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Race Relations

Michael D Cusimano, Iryna Pshonyak, Michael Y Lee, Gabriela Ilie
OBJECTIVE The 30-day readmission rate has emerged as an important marker of the quality of in-hospital care in several fields of medicine. This review aims to summarize available research reporting readmission rates after cranial procedures and to establish an association with demographic, clinical, and system-related factors and clinical outcomes. METHODS The authors conducted a systematic review of several databases; a manual search of the Journal of Neurosurgery, Neurosurgery, Acta Neurochirurgica, Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences; and the cited references of the selected articles...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery
Eric J Lammers, Catherine G McLaughlin, Michael Barna
OBJECTIVE: To test for correlation between the growth in adoption of ambulatory electronic health records (EHRs) in the United States during 2010-2013 and hospital admissions and readmissions for elderly Medicare beneficiaries with at least one of four common ambulatory care-sensitive conditions (ACSCs). DATA SOURCES: SK&A Information Services Survey of Physicians, American Hospital Association General Survey and Information Technology Supplement; and the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services Chronic Conditions Data Warehouse Geographic Variation Database for 2010 through 2013...
October 21, 2016: Health Services Research
Michael Leapman, Seyed Behzad Jazayeri, Maria Katsigeorgis, Adele Hobbs, David B Samadi
OBJECTIVE: To assess the patient's perceived causes of PCa and relation to treatment satisfaction an internet based survey study was designed. Prostate cancer (PCa) is a profoundly personal disease considering the location and common sequelae of treatment. Deeply held patient self-perceptions regarding the etiology of a patient's PCa may generate lasting beliefs that impact satisfaction with treatment selection. METHODS: Third-party web-based surveys were sent to patients receiving radical prostatectomy for clinically localized PCa...
October 17, 2016: Urology
Shearwood McClelland, Joseph F Baker, Justin S Smith, Breton G Line, Thomas J Errico, Christopher P Ames, R Shay Bess
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder manifesting over time to result in reduced mobility. The impact of PD on spinal fusion has yet to be addressed on a nationwide level. The Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) from 2001 to 2012 was used for analysis. Admissions with spinal fusion of two or more vertebrae (ICD-9 codes=81.62, 81.63 and 81.64) were included and then stratified based on the presence or absence of PD (ICD-9 code=332.0); patients with cancer (ICD-9 codes=140-239) or trauma (ICD-9 codes=805...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
Marta Crous-Bou, Laura B Harrington, Christopher Kabrhel
Venous thromboembolism (VTE) includes deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, and a combination of environmental and genetic risk factors contributes to VTE risk. Within environmental risk factors, some are provoking (e.g., cancer, surgery, trauma or fracture, immobilization, pregnancy and the postpartum period, long-distance travel, hospitalization, catheterization, and acute infection) and others are nonprovoking (e.g., age, sex, race/ethnicity, body mass index and obesity, oral contraceptive or hormone therapy use, corticosteroid use, statin use, diet, physical activity, sedentary time, and air pollution)...
October 20, 2016: Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis
Thomas J Hoffmann, Bronya J Keats, Noriko Yoshikawa, Catherine Schaefer, Neil Risch, Lawrence R Lustig
Age-related hearing impairment (ARHI), one of the most common sensory disorders, can be mitigated, but not cured or eliminated. To identify genetic influences underlying ARHI, we conducted a genome-wide association study of ARHI in 6,527 cases and 45,882 controls among the non-Hispanic whites from the Genetic Epidemiology Research on Adult Health and Aging (GERA) cohort. We identified two novel genome-wide significant SNPs: rs4932196 (odds ratio = 1.185, p = 4.0x10-11), 52Kb 3' of ISG20, which replicated in a meta-analysis of the other GERA race/ethnicity groups (1,025 cases, 12,388 controls, p = 0...
October 2016: PLoS Genetics
Christina Ludema, Stephen R Cole, Joseph J Eron, Andrew Edmonds, G Mark Holmes, Kathryn Anastos, Jennifer Cocohoba, Mardge Cohen, Hannah L F Cooper, Elizabeth T Golub, Seble Kassaye, Deborah Konkle-Parker, Lisa Metsch, Joel Milam, Tracey E Wilson, Adaora A Adimora
BACKGROUND: Implementation of the Affordable Care Act motivates assessment of health insurance and supplementary programs, such as the AIDS Drug Assistance Program (ADAP) on health outcomes of HIV-infected people in the United States. We assessed the effects of health insurance, ADAP, and income on HIV viral load suppression. METHODS: We used existing cohort data from the HIV-infected participants of the Women's Interagency HIV Study. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the time from 2006 to unsuppressed HIV viral load (>200 copies/mL) among those with Medicaid, private, Medicare, or other public insurance, and no insurance, stratified by the use of ADAP...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Rebecca C Thurston, Yuefang Chang, Emma Barinas-Mitchell, Roland von Känel, J Richard Jennings, Nanette Santoro, Doug P Landsittel, Karen A Matthews
OBJECTIVES: A childhood history of abuse or neglect may be associated with elevated adult cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. No studies have examined associations between child abuse/neglect and subclinical CVD using a validated measure of abuse and neglect. We hypothesized that midlife women with a history of childhood abuse or neglect would have increased subclinical CVD beyond standard CVD risk factors. We tested moderation of associations by sleep, hot flashes, and race/ethnicity...
October 19, 2016: Psychosomatic Medicine
Stefanie M Chan, Tatyana F Svitova, Meng C Lin
Contact lens discomfort is a common problem that can lead to unsuccessful or limited contact lens wear. Although many factors may contribute to contact lens discomfort, limited research has explored the influence of ethnicity-related differences in the anatomy and physiology of the ocular surface. Therefore, we performed a search of the literature in PubMed using key words related to "ocular surface" paired with the terms "race" and "ethnicity." The goal of this review was to determine potential areas of research regarding ethnicity differences, particularly between Asian and non-Asian eyes, in ocular surface integrity to advance our understanding of contact lens discomfort...
October 19, 2016: Eye & Contact Lens
Andrew C Patterson, Gerry Veenstra
OBJECTIVES: Intersectionality theory proposes that each combination of social categories derived from gender, race and nationality, such as immigrant White man or native-born Black woman, is associated with unique social experiences. We tested the potential of intersectionality theory for explicating racial inequalities in Canada by investigating whether Black-White health inequalities are conditioned by gender and immigrant status in a synergistic way. METHODS: Our dataset comprised 10 cycles (2001-2013) of the Canadian Community Health Survey...
October 20, 2016: Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique
Kelly E Moore, June P Tangney, Jeffrey B Stuewig
Upon conviction, individuals receive the stigmatizing label "criminal offender." Existing stereotypes about criminal offenders may be integrated into the self-concept, a phenomenon known as self-stigma. In many stigmatized groups, self-stigma is a robust predictor of poor functioning (Livingston & Boyd, 2010; Schomerus et al., 2011). However, little is known about how self-stigma occurs (Corrigan et al., 2006), and there has been limited research with criminal offenders. This study examines a theoretical model of self-stigma in which perceived stigma leads to stereotype agreement, internalized stigma, and then to anticipated stigma...
August 2016: Stigma Health
Patrick W Sullivan, Vahram H Ghushchyan, Gary Globe, Brandon Sucher
BACKGROUND: Systemic corticosteroids (SCS) are commonly used but are associated with adverse effects. Given their prevalent use, the potential impact of SCS use on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is important to characterize. OBJECTIVE: To assess the HRQoL of patients taking SCS. METHODS: The 2000-2003 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey was used to examine EQ-5D and SF-6D scores associated with SCS use in adults. The study sample was restricted to those with a condition for which SCS are prescribed...
October 18, 2016: Quality of Life Research
Matthew L Maciejewski, Xiaojuan Mi, Lesley H Curtis, Judy Ng, Samuel C Haffer, Bradley G Hammill
BACKGROUND: Despite the persistence of significant disparities, few evaluations examine disparities in laboratory testing by race/ethnicity, age, sex, Medicaid eligibility, and number of chronic conditions for Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries' newly prescribed medications. In Medicare beneficiaries initiating diuretics or digoxin, this study examined disparities in guideline-appropriate baseline laboratory testing and abnormal laboratory values. METHODS AND RESULTS: To evaluate guideline-concordant testing for serum creatinine and serum potassium within 180 days before or 14 days after the index prescription fill date, we constructed retrospective cohorts from 10 states of 99 711 beneficiaries who had heart failure or hypertension initiating diuretic in 2011 and 8683 beneficiaries who had heart failure or atrial fibrillation initiating digoxin...
October 18, 2016: Circulation. Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes
Vera K Tsenkova, Arun Karlamangla
BACKGROUND: Central obesity is a major risk factor for diabetes but many obese individuals never develop diabetes, suggesting the presence of important effect modifiers. Depression has emerged as a key risk factor for poor glycemic control, but to our knowledge, no previous work has investigated whether depression amplifies the effect of central obesity on glucoregulation. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We used a national sample of adults without prevalent diabetes (MIDUS; N = 919) to test for synergy between central obesity and depression in the development of diabetes 10 years later...
2016: PloS One
Eric M Nordstrom, Angela Keniston, Fafa Baouchi, Alvaro Martinez-Camacho
AIMS: This study assesses the efficacy, accessibility, and safety of hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment in a safety net hospital population. METHODS: Patients at Denver Health receiving pegylated interferon for HCV infection between 2008 and 2012 were included in this retrospective study. Sociodemographic, biochemical, and virologic data were collected on each patient. The primary outcomes were the rate of sustained virologic response and early treatment discontinuation, with reason for discontinuation documented...
October 13, 2016: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
David J Brennan, Greta R Bauer, Kaitlin Bradley, Oth Vilaythong Tran
OBJECTIVES: Research on sexual minority men (gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men) was examined with regard to the measures of sexual orientation used, the methods of research, and the main health outcomes under study. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of English-language quantitative studies of the health of sexual minority men published in 2010 (n = 250). RESULTS: This snapshot of the literature revealed that research on sexual minority men overwhelmingly focused on HIV, STIs, and sexual health for which sexual orientation was most commonly defined behaviorally...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Homosexuality
Monica Webb Hooper, Stephanie K Kolar
The prevalence of e-cigarette use is increasing, yet few studies have focused on its use in racial/ethnic minority populations. We examined associations between race/ethnicity and e-cigarette use, plans to continue using e-cigarettes, and reasons for use among current/former smokers. Participants (285 in total; 29% non-Hispanic White, 42% African American/Black, and 29% Hispanic) were recruited between June and November 2014. Telephone-administered surveys assessed demographics, cigarette smoking, e-cigarette use, plans to continue using, and reasons for use...
October 14, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Jongha Park
Cardiovascular (CV) risk assessment is not easy in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. Age, male sex, race, family history of CV disease, smoking status and diabetes should be considered as CV risk factors as the general population. It is also accepted that hypertension (HTN) is associated with the greater risk of CV complications in this population. However, there are some concerns in this issue.First, supporting evidence for specific blood pressure (BP) targets in CKD is scarce. Many observational studies reported a J-shaped association between BP level and CV mortality unlike a linear association in the general population...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Suzanne Oparil, David A Calhoun, Lama Ghazi, Tanja Dudenbostel
OBJECTIVE: Obesity is associated with a high risk of hypertension and is characterized by hyperaldosteronism and hypercortisolism. We have previously reported that patients with resistant hypertension (RHTN), defined as blood pressure (BP) that remains above goal in spite of the concurrent use of 3 antihypertensive agents of different classes, have a high prevalence of hyperaldosteronism that is positively correlated with body mass index (BMI). Experimental studies indicate that adipocytes secrete a as yet undetermined factor that stimulates aldosterone and cortisol release...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Kristi Reynolds, Daichi Shimbo, C Barrett Bowling, Luqin Deng, Adam Bress, John Sim, Paul Muntner
OBJECTIVE: To identify risk factors for serious fall injuries following initiation of antihypertensive medication among older adults. DESIGN AND METHOD: We conducted a retrospective cohort study using a 5% random sample of people with Medicare health insurance, a government program for older US adults. The analysis was restricted to patients with a diagnosis of hypertension who initiated antihypertensive medication between 2007 and 2011. Initiation was defined by the first antihypertensive medication fill in this time period preceded by 365 days with no antihypertensive medication fills...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
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