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Race Relations

Amar J Mehta, Daniel P Dooley, John Kane, Margaret Reid, Snehal N Shah
OBJECTIVES: To examine whether subsidized housing, specifically public housing and rental assistance, is associated with asthma in the Boston, Massachusetts, adult population. METHODS: We analyzed a pooled cross-sectional sample of 9554 adults taking part in 3 Boston Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System surveys from 2010 to 2015. We estimated odds ratios for current asthma in association with housing status (public housing development [PHD] resident, rental assistance [RA] renter, non-RA renter, nonrenter nonowner, homeowner as reference) in logistic regression analyses adjusting for year, age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, and income...
June 21, 2018: American Journal of Public Health
Valerio Baćak, Kate Thurman, Katie Eyer, Rubab Qureshi, Jason D P Bird, Luis M Rivera, Suzanne A Kim
Incarceration is considerably more prevalent among sexual and gender minority persons (SGM) than among the general population. Once behind bars, they are at the greatest risk for health-related harms. Although a growing number of studies have assessed health disparities produced by mass incarceration, scholars are yet to systematically assess the health consequences of incarceration on the basis of sexual orientation and gender identity. We invite public health scholars to study the effects of incarceration on health in the SGM population and provide a roadmap to aid these research efforts...
June 21, 2018: American Journal of Public Health
Sherrill L Sellers, Brooke A Cunningham, Vence L Bonham
BACKGROUND: Race in the USA has an enduring connection to health and well-being. It is often used as a proxy for ancestry and genetic variation, although self-identified race does not establish genetic risk of disease for an individual patient. How physicians reconcile these seemingly paradoxical facts as they make clinical decisions is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To examine physicians' genetic knowledge and beliefs about race with their use of race in clinical decision-making DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey of a national sample of clinically active general internists RESULTS: Seven hundred eighty-seven physicians completed the survey...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
Vahid Omidvar, Sheshanka Dugyala, Feng Li, Susan Rottschaefer, Marisa Miller, Michael Ayliffe, Matthew James Moscou, Shahryar F Kianian, Melania Figueroa
Oat crown rust caused by Puccinia coronata f. sp. avenae is the most destructive foliar disease of cultivated oat. Characterization of genetic factors controlling resistance responses to Puccinia coronata f. sp. avenae in non-host species could provide new resources for developing disease protection strategies in oat. We examined symptom development and fungal colonization levels of a collection of Brachypodium distachyon and B. hybridum accessions infected with three North American P. coronata f. sp. avenae isolates...
June 20, 2018: Phytopathology
Cynthia L Ogden, Cheryl D Fryar, Craig M Hales, Margaret D Carroll, Yutaka Aoki, David S Freedman
Importance: Differences in childhood obesity by demographics and urbanization have been reported. Objective: To present data on obesity and severe obesity among US youth by demographics and urbanization and to investigate trends by urbanization. Design, Setting, and Participants: Measured weight and height among youth aged 2 to 19 years in the 2001-2016 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, which are serial, cross-sectional, nationally representative surveys of the civilian, noninstitutionalized population...
June 19, 2018: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
Muhammad Arshad, Margaret Y Gruber, Abdelali Hannoufa
Drought is one of the major abiotic stresses that negatively impact alfalfa growth and productivity. The role of microRNA156 (miR156) in drought has been demonstrated in plants. To date, there are no published studies investigating the role of miR156 in regulating global gene expression in alfalfa under drought. In our study, alfalfa genotypes overexpressing miR156 (miR156OE) exhibited reduced water loss, and enhanced root growth under drought. Our RNA-seq data showed that in response to drought, a total of 415 genes were upregulated and 169 genes were downregulated specifically in miR156OE genotypes...
June 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Pooja S Tandon, Lauren M Kuehne, Julian D Olden
Mounting evidence supports health and well-being benefits associated with nature experiences, while also highlighting race- and class-based inequalities in access and exposure. We synthesized the literature on nature contact by Latinos in the United States to assess the state of knowledge and strategically identify research needs to improve outcomes and reduce health disparities for this rapidly growing ethnic group. Our systematic review revealed 108 articles with a notable increase in number of papers over the past 3 decades...
June 19, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Grace Chen, George G Nomikos, John Affinito, William Jacobson, Zhen Zhao, Shining Wang, Jinhui Xie
Vortioxetine is an antidepressant agent with multimodal activity that is approved for the treatment of major depressive disorder at doses of 5 to 20 mg once daily. Vortioxetine is a medium-clearance drug that undergoes extensive metabolism via several cytochrome P450 isozymes. A series of single- and multiple-dose pharmacokinetic studies were performed to evaluate the impact of intrinsic (ie, subject-related) factors, such as age, sex, race, and renal and hepatic function, on the pharmacokinetics of vortioxetine...
June 19, 2018: Clinical Pharmacology in Drug Development
Katherine Bain, Tessa Baradon
This article is part of a project investigating the interfacing of clinically and research-generated knowledge in the field of infant mental health (IMH) with local cultural models of child care and development. The article explores the experiences and challenges reported by psychology-trained supervisors in supervision with local, lay, trained home visitors. Supervisors and supervisees were drawn from two early intervention programs which apply relational IMH mental health models in socioeconomically deprived townships in South Africa...
June 19, 2018: Infant Mental Health Journal
Peter F Aziz, Stuart Berger, Peter Kowey, Mitchell Krucoff, Martha Lopez-Anderson, Eric Michelson, Silvana Molossi, Valarie Morrow, Ignacio Rodriguez, Tess Elizabeth Saarel, Colette Strnadova, Victoria Vetter, Theressa J Wright, Salim F Idriss
Sudden cardiac death in the young (SCDY) spans gender, race, ethnicity, and socioeconomic class. The loss of any pediatric patient is a matter of national and international public health concern, and focused efforts should be aimed at preventing these burdensome tragedies. Prepared by members of the Cardiac Safety Research Consortium, this White Paper summarizes and reports the dialogue at the second Think Tank related to the issues and the proposed solutions for the development of a national resource for screening and prevention of SCDY...
May 23, 2018: American Heart Journal
Ariani Impieri Souza, Marília Teixeira de Siqueira, Ana Laura Carneiro Gomes Ferreira, Clarice Umbelino de Freitas, Anselmo César Vasconcelos Bezerra, Adeylson Guimarães Ribeiro, Adelaide Cássia Nardocci
OBJECTIVES: We assessed sociodemographic and health care factors of mothers and newborns during a 2015-2016 outbreak of microcephaly in Recife, Brazil, and we analyzed the spatial distribution and incidence risk of newborns with microcephaly in relation to socio-environmental indicators. METHODS: We collected data from August 2015 through May 2016 from Brazil's Live Birth Information System and Bulletin of Microcephaly Notification, and we geocoded the data by maternal residence...
January 1, 2018: Public Health Reports
Buffie Longmire-Avital, Chelsea McQueen
Four out of five Black women in the US, over the age of 20 years meet criteria for obesity. A critical determinant of pervasive health disparities, such as obesity, may be the Black woman's sociocultural experience. One part of this experience is the stress that results from daily encounters with microaggressions. Research has been limited on the association of race-related stress with maladaptive health behaviors among Black women and at what age this association is visible. The aim of this exploratory cross-sectional study was to investigate whether perceived race-related stress was associated with an obesity risk behavior, emotional eating...
June 19, 2018: Women & Health
Jin Jing, Susan Thapa, Leanna Delhey, Saly Abouelenein, Wesam Morad, Robert Delongchamp, Mohammed F Faramawi
The QRS-T angle is a key ECG predictor for ventricular arrhythmia. Lead has a strong relation with cardiovascular diseases; however, no study has been conducted to investigate the association between lead exposure and QRS-T angle. Thus, we explored this association in a population-based representative sample: NHANES III. We used the standard 12-lead ECGs to calculate Spatial QRS-T angles. Blood lead concentrations were measured using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry method. We conducted multivariate weighted logistic regression to adjust for impaired fasting glucose, hypertension, poverty index, age, race, and smoking status...
June 19, 2018: Archives of Environmental & Occupational Health
Christian A Clermont, Lauren C Benson, Sean T Osis, Dylan Kobsar, Reed Ferber
The purpose of this study was to classify runners in sex-specific groups as either competitive or recreational based on center of mass (CoM) accelerations. Forty-one runners participated in the study (25 male and 16 female), and were labeled as competitive or recreational based on age, sex, and race performance. Three-dimensional acceleration data were collected during a 5-minute treadmill run, and 24 features were extracted. Support vector machine classification models were used to examine the utility of the features in discriminating between competitive and recreational runners within each sex-specific subgroup...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Sports Sciences
Leah L Zullig, Karen M Goldstein, Kellie J Sims, Christina D Williams, Michael Chang, Dawn Provenzale, Michael J Kelley
BACKGROUND: The Veterans Affairs (VA) healthcare system is a high-volume provider of cancer care. Women are the fastest growing patient population using VA healthcare services. Quantifying the types of cancers diagnosed among women in the VA is a critical step toward identifying needed healthcare resources for women Veterans with cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We obtained data from the VA Central Cancer Registry for cancers newly diagnosed in calendar year 2010...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Women's Health
E C Wilson, C Turner, S Arayasirikul, T Woods, T Nguyen, R Lin, K Franza, J Tryon, T Nemoto, M Iwamoto
Transwomen of color are disproportionately impacted by HIV and may have worse health outcomes than other populations. This analysis was conducted to examine structural factors associated with poor health outcomes among transwomen of color living with HIV in the San Francisco Bay Area (N = 159). Univariate and multivariable analyses were conducted to determine if structural factors were associated with poor HIV-related health outcomes. A majority of participants were Black or African American (110/159, 69...
June 19, 2018: AIDS Care
Raina D Pang, Mariel S Bello, Madalyn M Liautaud, Andrea H Weinberger, Adam M Leventhal
Introduction: Prior studies have found heightened negative affect following tobacco abstinence in women compared to men. However, experimental work addressing whether these findings generalize across racial groups is scarce. The current study investigated whether race (Non-Hispanic White vs. Non-Hispanic African American) moderated gender differences in abstinence-induced negative affect and smoking behavior. Methods: Data were collected from 2010 to 2017 from two separate laboratory studies investigating experimentally manipulated tobacco abstinence...
June 15, 2018: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
Martin Roche, Tsun Yee Law, Assem A Sultan, Erica Umpierrez, Anton Khlopas, Sam Rosas, Jennifer Kurowicki, Kevin Wang, Michael A Mont
INTRODUCTION: There is a relative paucity of studies that characterized racial disparities in revision total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Therefore, this study was specifically conducted to evaluate the following: (1) incidence; (2) annual burden; (3) causes; and (4) age group distribution of revision TKA among different racial groups in the US sample population. METHODS: The PearlDiver database was utilized to identify patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA) who underwent primary then subsequent revision TKA from January 2007 to December 2014...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
Christine A Vaughan, Deborah A Cohen, Bing Han
The current study examined racial/ethnic differences in use of parks and park facilities and features and self-reported park use and perceptions. We conducted observations in a nationally representative sample of 193 neighborhood parks in 27 US cities over a 1-week period between April and August of 2016 using the System of Observing Play and Recreation in Communities (SOPARC). To determine the propensity of different racial/ethnic groups to use parks relative to expectation based on their representation in the surrounding neighborhood, we calculated the percentages of park users of each race/ethnicity and compared these to the percentages of racial/ethnic groups residing in the neighborhood within a 1-mile radius of the park based on 2010 U...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
Jamie Guillory, Kristine F Wiant, Matthew Farrelly, Leah Fiacco, Ishrat Alam, Leah Hoffman, Erik Crankshaw, Janine Delahanty, Tesfa N Alexander
BACKGROUND: Tobacco public education campaigns focus increasingly on hard-to-reach populations at higher risk for smoking, prompting campaign creators and evaluators to develop strategies to reach hard-to-reach populations in virtual and physical spaces where they spend time. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to describe two novel recruitment strategies (in-person intercept interviews in lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender [LGBT] social venues and targeted social media ads) and compares characteristics of participants recruited via these strategies for the US Food and Drug Administration's This Free Life campaign evaluation targeting LGBT young adults who smoke cigarettes occasionally...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Medical Internet Research
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