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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223110/systemic-inflammatory-markers-associated-with-cardiovascular-disease-and-acute-and-chronic-exposure-to-fine-particulate-matter-air-pollution-pm2-5-among-us-nhanes-adults-with-metabolic-syndrome
#1
Arvind Dabass, Evelyn O Talbott, Judith R Rager, Gary M Marsh, Arvind Venkat, Fernando Holguin, Ravi K Sharma
BACKGROUND: There has been no investigation to date of adults with metabolic syndrome examining the association of short and long-term exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) air pollution with cardiovascular-disease related inflammatory marker (WBC and CRP) levels in a nationally representative sample. The goal of this study is to assess the susceptibility of adults with metabolic syndrome to PM2.5 exposure as suggested by increased cardiovascular-disease related inflammatory marker levels...
December 6, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221432/sex-and-ethnic-racial-specific-risk-factors-for-gallbladder-disease
#2
Jane C Figueiredo, Christopher Haiman, Jacqueline Porcel, James Buxbaum, Daniel Stram, Neal Tambe, Wendy Cozen, Lynne Wilkens, Loic Le Marchand, Veronica Wendy Setiawan
BACKGROUND: Gallbladder disease (GBD) is a highly prevalent condition; however, little is known about potential differences in risk factors by sex and ethnicity/race. Our aim was to evaluate dietary, reproductive and obesity-related factors and GBD in multiethnic populations. METHODS: We performed a prospective analysis from the Multiethnic Cohort study who self-identified as non-Hispanic White (n = 32,103), African American (n = 30,209), Japanese (n = 35,987), Native Hawaiian (n = 6942) and Latino (n = 39,168)...
December 8, 2017: BMC Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220533/androgens-irregular-menses-and-risk-of-diabetes-and-coronary-artery-calcification-in-the-diabetes-prevention-program
#3
Catherine Kim, Vanita R Aroda, Ronald B Goldberg, Naji Younes, Sharon L Edelstein, MaryLou Carrion-Petersen, David A Ehrmann
Context: It is unclear whether relative elevations in androgens or irregular menses (IM) are associated with greater cardiometabolic risk among women who are already overweight and glucose intolerant. Research Design and Methods: We conducted a secondary analysis of Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) and the DPP Outcomes Study (DPPOS). Participants included women with sex hormone measurements who did not use exogenous estrogen (n=1422). We examined whether free androgen index (FAI) or IM were associated with diabetes risk during the DPP/DPPOS or with coronary artery calcification (CAC) at DPPOS year 10...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220514/the-influence-of-social-norms-on-flu-vaccination-among-african-american-and-white-adults
#4
Sandra Crouse Quinn, Karen M Hilyard, Amelia M Jamison, Ji An, Gregory R Hancock, Donald Musa, Vicki S Freimuth
Adult influenza vaccination rates remain suboptimal, particularly among African Americans. Social norms may influence vaccination behavior, but little research has focused on influenza vaccine and almost no research has focused on racially-specific norms. This mixed methods investigation utilizes qualitative interviews and focus groups (n = 118) and national survey results (n = 1643) to assess both descriptive and subjective norms surrounding influenza vaccination. Qualitative results suggest a perceived descriptive norm that 'about half' of the population gets vaccinated...
December 6, 2017: Health Education Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218490/fathers-count-the-impact-of-paternal-risk-factors-on-birth-outcomes
#5
Ying Meng, Susan W Groth
Objective To determine the contribution of paternal factors to the risk of adverse birth outcomes. Methods This is a retrospective cross-sectional analysis using birth certificate data from 2004 to 2015 retrieved from the Finger Lakes Regional Perinatal Data System. Primiparous women with singleton pregnancies were analyzed in the study. Two multivariate logistic regression models were conducted to assess potential paternal risk factors including age, race/ethnicity, and education on four birth outcomes, including preterm birth (PTB), low birthweight (LBW), high birthweight (HBW), and small for gestational age (SGA)...
December 7, 2017: Maternal and Child Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217211/mediating-effects-of-cancer-risk-factors-on-the-association-between-race-and-cancer-incidence-analysis-of-the-nih-aarp-diet-and-health-study
#6
Tomi Akinyemiju, Justin Xavier Moore, Maria Pisu
PURPOSE: Racial disparities exist in the prevalence of cancer-related risk factors and incidence of cancer. The objective of this study is to determine if cancer-related risk factors mediate the association between race and cancer incidence. METHODS: We performed prospective analysis of data from the National Institutes of Health-American Association of Retired Persons Diet and Health Study, years 1995 through 2011. We compared differences in baseline characteristics between black and white participants using χ2 tests and Wilcoxon tests, as appropriate...
November 23, 2017: Annals of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216289/effects-of-load-carriage-on-physiological-determinants-in-adventure-racers
#7
Alex de O Fagundes, Elren P Monteiro, Leandro T Franzoni, Bruna S Fraga, Patrícia D Pantoja, Gabriela Fischer, Leonardo A Peyré-Tartaruga
Adventure racing athletes need run carrying loads during the race. A better understanding of how different loads influence physiological determinants in adventure racers could provide useful insights to gauge training interventions to improve running performance. We compare the maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max), the cost of transport (C) and ventilatory thresholds of twelve adventure running athletes at three load conditions: unloaded, 7 and 15% of body mass. Twelve healthy men experienced athletes of Adventure Racing (age 31...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215970/energy-expenditure-in-professional-flat-jockeys-using-doubly-labelled-water-during-the-racing-season-implications-for-body-weight-management
#8
George Wilson, Daloni Lucas, Catherine Hambly, John R Speakman, James P Morton, Graeme L Close
To formulate individualized dietary strategies for jockeys, it is vital that energy requirements are quantified. We measured total energy expenditure (TEE) over two separate weeks in spring and summer using doubly labelled water in a group of male flat jockeys (n = 8, 36.9 ± 5.7 years, 164 ± 8 cm, 54.6 ± 2.5 kg). Total energy intake (TEI) was self-recorded, as were all riding and structured exercise activity. Mean daily TEE was 10.83 (±2.3) and 10.66 (±1.76) MJ, (p = .61) respectively...
December 7, 2017: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214847/introducing-a-new-assessment-tool-for-measuring-ethnic-racial-identity-the-cross-ethnic-racial-identity-scale-adult-ceris-a
#9
Frank C Worrell, Rodolfo Mendoza-Denton, Amanda Wang
In this article, we examined the psychometric properties of scores on a new instrument, the Cross Ethnic-Racial Identity Scale-Adult (CERIS-A) for use across different ethnic and racial groups. The CERIS-A measures seven ethnic-racial identity attitudes-assimilation, miseducation, self-hatred, anti-dominant, ethnocentricity, multiculturalist inclusive, and ethnic-racial salience. Participants consisted of 803 adults aged 18 to 76, including African Americans (19.3%), Asian Americans (17.6%), European Americans (37...
March 1, 2017: Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214834/source-and-size-of-social-support-network-on-sedentary-behavior-among-older-adults
#10
Paul D Loprinzi, Elizabeth A Crush
PURPOSE: To examine the association of source of social support and size of social support network on sedentary behavior among older adults. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. SETTING: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003 to 2006. PARTICIPANTS: 2519 older adults (60+ years). MEASURES: Sedentary behavior was assessed via accelerometry over a 7-day period. Social support was assessed via self-report...
January 1, 2017: American Journal of Health Promotion: AJHP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214822/meeting-sleep-guidelines-is-associated-with-better-health-related-quality-of-life-and-reduced-premature-all-cause-mortality-risk
#11
Paul D Loprinzi, Chelsea Joyner
PURPOSE: To examine whether meeting sleep guidelines (7-9 hours/night) is associated with better health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and reduced all-cause mortality risk. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: 2005 to 2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 13 423 adults. MEASURES: Sleep duration and HRQOL were assessed from self-report; covariates assessed via survey, examination, and laboratory data; and mortality assessed through 2011 via matching from the National Death Index...
January 1, 2017: American Journal of Health Promotion: AJHP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214512/anticholinergic-prescribing-in-medicare-part-d-beneficiaries-residing-in-nursing-homes-results-from-a-retrospective-cross-sectional-analysis-of-medicare-data
#12
Joshua Niznik, Xinhua Zhao, Tao Jiang, Joseph T Hanlon, Sherrie L Aspinall, Joshua Thorpe, Carolyn Thorpe
BACKGROUND: Prescribing of medications with anticholinergic properties in older nursing home residents is relatively common, despite an association with an increased risk for falls, delirium, and other outcomes. Few studies have investigated what factors influence different levels of prescribing of these agents. OBJECTIVES: The primary objective was to identify factors associated with low- and high-level anticholinergic burden in nursing home residents. A secondary objective was to examine in detail the contribution of different medications to low versus high burden to aid in determining which drugs to target in interventions...
December 6, 2017: Drugs & Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214443/contribution-of-symmetric-dimethylarginine-to-gfr-decline-in-pediatric-chronic-kidney-disease
#13
Ellen R Brooks, Shannon Haymond, Alfred Rademaker, Christopher Pierce, Irene Helenowski, Rod Passman, Faye Vicente, Bradley A Warady, Susan L Furth, Craig B Langman
BACKGROUND: In pediatric chronic kidney disease (pCKD), traditional factors (proteinuria, etiology, and race) do not fully explain disease progression. The levels of methylated arginine derivatives (MADs: asymmetric and symmetric dimethylarginine, respectively) rise in CKD and increase with CKD progression. The impact of MADs on glomerular filtration rate (GFR) decline has not been examined in pCKD. The aim of this study was to examine the additive impact of baseline (BL) levels of MADs on directly measured GFR (mGFR) decline per year (ml/min/1...
December 7, 2017: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214319/electrocardiographic-findings-in-national-basketball-association-athletes
#14
Marc P Waase, R Kannan Mutharasan, William Whang, Marco R DiTullio, John P DiFiori, Lisa Callahan, Jimmie Mancell, Dermot Phelan, Allan Schwartz, Shunichi Homma, David J Engel
Importance: While it is known that long-term intensive athletic training is associated with cardiac structural changes that can be reflected on surface electrocardiograms (ECGs), there is a paucity of sport-specific ECG data. This study seeks to clarify the applicability of existing athlete ECG interpretation criteria to elite basketball players, an athlete group shown to develop significant athletic cardiac remodeling. Objective: To generate normative ECG data for National Basketball Association (NBA) athletes and to assess the accuracy of athlete ECG interpretation criteria in this population...
December 6, 2017: JAMA Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214316/association-between-hospital-financial-distress-and-immediate-breast-reconstruction-surgery-after-mastectomy-among-women-with-ductal-carcinoma-in-situ
#15
Catherine A Richards, Andrew G Rundle, Jason D Wright, Dawn L Hershman
Importance: Hospital financial distress (HFD) is a state in which a hospital is at risk of closure because of its financial condition. Hospital financial distress may reduce the services a hospital can offer, particularly unprofitable ones. Few studies have assessed the association of HFD with quality of care. Objective: To examine the association between HFD and receipt of immediate breast reconstruction surgery after mastectomy among women diagnosed with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS)...
December 6, 2017: JAMA Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212736/arsenic-exposure-in-relation-to-ischemic-stroke-the-reasons-for-geographic-and-racial-differences-in-stroke-study
#16
Cari L Tsinovoi, Pengcheng Xun, Leslie A McClure, Vivian M O Carioni, John D Brockman, Jianwen Cai, Eliseo Guallar, Mary Cushman, Frederick W Unverzagt, Virginia J Howard, Ka He
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The purpose of this case-cohort study was to examine urinary arsenic levels in relation to incident ischemic stroke in the United States. METHODS: We performed a case-cohort study nested within the REGARDS (REasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke) cohort. A subcohort (n=2486) of controls was randomly sampled within region-race-sex strata while all incident ischemic stroke cases from the full REGARDS cohort (n=671) were included...
December 6, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212563/clinically-relevant-and-simple-immune-system-measure-is-related-to-symptom-burden-in-bipolar-disorder
#17
Ole Köhler-Forsberg, Louisa Sylvia, Thilo Deckersbach, Michael Joshua Ostacher, Melvin McInnis, Dan Iosifescu, Charles Bowden, Susan McElroy, Joseph Calabrese, Michael Thase, Richard Charles Shelton, Mauricio Tohen, James Kocsis, Edward Friedman, Terence Ketter, Andrew Alan Nierenberg
OBJECTIVE: Immunological theories, particularly the sickness syndrome theory, may explain psychopathology in mood disorders. However, no clinical trials have investigated the association between overall immune system markers with a wide range of specific symptoms including potential gender differences. METHODS: We included two similar clinical trials, the lithium treatment moderate-dose use study and clinical and health outcomes initiatives in comparative effectiveness for bipolar disorder study, enrolling 765 participants with bipolar disorder...
December 7, 2017: Acta Neuropsychiatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211842/maternal-age-at-birth-and-daughters-subsequent-childlessness
#18
O Basso, C R Weinberg, A A D'Aloisio, D P Sandler
STUDY QUESTION: Does maternal age at a daughter's birth predict her subsequent probability of lifelong childlessness? SUMMARY ANSWER: In this study population, women born to older mothers were more likely to be childless. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Although maternal age at childbearing is increasing in many countries, there is limited evidence on whether being born to older parents may influence offspring fertility. STUDY DESIGN SIZE AND DURATION: This analysis included 43 135 women from the US-based Sister Study, a cohort study of 50 884 sisters of women with breast cancer recruited between 2003 and 2009...
December 4, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211313/comparative-study-of-lung-and-extrapulmonary-poorly-differentiated-neuroendocrine-carcinomas-a-seer-database-analysis-of-162-983-cases
#19
Arvind Dasari, Kathan Mehta, Lauren A Byers, Halfdan Sorbye, James C Yao
BACKGROUND: Extrapulmonary neuroendocrine carcinomas (NECs) are poorly studied and are managed similar to lung NECs, which may not account for differences between the 2 groups of tumors as well as the heterogeneity within extrapulmonary NEC. METHODS: Data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program between 1973 and 2012 were used to estimate the relative percentages of lung NECs and subgroups of extrapulmonary NECs, epidemiological patterns at these sites, and the median and 5-year overall survival rates...
December 6, 2017: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210627/pharmacokinetic-analysis-of-nevirapine-extended-release-400%C3%A2-mg-once-daily-vs-nevirapine-immediate-release-200%C3%A2-mg-twice-daily-formulation-in-treatment-na%C3%A3-ve-patients-with-hiv-1-infection
#20
Chan-Loi Yong, Joseph C Gathe, Gabriele Knecht, Catherine Orrell, Josep Mallolas, Daniel Podzamczer, Benoit Trottier, Wei Zhang, John P Sabo, Richard Vinisko, Murray Drulak, Anne-Marie Quinson
BACKGROUND: VERxVE data showed non-inferior virologic efficacy with extended release nevirapine (NVP-XR) dosed 400 mg once daily (QD) versus immediate release nevirapine (NVP-IR) 200 mg twice daily in a double-blind, non-inferiority study in treatment-naïve HIV-1-positive patients. OBJECTIVE: To study the pharmacokinetics (PK) of the NVP formulations and identify possible associations with demographic factors. METHODS: Patients with viral load ≥1000 copies/mL and CD4+ count > 50- <400 cells/mm3 (males) and >50- <250 cells/mm3 (females) at screening received NVP-IR 200 mg QD during a 14-day lead-in and were then stratified by baseline viral load and randomized to NVP-XR or -IR...
November 2017: HIV Clinical Trials
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