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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933425/ethical-issues-in-using-social-media-to-deliver-an-hiv-prevention-intervention-results-from-the-hope-peru-study
#1
Renee Garett, Luis Menacho, Sean D Young
Social media technologies have become increasingly useful tools for research-based interventions. However, participants and social media users have expressed ethical concerns with these studies, such as risks and benefits of participation, as well as privacy, confidentiality, and informed consent issues. This study was designed to follow up with and assess experiences and perceptions of ethics-related issues among a sample of 211 men who have sex with men who participated in the Harnessing Online Peer Education (HOPE) Peru study, a randomized controlled HIV prevention intervention conducted in Peru...
December 9, 2016: Prevention Science: the Official Journal of the Society for Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932028/race-based-differences-in-duration-of-stay-among-universally-insured-coronary-artery-bypass-graft-patients-in-military-versus-civilian-hospitals
#2
Ritam Chowdhury, W Austin Davis, Muhammad A Chaudhary, Wei Jiang, Cheryl K Zogg, Andrew J Schoenfeld, Michael T Jaklitsch, Tsuyoshi Kaneko, Peter A Learn, Adil H Haider, Eric B Schneider
BACKGROUND: Duration of stay for coronary artery bypass graft operation outcomes differs for black versus white patients, with differences often attributed to insurance. We examined black versus white differences in duration of stay among TRICARE-covered patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft. METHODS: Patients aged 18-64 years with TRICARE who underwent isolated coronary artery bypass graft (ICD-9CM 36.10-36.20) between 2006-2010 and who identified as black or white race were identified...
December 5, 2016: Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931209/prevalence-and-risk-factors-for-vitamin-d-insufficiency-and-deficiency-at-birth-and-associated-outcome
#3
Ian Marshall, Rajeev Mehta, Charletta Ayers, Smita Dhumal, Anna Petrova
BACKGROUND: Occurrence and consequence of cord blood (CB) vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency has not been adequately explored despite rising concern regarding this topic in pediatrics. This study was designed to determine the rate, maternal risk factors, and clinical outcomes in infants in association with vitamin D insufficient/deficient status at birth. METHODS: American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) defined levels (ng/mL) were utilized to categorize the vitamin D status in CB samples as deficient (5-15), insufficient (16-20), and sufficient (21-100)...
December 8, 2016: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930901/a-longitudinal-study-of-persistent-smoking-among-hiv-positive-gay-and-bisexual-men-in-primary-relationships
#4
Kristi E Gamarel, Torsten B Neilands, Amy A Conroy, Samantha E Dilworth, Nadra Lisha, Jonelle M Taylor, Lynae A Darbes, Mallory O Johnson
INTRODUCTION: We examined the stability of smoking behaviors, and factors associated with persistent smoking in a longitudinal study of HIV-positive gay and bisexual men in primary relationships. METHODS: A sample of 377 HIV-positive men on antiretroviral therapy and their same-sex partners completed five assessments over two years. Participants completed semi-structured interviews which assessed smoking status, sociodemographic factors, relationship dynamics, and HIV-related disease characteristics...
November 18, 2016: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930900/perceived-safety-and-controllability-of-events-markers-of-risk-for-marijuana-use-in-young-adults
#5
Carolyn E Sartor, Anthony H Ecker, Shane W Kraus, Robert F Leeman, Kristin N Dukes, Dawn W Foster
Drawing on constructs from the trauma literature, the current study evaluated perceptions of safety and controllability of events as potential markers of risk for marijuana use. In addition, we characterized these perceptions in relation to individual level substance abuse risk factors (marijuana expectancies, impulsivity, depression, and anxiety), gender, and race. Data were collected via web survey from college students at two northeastern universities (n=228, 82.0% female). Controllability of events (CE) was rated significantly higher by Blacks than Whites...
November 23, 2016: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930766/differences-in-the-prevalence-of-human-papillomavirus-hpv-in-head-and-neck-squamous-cell-cancers-by-sex-race-anatomic-tumor-site-and-hpv-detection-method
#6
Gypsyamber D'Souza, William H Westra, Steven J Wang, Annemieke van Zante, Alicia Wentz, Nicole Kluz, Eleni Rettig, William R Ryan, Patrick K Ha, Hyunseok Kang, Justin Bishop, Harry Quon, Ana P Kiess, Jeremy D Richmon, David W Eisele, Carole Fakhry
Importance: Human papillomavirus (HPV) causes an increasing proportion of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas (OPSCCs), particularly in white men. The prevalence of HPV among other demographic groups and other anatomic sites of HNSCC is unclear. Objective: To explore the role of HPV tumor status among women and nonwhites with OPSCC and patients with nonoropharyngeal head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (non-OP HNSCC). Design, Setting, and Participants: Retrospective cohort study at 2 tertiary academic centers including cases diagnosed 1995 through 2012, oversampled for minorities and females...
December 8, 2016: JAMA Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929694/dna-methylation-levels-associate-with-race-and-childhood-asthma-severity
#7
Marcia A Chan, Christina E Ciaccio, Nicole M Gigliotti, Mo Rezaiekhaligh, Jacob A Siedlik, Kevin Kennedy, Charles S Barnes
OBJECTIVE: Asthma is a common chronic childhood disease worldwide. Socioeconomic status, genetic predisposition and environmental factors contribute to its incidence and severity. A disproportionate number of children with asthma are economically disadvantaged and live in substandard housing with potential indoor environmental exposures such as cockroaches, dust mites, rodents and molds. These exposures may manifest through epigenetic mechanisms that can lead to changes in relevant gene expression...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Asthma: Official Journal of the Association for the Care of Asthma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928547/relationship-of-acl-injury-and-posterior-tibial-slope-with-patient-age-sex-and-race
#8
Alana Waiwaiole, Ajay Gurbani, Kambiz Motamedi, Leanne Seeger, Myung Shin Sim, Patricia Nwajuaku, Sharon L Hame
BACKGROUND: Posterior tibial slope (PTS) has been proposed as a potential risk factor for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury; however, studies that have examined this relationship have provided inconclusive and sometimes contradictory results. Further characterization of this relationship may enable the medical community to identify individuals at greater risk for ACL injury and possibly characterize an anatomic target during surgical reconstruction. PURPOSE: The primary goal was to investigate the relationship between PTS and ACL injury...
November 2016: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927743/childhood-misfortune-and-handgrip-strength-among-black-white-and-hispanic-americans
#9
Natalie R Smith, Kenneth F Ferraro, Blakelee R Kemp, Patricia M Morton, Sarah A Mustillo, Jacqueline L Angel
OBJECTIVE: Although early-life insults may affect health, few studies use objective physical measures of adult health. This study investigated whether experiencing misfortune during childhood is associated with handgrip strength (HGS) in later life. METHOD: Data on childhood misfortune and adult characteristics from the Health and Retirement Study were used to predict baseline and longitudinal change in HGS among White, Black, and Hispanic American men and women...
December 7, 2016: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927734/the-baltimore-hears-pilot-study-an-affordable-accessible-community-delivered-hearing-care-intervention
#10
Carrie L Nieman, Nicole Marrone, Sara K Mamo, Joshua Betz, Janet S Choi, Kevin J Contrera, Roland J Thorpe, Laura N Gitlin, Elizabeth K Tanner, Hae-Ra Han, Sarah L Szanton, Frank R Lin
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY: Age-related hearing loss negatively affects health outcomes, yet disparities in hearing care, such as hearing aid use, exist based on race/ethnicity and socioeconomic position. Recent national efforts highlight reduction of hearing care disparities as a public health imperative. This study a) describes a community engagement approach to addressing disparities, b) reports preliminary outcomes of a novel intervention, and c) discusses implementation processes and potential for wide-scale testing and use...
December 7, 2016: Gerontologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927193/demographic-profile-of-physician-participants-in-short-term-medical-missions
#11
Paul H Caldron, Ann Impens, Milena Pavlova, Wim Groot
BACKGROUND: The US is the leading sending country for short term medical missions (STMMs), an unregulated and unsanctioned, grass roots form of direct medical service aid from richer countries to low and middle income countries. The objective of this study is to profile US physicians who go on such missions by means of a survey sample of the US physician population. METHODS: An online survey solicited information on physician participation in STMMS as well as demographic and professional features...
December 7, 2016: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925867/psychosocial-stressors-and-alcohol-use-severity-and-treatment-receipt-across-hiv-status-in-a-nationally-representative-sample-of-u-s-residents
#12
Emily C Williams, Young Sun Joo, Lauren Lipira, Joseph E Glass
BACKGROUND: Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is stigmatized and disproportionately impacts vulnerable populations. Thus people living with HIV (PLWH) may have greater exposure to psychosocial stressors than those without HIV. Exposure to psychosocial stressors may increase alcohol use and serve as barriers to alcohol treatment receipt. We evaluate whether psychosocial stressors, and alcohol use, symptom severity, and treatment receipt vary across HIV status in a general population sample of U...
December 7, 2016: Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925114/the-occurrence-of-external-causes-in-childhood-in-emergency-care-epidemiological-aspects-brazil-2014
#13
Deborah Carvalho Malta, Márcio Dênis Medeiros Mascarenhas, Marta Maria Alves da Silva, Mércia Gomes Oliveira de Carvalho, Laura Augusta Barufaldi, Jovina Quintes Avanci, Regina Tomie Ivata Bernal
Objective: To describe emergency care for external causes in childhood, age group 0-9 years, in Brazilian capitals, collected from the Violence and Accident Surveillance System (VIVA) Survey in 2014. Methods: To review data from the VIVA survey conducted in public emergency services in 24 Brazilian capitals. Variables analyzed were gender, age group (0-1 years, 2-5 years and 6-9 years), race/skin color, type of events and injuries, aggressors and other. Results: Eight thousand five hundred eighty-eight children received care, of which 8,164 (95%) were victims of accidents and 424 (5%) of violence...
December 2016: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924405/an-analysis-of-dental-intercanine-distance-for-use-in-court-cases-involving-bite-marks
#14
Suzana Reinprecht, Paul J van Staden, Joyce Jordaan, Herman Bernitz
High levels of crime in South Africa and the resulting court cases requiring bite mark evidence have necessitated continuous research into the prevalence and interrelationship of recognisable dental features present in bite marks. This study represents the largest data set of descriptive statistics related to intercanine distance, in which the means, standard deviations, medians and interquartile ranges across four racial groups were determined. Intercanine distances were also statistically weighted by determining the common, uncommon and very uncommon values for each of the racial groups...
December 6, 2016: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924290/data-on-multicultural-education-and-diagnostic-information-profiling-culture-learning-styles-and-creativity
#15
Andino Maseleno, Glenn Hardaker, Noraisikin Sabani, Nabilah Suhaili
This article contains data related to multicultural education and diagnostic information profiling preliminary findings. It includes the responses of 253 students. The data consists of six sections, i) culture: race, ethnicity, language and identity; ii) learning preferences: physiological and perceptual; iii) cognitive learning styles: physical, emotional and mental; iv) creativity skills and problem solving skills; v) motivation; and vi) students' background knowledge. The data may be used as part of data analytics for specific personalized e-learning platform...
December 2016: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924053/changes-in-depressive-symptoms-and-subsequent-risk-of-stroke-in-the-cardiovascular-health-study
#16
Paola Gilsanz, Laura D Kubzansky, Eric J Tchetgen Tchetgen, Qianyi Wang, Ichiro Kawachi, Kristen K Patton, Annette L Fitzpatrick, Willem J Kop, W T Longstreth, M Maria Glymour
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Depression is associated with stroke, but the effects of changes in depressive symptoms on stroke risk are not well understood. This study examined whether depressive symptom changes across 2 successive annual assessments were associated with incident stroke the following year. METHODS: We used visit data from 4319 participants of the Cardiovascular Health Study who were stroke free at baseline to examine whether changes in depressive symptoms classified across 2 consecutive annual assessments predicted incident first stroke during the subsequent year...
December 6, 2016: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923612/protocol-of-the-ktft-talk-study-to-reduce-racial-disparities-in-kidney-transplant-evaluation-and-living-donor-kidney-transplantation
#17
Kellee Bornemann, Emilee Croswell, Menna Abaye, Cindy L Bryce, Chung-Chou H Chang, Deborah S Good, Cathleen A Freehling Heiles, Mary Amanda Dew, L Ebony Boulware, Amit D Tevar, Larissa Myaskovsky
Living donor kidney transplantation (LDKT) is the optimal treatment for end-stage kidney disease (ESKD). The evaluation process for a kidney transplant is complex, time consuming, and burdensome to the ESKD patient. Also, race disparities exist in rates of transplant evaluation completion, transplantation, and LDKT. In December 2012 our transplant center implemented a streamlined, one-day evaluation process, dubbed Kidney Transplant Fast Track (KTFT). This paper describes the protocol of a two-part study to evaluate the effectiveness of KTFT at increasing transplant rates (compared to historical controls) and the TALK intervention (Talking About Live Kidney Donation) at increasing LDKT during KTFT...
December 3, 2016: Contemporary Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922854/identification-of-hiv-infection-related-dna-methylation-sites-and-advanced-epigenetic-aging-in-hiv-treatment-na%C3%A3-ve-u-s-veterans
#18
Kristin N Nelson, Qin Hui, David Rimland, Ke Xu, Matthew S Freiberg, Amy C Justice, Vincent C Marconi, Yan V Sun
OBJECTIVE: HIV-positive individuals are at higher risk than healthy persons for aging-related diseases, including myocardial infarction and non-AIDS defining cancers. Recent evidence suggests that HIV infection may modulate changes in the host cell epigenome, and these changes represent a potential mechanism through which HIV infection accelerates aging. We assessed the difference in DNAm age, an aging marker involving multiple age-related CpG sites, among antiretroviral treatment (ART) naïve HIV-positive and HIV-negative individuals in a cohort of veterans from the Veterans Aging Cohort Study (VACS)...
December 5, 2016: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920944/comparing-obesity-related-health-disparities-among-native-hawaiians-pacific-islanders-asians-and-whites-in-california-reinforcing-the-need-for-data-disaggregation-and-operationalization
#19
Adrian Matias Bacong, Christina Holub, Liki Porotesano
Since the 2000 Census, Asians and Pacific Islanders have been categorized as separate races. Government initiatives have called for greater study of Asian, Native Hawaiian, and other Pacific Islander (NHPI) health outcomes. NHPI often have worse health outcomes than Asians and Whites. Despite this, the lack of operationalization of racial definitions may affect the magnitude of health disparities. This analysis examined how utilizing different sociological race definitions could influence NHPI health outcomes when compared to Asians and Whites...
November 2016: Hawai'i Journal of Medicine & Public Health: a Journal of Asia Pacific Medicine & Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920589/dna-methylation-of-regulatory-regions-of-imprinted-genes-at-birth-and-its-relation-to-infant-temperament
#20
Bernard F Fuemmeler, Chien-Ti Lee, Adelheid Soubry, Edwin S Iversen, Zhiqing Huang, Amy P Murtha, Joellen M Schildkraut, Randy L Jirtle, Susan K Murphy, Cathrine Hoyo
BACKGROUND: DNA methylation of the differentially methylated regions (DMRs) of imprinted genes is relevant to neurodevelopment. METHODS: DNA methylation status of the DMRs of nine imprinted genes in umbilical cord blood leukocytes was analyzed in relation to infant behaviors and temperament (n = 158). RESULTS: MEG3 DMR levels were positively associated with internalizing (β = 0.15, P = 0.044) and surgency (β = 0.19, P = 0.018) behaviors, after adjusting for birth weight, gender, gestational age at birth, maternal age at delivery, race/ethnicity, education level, smoking status, parity, and a history of anxiety or depression...
2016: Genetics & Epigenetics
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