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Health policy, urban health, global health

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852317/the-relationship-between-the-maria-da-penha-law-and-intimate-partner-violence-in-two-brazilian-states
#1
Mariana V Gattegno, Jasmine D Wilkins, Dabney P Evans
BACKGROUND: Globally, inequality between men and women manifests in a variety of ways. In particular, gender inequality increases the risk of perpetration of violence against women (VAW), especially intimate partner violence (IPV), by males. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that 35 % of women have experienced physical, psychological and/or sexual IPV at least once in their lives, making IPV unacceptably common. In 2006, the Maria da Penha Law on Domestic and Family Violence, became the first federal law to regulate VAW and punish perpetrators in Brazil...
November 17, 2016: International Journal for Equity in Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755760/nonnative-forest-insects-and-pathogens-in-the-united-states-impacts-and-policy-options
#2
Gary M Lovett, Marissa Weiss, Andrew M Liebhold, Thomas P Holmes, Brian Leung, Kathy Fallon Lambert, David A Orwig, Faith T Campbell, Jonathan Rosenthal, Deborah G McCullough, Radka Wildova, Matthew P Ayres, Charles D Canham, David R Foster, Shannon L LaDeau, Troy Weldy
We review and synthesize information on invasions of nonnative forest insects and diseases in the United States, including their ecological and economic impacts, pathways of arrival, distribution within the United States, and policy options for reducing future invasions. Nonnative insects have accumulated in United States forests at a rate of ~2.5 per yr over the last 150 yr. Currently the two major pathways of introduction are importation of live plants and wood packing material such as pallets and crates...
July 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27720315/environmental-pollution-and-risk-of-psychotic-disorders-a-review-of-the-science-to-date
#3
Luigi Attademo, Francesco Bernardini, Raffaele Garinella, Michael T Compton
Environmental pollution is a global problem with diverse and substantial public health implications. Although many environmental (i.e., non-genetic) risk factors for schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders have been identified, there has been comparatively little research on pollution as a possible risk factor. This is despite the fact that gene-by-environment interactions and epigenetic mechanisms are now recognized as likely facets of the etiology of schizophrenia, and the fact that pollution could potentially mediate the association between urban birth/upbringing and elevated risk...
October 5, 2016: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27716261/enhancing-health-care-equity-with-indigenous-populations-evidence-based-strategies-from-an-ethnographic-study
#4
Annette J Browne, Colleen Varcoe, Josée Lavoie, Victoria Smye, Sabrina T Wong, Murry Krause, David Tu, Olive Godwin, Koushambhi Khan, Alycia Fridkin
BACKGROUND: Structural violence shapes the health of Indigenous peoples globally, and is deeply embedded in history, individual and institutional racism, and inequitable social policies and practices. Many Indigenous communities have flourished, however, the impact of colonialism continues to have profound health effects for Indigenous peoples in Canada and internationally. Despite increasing evidence of health status inequities affecting Indigenous populations, health services often fail to address health and social inequities as routine aspects of health care delivery...
October 4, 2016: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27695753/urban-air-pollution-in-taiwan-before-and-after-the-installation-of-a-mass-rapid-transit-system
#5
Pei-Hsiou Ding, Gen-Shuh Wang, Bing-Yu Chen, Gwo-Hwa Wan
Urbanization causes air pollution in metropolitan areas, coupled with meteorological factors that affect air quality. Although previous studies focused on the relationships of urbanization, air pollution, and climate change in Western countries, this study evaluated long-term variations of air quality and meteorological factors in Taiwanese metropolitan areas (Taipei area, Taichung City, and Kaohsiung City) and a rural area (Hualien County) between 1993 and 2012. The influence of a mass rapid transit (MRT) system on air quality was also evaluated...
September 2016: Journal of Environmental Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27694667/needed-global-collaboration-for-comparative-research-on-cities-and-health
#6
Michael K Gusmano, Victor G Rodwin
Over half of the world's population lives in cities and United Nations (UN) demographers project an increase of 2.5 billion more urban dwellers by 2050. Yet there is too little systematic comparative research on the practice of urban health policy and management (HPAM), particularly in the megacities of middle-income and developing nations. We make a case for creating a global database on cities, population health and healthcare systems. The expenses involved in data collection would be difficult to justify without some review of previous work, some agreement on indicators worth measuring, conceptual and methodological considerations to guide the construction of the global database, and a set of research questions and hypotheses to test...
April 16, 2016: International Journal of Health Policy and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27671670/use-of-science-to-guide-city-planning-policy-and-practice-how-to-achieve-healthy-and-sustainable-future-cities
#7
James F Sallis, Fiona Bull, Ricky Burdett, Lawrence D Frank, Peter Griffiths, Billie Giles-Corti, Mark Stevenson
Land-use and transport policies contribute to worldwide epidemics of injuries and non-communicable diseases through traffic exposure, noise, air pollution, social isolation, low physical activity, and sedentary behaviours. Motorised transport is a major cause of the greenhouse gas emissions that are threatening human health. Urban and transport planning and urban design policies in many cities do not reflect the accumulating evidence that, if policies would take health effects into account, they could benefit a wide range of common health problems...
September 19, 2016: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27631955/-urban-health-stadtgesundheit-the-wider-perspective-exemplified-by-the-city-state-of-hamburg
#8
R Fehr, R Fertmann, K-P Stender, N Lettau, A Trojan
Public health and city planning have common roots, and in many places they are now reuniting under the heading of urban health. To organize this field adequately requires a broad, integrative view of medical care, health promotion, and health in all urban policies. Given current crises and developments including climate change and globalization, such a wider perspective should also be useful for Germany. Using the City State of Hamburg as an example and combining historic and systematic approaches, we explore the preconditions for in-depth analyses...
September 2016: Das Gesundheitswesen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27614532/long-term-trend-and-spatial-pattern-of-pm2-5-induced-premature-mortality-in-china
#9
Rong Xie, Clive E Sabel, Xi Lu, Weimo Zhu, Haidong Kan, Chris P Nielsen, Haikun Wang
With rapid economic growth, China has witnessed increasingly frequent and severe haze and smog episodes over the past decade, posing serious health impacts to the Chinese population, especially those in densely populated city clusters. Quantification of the spatial and temporal variation of health impacts attributable to ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) has important implications for China's policies on air pollution control. In this study, we evaluated the spatial distribution of premature deaths in China between 2000 and 2010 attributable to ambient PM2...
September 7, 2016: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27605953/non-communicable-diseases-among-children-in-ghana-health-and-social-concerns-of-parent-caregivers
#10
Alfred E Yawson, Aaron A Abuosi, Delali M Badasu, Deborah Atobra, Francis A Adzei, John K Anarfi
BACKGROUND: Globally, there is a progressive rise in the burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs). This paper examined the health and social concerns of parents/caregivers on in-patient care for children with NCDs in Ghana. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study in three large health facilities in Ghana (the largest in the South, the largest in the North and the largest in the Eastern part of Ghana. Data was collected with a structured questionnaire among 225 caregivers (≥18 years) of 149 children with NCDs in health facilities in the three regions...
June 2016: African Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27604901/schools-of-public-health-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-an-imperative-investment-for-improving-the-health-of-populations
#11
Fauziah Rabbani, Leah Shipton, Franklin White, Iman Nuwayhid, Leslie London, Abdul Ghaffar, Bui Thi Thu Ha, Göran Tomson, Rajiv Rimal, Anwar Islam, Amirhossein Takian, Samuel Wong, Shehla Zaidi, Kausar Khan, Rozina Karmaliani, Imran Naeem Abbasi, Farhat Abbas
BACKGROUND: Public health has multicultural origins. By the close of the nineteenth century, Schools of Public Health (SPHs) began to emerge in western countries in response to major contemporary public health challenges. The Flexner Report (1910) emphasized the centrality of preventive medicine, sanitation, and public health measures in health professional education. The Alma Ata Declaration on Primary Health Care (PHC) in 1978 was a critical milestone, especially for low and middle-income countries (LMICs), conceptualizing a close working relationship between PHC and public health measures...
2016: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27551857/-they-aren-t-really-black-fellas-but-they-are-easy-to-talk-to-factors-which-influence-australian-aboriginal-women-s-decision-to-disclose-intimate-partner-violence-during-pregnancy
#12
Jo Spangaro, Sigrid Herring, Jane Koziol-Mclain, Alison Rutherford, Mary-Anne Frail, Anthony B Zwi
OBJECTIVES: intimate partner violence is a significant global health problem but remains largely hidden. Understanding decisions about whether or not to disclose violence in response to routine enquiry in health settings can inform safe and responsive systems. Elevated rates of violence and systematic disadvantage found among Indigenous women globally, can impact on their decisions to disclose violence. This study aimed to test, among Indigenous women, a model for decisions on whether to disclose intimate partner violence in the context of antenatal routine screening...
October 2016: Midwifery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27531729/association-of-socioeconomic-status-with-psychiatric-problems-and-violent-behaviours-in-a-nationally-representative-sample-of-iranian-children-and-adolescents-the-caspian-iv-study
#13
Ramin Heshmat, Mostafa Qorbani, Behnaz Ghoreshi, Shirin Djalalinia, Omid Reza Tabatabaie, Saeid Safiri, Mehdi Noroozi, Mohammad-Esmaeil Motlagh, Zeinab Ahadi, Hamid Asayesh, Roya Kelishadi
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and psychiatric problems and violent behaviours in a nationally representative sample of Iranian children and adolescents, based on nationwide surveillance programme data, 2011-2012. METHODS: Overall, 14 880 students, aged 6-18 years, were selected using a multistage cluster sampling method from rural and urban areas of 30 provinces in Iran. SES was estimated based on a main summarised component, extracted from principle component analysis of family assets and parents' jobs and education...
2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27511936/usual-vitamin-intakes-by-mexican-populations
#14
REVIEW
Andrea Pedroza-Tobías, Lucía Hernández-Barrera, Nancy López-Olmedo, Armando García-Guerra, Sonia Rodríguez-Ramírez, Ivonne Ramírez-Silva, Salvador Villalpando, Alicia Carriquiry, Juan A Rivera
BACKGROUND: In the past several years, the consumption of high-energy, nutrient-poor foods has increased globally. Dietary intake data collected by the National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT) 2012 provide information to assess the quality of the Mexican diet and to guide food and nutrition policy. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to describe the usual intake and the prevalence of inadequate intakes of vitamins for the overall Mexican population and by subgroups defined by sex, age, region, urban or rural areas, and socioeconomic status (SES)...
September 2016: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27470198/dilemmas-of-community-directed-mass-drug-administration-for-lymphatic-filariasis-control-a-qualitative-study-from-urban-and-rural-tanzania
#15
William Kisoka, Declare Mushi, Dan W Meyrowitsch, Mwele Malecela, Paul E Simonsen, Britt P Tersbøl
There has in recent years been a growing interest in the social significance of global health policy and associated interventions. This paper is concerned with neglected tropical disease control, which prescribes annual mass drug administration to interrupt transmission of, among others, lymphatic filariasis. In Tanzania, this intervention is conducted through community-directed distribution, which aims to improve drug uptake by promoting community participation and local ownership in the intervention. However, the average uptake of drugs often remains too low to achieve the intended interruption of transmission...
July 29, 2016: Journal of Biosocial Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27467691/street-vending-and-waste-picking-in-developing-countries-a-long-standing-hazardous-occupational-activity-of-the-urban-poor
#16
Adeladza Kofi Amegah, Jouni J K Jaakkola
Uncontrolled urbanization in developing countries has led to widespread urban poverty and increased susceptibility to environmental exposures owing to the hazardous occupational activities of the urban poor. Street vending and waste picking are the dominant works undertaken by the urban poor, and besides the physical hazards, it also exposes them to several pathogens and high levels of air pollutants present in the outdoor environment. The situation has severe consequences for the health of the workers. Eliminating these occupational activities from the urban landscape of developing countries should therefore receive urgent attention from the global health community and governments...
July 28, 2016: International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27384757/nutrition-and-physical-activity-related-school-environment-policy-factors-and-child-obesity-in-china-a-nationally-representative-study-of-8573-students-in-110-middle-schools
#17
M Li, H Xue, M Wen, W Wang, Y Wang
BACKGROUND: Obesity is a serious threat to global health. School is a key setting for obesity intervention. Research on school risk factors for child obesity is limited in developing countries. OBJECTIVES: To examine regional variations in obesity and school environments/policies and their associations among students in China. METHODS: Analyses were based on the first nationally representative sample of 8573 9(th) graders in 110 middle schools from 28 regions across China...
July 7, 2016: Pediatric Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27325075/from-sars-to-avian-influenza-the-role-of-international-factors-in-china-s-approach-to-infectious-disease-control
#18
Fiona C Goldizen
BACKGROUND: Over the past decades global environmental change, globalization, urbanization, and the rise in movement of people have increased the risk for pandemic disease outbreaks. As environmental exposures do not respect state borders, a globalist concept of global health response has developed, which requires transparency and cooperation for coordinated responses to disease outbreaks. Countries that avoid cooperation on health issues for social or political reasons can endanger the global community...
January 2016: Annals of Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27278544/sustaining-chicago-s-informal-caregivers-an-age-friendly-approach
#19
Rebecca Johnson, Jon Hofacker, Lara Boyken, Amy Eisenstein
The concept of age-friendliness has been globally coined by the World Health Organization (WHO) to give value to the physical, social, and environmental factors that can promote or hinder older residents' ability to age in place in cities. The initiative has been very successful in raising awareness among public health policy makers about the generic needs of older adults and urban features that promote active aging. However, the movement has been less focused on highlighting divergent needs of different older adult populations and their informal caregivers...
August 2016: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27207731/participation-in-environmental-enhancement-and-conservation-activities-for-health-and-well-being-in-adults-a-review-of-quantitative-and-qualitative-evidence
#20
REVIEW
Kerryn Husk, Rebecca Lovell, Chris Cooper, Will Stahl-Timmins, Ruth Garside
BACKGROUND: There is growing research and policy interest in the potential for using the natural environment to enhance human health and well-being. This resource may be underused as a health promotion tool to address the increasing burden of common health problems such as increased chronic diseases and mental health concerns. Outdoor environmental enhancement and conservation activities (EECA) (for instance unpaid litter picking, tree planting or path maintenance) offer opportunities for physical activity alongside greater connectedness with local environments, enhanced social connections within communities and improved self-esteem through activities that improve the locality which may, in turn, further improve well-being...
May 21, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
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