrative on strategies that have been used to reform HRH challenges in peri-urban communities. This study explores such strategies implemented in Epworth, Zimbabwe, during 2009-2014, and the implications these strategies might have on other peri-urban areas...
2016: Global Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924966/type-2-diabetes-mellitus-in-pakistan-current-prevalence-and-future-forecast
#5
Sultan Ayoub Meo, Inam Zia, Ishfaq A Bukhari, Shoukat Ali Arain
Diabetes mellitus is a chronic health problem of all age groups, both gender, involves rural and urban areas and developing and developed countries globally. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus in Pakistan. Systematic bibliographic search of scientific databases including PubMed, ISI-web of science and Google Scholar was conducted with key words of "type 2 diabetes mellitus" "prevalence", "incidence", "occurrence". A total of 22 peer reviewed papers published in ISI and PubMed indexed journals were selected and examined...
December 2016: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914350/phosphorus-flows-in-a-peri-urban-region-with-intensive-food-production-a-case-study
#6
S Bittman, S C Sheppard, D Poon, D E Hunt
Excess phosphorus (P) in peri-urban regions is an emerging issue, whereas there is global depletion of quality mined supplies of P. The flow of P across the landscape leading to regional surpluses and deficits is not well understood. We computed a regional P budget with internal P flows in a fairly discreet peri-urban region (Lower Fraser Valley, BC) with closely juxtaposed agricultural and non-agricultural urban ecosystems, in order to clarify the relationship between food production, food consumption and other activities involving use of P (e...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852317/the-relationship-between-the-maria-da-penha-law-and-intimate-partner-violence-in-two-brazilian-states
#7
Mariana V Gattegno, Jasmine D Wilkins, Dabney P Evans
BACKGROUND: Globally, inequality between men and women manifests in a variety of ways. In particular, gender inequality increases the risk of perpetration of violence against women (VAW), especially intimate partner violence (IPV), by males. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that 35 % of women have experienced physical, psychological and/or sexual IPV at least once in their lives, making IPV unacceptably common. In 2006, the Maria da Penha Law on Domestic and Family Violence, became the first federal law to regulate VAW and punish perpetrators in Brazil...
November 17, 2016: International Journal for Equity in Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755760/nonnative-forest-insects-and-pathogens-in-the-united-states-impacts-and-policy-options
#8
Gary M Lovett, Marissa Weiss, Andrew M Liebhold, Thomas P Holmes, Brian Leung, Kathy Fallon Lambert, David A Orwig, Faith T Campbell, Jonathan Rosenthal, Deborah G McCullough, Radka Wildova, Matthew P Ayres, Charles D Canham, David R Foster, Shannon L LaDeau, Troy Weldy
We review and synthesize information on invasions of nonnative forest insects and diseases in the United States, including their ecological and economic impacts, pathways of arrival, distribution within the United States, and policy options for reducing future invasions. Nonnative insects have accumulated in United States forests at a rate of ~2.5 per yr over the last 150 yr. Currently the two major pathways of introduction are importation of live plants and wood packing material such as pallets and crates...
July 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27720315/environmental-pollution-and-risk-of-psychotic-disorders-a-review-of-the-science-to-date
#9
Luigi Attademo, Francesco Bernardini, Raffaele Garinella, Michael T Compton
Environmental pollution is a global problem with diverse and substantial public health implications. Although many environmental (i.e., non-genetic) risk factors for schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders have been identified, there has been comparatively little research on pollution as a possible risk factor. This is despite the fact that gene-by-environment interactions and epigenetic mechanisms are now recognized as likely facets of the etiology of schizophrenia, and the fact that pollution could potentially mediate the association between urban birth/upbringing and elevated risk...
October 5, 2016: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27716261/enhancing-health-care-equity-with-indigenous-populations-evidence-based-strategies-from-an-ethnographic-study
#10
Annette J Browne, Colleen Varcoe, Josée Lavoie, Victoria Smye, Sabrina T Wong, Murry Krause, David Tu, Olive Godwin, Koushambhi Khan, Alycia Fridkin
BACKGROUND: Structural violence shapes the health of Indigenous peoples globally, and is deeply embedded in history, individual and institutional racism, and inequitable social policies and practices. Many Indigenous communities have flourished, however, the impact of colonialism continues to have profound health effects for Indigenous peoples in Canada and internationally. Despite increasing evidence of health status inequities affecting Indigenous populations, health services often fail to address health and social inequities as routine aspects of health care delivery...
October 4, 2016: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27695753/urban-air-pollution-in-taiwan-before-and-after-the-installation-of-a-mass-rapid-transit-system
#11
Pei-Hsiou Ding, Gen-Shuh Wang, Bing-Yu Chen, Gwo-Hwa Wan
Urbanization causes air pollution in metropolitan areas, coupled with meteorological factors that affect air quality. Although previous studies focused on the relationships of urbanization, air pollution, and climate change in Western countries, this study evaluated long-term variations of air quality and meteorological factors in Taiwanese metropolitan areas (Taipei area, Taichung City, and Kaohsiung City) and a rural area (Hualien County) between 1993 and 2012. The influence of a mass rapid transit (MRT) system on air quality was also evaluated...
September 2016: Journal of Environmental Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27694667/needed-global-collaboration-for-comparative-research-on-cities-and-health
#12
Michael K Gusmano, Victor G Rodwin
Over half of the world's population lives in cities and United Nations (UN) demographers project an increase of 2.5 billion more urban dwellers by 2050. Yet there is too little systematic comparative research on the practice of urban health policy and management (HPAM), particularly in the megacities of middle-income and developing nations. We make a case for creating a global database on cities, population health and healthcare systems. The expenses involved in data collection would be difficult to justify without some review of previous work, some agreement on indicators worth measuring, conceptual and methodological considerations to guide the construction of the global database, and a set of research questions and hypotheses to test...
April 16, 2016: International Journal of Health Policy and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27671670/use-of-science-to-guide-city-planning-policy-and-practice-how-to-achieve-healthy-and-sustainable-future-cities
#13
REVIEW
James F Sallis, Fiona Bull, Ricky Burdett, Lawrence D Frank, Peter Griffiths, Billie Giles-Corti, Mark Stevenson
Land-use and transport policies contribute to worldwide epidemics of injuries and non-communicable diseases through traffic exposure, noise, air pollution, social isolation, low physical activity, and sedentary behaviours. Motorised transport is a major cause of the greenhouse gas emissions that are threatening human health. Urban and transport planning and urban design policies in many cities do not reflect the accumulating evidence that, if policies would take health effects into account, they could benefit a wide range of common health problems...
December 10, 2016: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27631955/-urban-health-stadtgesundheit-the-wider-perspective-exemplified-by-the-city-state-of-hamburg
#14
R Fehr, R Fertmann, K-P Stender, N Lettau, A Trojan
Public health and city planning have common roots, and in many places they are now reuniting under the heading of urban health. To organize this field adequately requires a broad, integrative view of medical care, health promotion, and health in all urban policies. Given current crises and developments including climate change and globalization, such a wider perspective should also be useful for Germany. Using the City State of Hamburg as an example and combining historic and systematic approaches, we explore the preconditions for in-depth analyses...
September 2016: Das Gesundheitswesen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27614532/long-term-trend-and-spatial-pattern-of-pm2-5-induced-premature-mortality-in-china
#15
Rong Xie, Clive E Sabel, Xi Lu, Weimo Zhu, Haidong Kan, Chris P Nielsen, Haikun Wang
With rapid economic growth, China has witnessed increasingly frequent and severe haze and smog episodes over the past decade, posing serious health impacts to the Chinese population, especially those in densely populated city clusters. Quantification of the spatial and temporal variation of health impacts attributable to ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) has important implications for China's policies on air pollution control. In this study, we evaluated the spatial distribution of premature deaths in China between 2000 and 2010 attributable to ambient PM2...
December 2016: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27605953/non-communicable-diseases-among-children-in-ghana-health-and-social-concerns-of-parent-caregivers
#16
Alfred E Yawson, Aaron A Abuosi, Delali M Badasu, Deborah Atobra, Francis A Adzei, John K Anarfi
BACKGROUND: Globally, there is a progressive rise in the burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs). This paper examined the health and social concerns of parents/caregivers on in-patient care for children with NCDs in Ghana. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study in three large health facilities in Ghana (the largest in the South, the largest in the North and the largest in the Eastern part of Ghana. Data was collected with a structured questionnaire among 225 caregivers (≥18 years) of 149 children with NCDs in health facilities in the three regions...
June 2016: African Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27604901/schools-of-public-health-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-an-imperative-investment-for-improving-the-health-of-populations
#17
Fauziah Rabbani, Leah Shipton, Franklin White, Iman Nuwayhid, Leslie London, Abdul Ghaffar, Bui Thi Thu Ha, Göran Tomson, Rajiv Rimal, Anwar Islam, Amirhossein Takian, Samuel Wong, Shehla Zaidi, Kausar Khan, Rozina Karmaliani, Imran Naeem Abbasi, Farhat Abbas
BACKGROUND: Public health has multicultural origins. By the close of the nineteenth century, Schools of Public Health (SPHs) began to emerge in western countries in response to major contemporary public health challenges. The Flexner Report (1910) emphasized the centrality of preventive medicine, sanitation, and public health measures in health professional education. The Alma Ata Declaration on Primary Health Care (PHC) in 1978 was a critical milestone, especially for low and middle-income countries (LMICs), conceptualizing a close working relationship between PHC and public health measures...
2016: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27551857/-they-aren-t-really-black-fellas-but-they-are-easy-to-talk-to-factors-which-influence-australian-aboriginal-women-s-decision-to-disclose-intimate-partner-violence-during-pregnancy
#18
Jo Spangaro, Sigrid Herring, Jane Koziol-Mclain, Alison Rutherford, Mary-Anne Frail, Anthony B Zwi
OBJECTIVES: intimate partner violence is a significant global health problem but remains largely hidden. Understanding decisions about whether or not to disclose violence in response to routine enquiry in health settings can inform safe and responsive systems. Elevated rates of violence and systematic disadvantage found among Indigenous women globally, can impact on their decisions to disclose violence. This study aimed to test, among Indigenous women, a model for decisions on whether to disclose intimate partner violence in the context of antenatal routine screening...
October 2016: Midwifery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27531729/association-of-socioeconomic-status-with-psychiatric-problems-and-violent-behaviours-in-a-nationally-representative-sample-of-iranian-children-and-adolescents-the-caspian-iv-study
#19
Ramin Heshmat, Mostafa Qorbani, Behnaz Ghoreshi, Shirin Djalalinia, Omid Reza Tabatabaie, Saeid Safiri, Mehdi Noroozi, Mohammad-Esmaeil Motlagh, Zeinab Ahadi, Hamid Asayesh, Roya Kelishadi
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and psychiatric problems and violent behaviours in a nationally representative sample of Iranian children and adolescents, based on nationwide surveillance programme data, 2011-2012. METHODS: Overall, 14 880 students, aged 6-18 years, were selected using a multistage cluster sampling method from rural and urban areas of 30 provinces in Iran. SES was estimated based on a main summarised component, extracted from principle component analysis of family assets and parents' jobs and education...
2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27511936/usual-vitamin-intakes-by-mexican-populations
#20
REVIEW
Andrea Pedroza-Tobías, Lucía Hernández-Barrera, Nancy López-Olmedo, Armando García-Guerra, Sonia Rodríguez-Ramírez, Ivonne Ramírez-Silva, Salvador Villalpando, Alicia Carriquiry, Juan A Rivera
BACKGROUND: In the past several years, the consumption of high-energy, nutrient-poor foods has increased globally. Dietary intake data collected by the National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT) 2012 provide information to assess the quality of the Mexican diet and to guide food and nutrition policy. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to describe the usual intake and the prevalence of inadequate intakes of vitamins for the overall Mexican population and by subgroups defined by sex, age, region, urban or rural areas, and socioeconomic status (SES)...
September 2016: Journal of Nutrition
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