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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822325/are-there-regional-tendencies-toward-controversial-screening-practices-a-study-of-prostate-and-breast-cancer-screening-in-a-medicare-population
#1
Eric Raffin, Tracy Onega, Julie Bynum, Andrea Austin, Donald Carmichael, Kristen Bronner, Philip Goodney, Elias S Hyams
INTRODUCTION: Prostate and breast cancer screening in older patients continue to be controversial. Balancing the desire for early detection with avoidance of over-diagnosis has led to competing and contradictory guidelines for both practices. Despite similarities, it is not known how these screening practices are related at the regional level. In this study, we examined how screening PSA and mammography are related within healthcare regions, and, to better understand what may be driving these practices, whether they are associated with local intensity of care...
August 16, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821419/characterization-expression-and-evolutionary-analysis-of-new-tlr3-and-tlr5m-genes-cloned-from-the-spiny-eel-mastacembelus-armatus
#2
Chong Han, Qiang Li, Zhipeng Zhang, Jianrong Huang
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play an important role in innate and adaptive immunity. Here, we identify two new TLRs from the spiny eel Mastacembelus armatus (TLR3 and membrane TLR5M). Both MaTLR3 and MaTLR5M were expressed in all tested tissues; expression was highest in liver and spleen, respectively. After infection with Vibrio parahaemolyticus, expression of both TLRs fluctuated and differed significantly from controls at several time points. The predicted three-dimensional model of the MaTLR3 and MaTLR5M proteins indicates that most sites under positive selection were located in the extracellular domains of TLRs...
August 15, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819265/the-chemical-signatures-underlying-host-plant-discrimination-by-aphids
#3
David P Hopkins, Duncan D Cameron, Roger K Butlin
The diversity of phytophagous insects is largely attributable to speciation involving shifts between host plants. These shifts are mediated by the close interaction between insects and plant metabolites. However, there has been limited progress in understanding the chemical signatures that underlie host preferences. We use the pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum) to address this problem. Host-associated races of pea aphid discriminate between plant species in race-specific ways. We combined metabolomic profiling of multiple plant species with behavioural tests on two A...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818242/young-adult-risk-factors-for-cancer-obesity-inflammation-and-sociobehavioral-mechanisms
#4
Yang Claire Yang, Moira P Johnson, Kristen M Schorpp, Courtney E Boen, Kathleen Mullan Harris
INTRODUCTION: The paper assesses social disparities in the burdens of metabolic and inflammatory risks for cancer in the U.S. young adult population and examines psychosocial and behavioral mechanisms in such disparities. METHODS: Using data of 7,889 individuals aged 12-32 years from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health from 1994 to 2009, generalized linear models were used to assess the sex, race/ethnicity, and SES differences in the risks of obesity and inflammation, measured by C-reactive protein...
September 2017: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817333/the-epidemic-of-despair-among-white-americans-trends-in-the-leading-causes-of-premature-death-1999-2015
#5
Elizabeth M Stein, Keith P Gennuso, Donna C Ugboaja, Patrick L Remington
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate trends in premature death rates by cause of death, age, race, and urbanization level in the United States. METHODS: We calculated cause-specific death rates using the Compressed Mortality File, National Center for Health Statistics data for adults aged 25 to 64 years in 2 time periods: 1999 to 2001 and 2013 to 2015. We defined 48 subpopulations by 10-year age groups, race/ethnicity, and county urbanization level (large urban, suburban, small or medium metropolitan, and rural)...
August 17, 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817299/how-do-medicare-advantage-beneficiary-payments-vary-with-tenure
#6
Paul D Jacobs, Eamon Molloy
OBJECTIVES: To compare how premiums and expected out-of-pocket medical costs (OOPC) vary with the length of time Medicare Advantage (MA) beneficiaries have been enrolled in their plans. STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive and fixed effects regression analyses. METHODS: Using linked administrative enrollment and plan data, we compared the costs of the MA plans that beneficiaries chose with the costs of other plans available to them. We show predicted values adjusted for age, gender, race/ethnicity, disability, individual health risk, presence of mental health diagnoses, health plan quality, relative size of the plan's provider network, and the number of years continuously enrolled in the same plan...
June 2017: American Journal of Managed Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817182/centralized-patient-reported-outcome-data-collection-in-transplantation-is-feasible-and-clinically-meaningful
#7
Bronwen E Shaw, Ruta Brazauskas, Heather R Millard, Rachel Fonstad, Kathryn E Flynn, Amy Abernethy, Jenny Vogel, Charney Petroske, Deborah Mattila, Rebecca Drexler, Stephanie J Lee, Mary M Horowitz, J Douglas Rizzo
BACKGROUND: Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) cures many patients, but often with the risk of late effects and impaired quality of life. The value of quantifying patient-reported outcomes (PROs) is increasingly being recognized, but the routine collection of PROs is uncommon. This study evaluated the feasibility of prospective PRO collection by an outcome registry at multiple time points from unselected HCT patients undergoing transplantation at centers contributing clinical data to the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research (CIBMTR), and then it correlated the PRO data with clinical and demographic data...
August 17, 2017: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815987/health-related-quality-of-life-in-randomized-controlled-trials-of-lorcaserin-for-obesity-management-what-mediates-improvement
#8
R L Kolotkin, R D Crosby, Z Wang
Lorcaserin, plus diet and exercise, has demonstrated significant weight loss and improved cardiometabolic parameters vs. placebo in patients with overweight/obesity in three randomized, placebo-controlled trials. We examined whether lorcaserin is also associated with greater improvements in health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and whether these improvements are wholly attributable to weight loss. Pooled data from Behavioral Modification and Lorcaserin for Overweight and Obesity Management (BLOOM), Behavioral Modification and Lorcaserin Second Study for Obesity Management (BLOSSOM) and BLOOM-Diabetes Mellitus (BLOOM-DM) trials were analysed (n = 5624)...
August 17, 2017: Clinical Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815618/effect-on-gene-expression-of-three-allelic-variants-in-gata-motifs-of-abo-rhd-and-rhce-regulatory-elements
#9
Katie Fennell, Roser Hoffman, Ken Yoshida, Sadahiko Iwamoto, Lavendri Govender, Kuben Vather, Ashika Sookraj, Ute Jentsch, Chantale Pambrun, Catherine McAuley, Margaret A Keller, Gorka Ochoa-Garay
BACKGROUND: Only a few genetic variants have been reported in regulatory elements of blood group genes. Most of them affect GATA motifs, binding sites for the GATA-1 transcription factor. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Samples from two patients and one donor with unusual or discrepant serology for ABO, RhD, and RhCE antigens were analyzed by DNA sequencing. Analyzed regions included the coding sequence and portions of regulatory elements. The effect of some variants on gene expression was evaluated in reporter gene assays...
August 16, 2017: Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815617/disparities-in-sinonasal-squamous-cell-carcinoma-short-and-long-term-outcomes-analysis-from-the-national-cancer-database
#10
Ryan M Carey, Arjun K Parasher, Alan D Workman, Carol H Yan, Jordan T Glicksman, Jinbo Chen, James N Palmer, Nithin D Adappa, Jason G Newman, Jason A Brant
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: To examine sociodemographic, hospital-specific, and disease-related characteristics in relation to outcomes in sinonasal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). STUDY DESIGN: The National Cancer Database was queried for location codes corresponding to the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses and histology codes representing SCC malignancy. Multivariate analyses were performed against short- and long-term outcomes (overall survival, days to discharge, 30-day readmission, and 30- and 90-day mortality)...
August 16, 2017: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814488/association-of-cardiovascular-disease-risk-factors-with-coronary-artery-calcium-volume-versus-density
#11
Isac C Thomas, Brandon Shiau, Julie O Denenberg, Robyn L McClelland, Philip Greenland, Ian H de Boer, Bryan R Kestenbaum, Gen-Min Lin, Michael Daniels, Nketi I Forbang, Dena E Rifkin, Jan Hughes-Austin, Matthew A Allison, J Jeffrey Carr, Joachim H Ix, Michael H Criqui
OBJECTIVES: Recently, the density score of coronary artery calcium (CAC) has been shown to be associated with a lower risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) events at any level of CAC volume. Whether risk factors for CAC volume and CAC density are similar or distinct is unknown. We sought to evaluate the associations of CVD risk factors with CAC volume and CAC density scores. METHODS: Baseline measurements from 6814 participants free of clinical CVD were collected for the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis...
August 16, 2017: Heart: Official Journal of the British Cardiac Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813462/a-comprehensive-profiling-of-t-and-b-lymphocyte-receptor-repertoires-from-a-chinese-origin-rhesus-macaque-by-high-throughput-sequencing
#12
Longfei Fu, Xinyang Li, Wei Zhang, Changxi Wang, Jinghua Wu, Huanming Yang, Jian Wang, Xiao Liu
Due to the close genetic background, high similarity of physiology, and susceptibility to infectious and metabolic diseases with humans, rhesus macaques have been widely used as an important animal model in biomedical research, especially in the study of vaccine development and human immune-related diseases. In recent years, high-throughput sequencing based immune repertoire sequencing (IR-SEQ) has become a powerful tool to study the dynamic adaptive immune responses. Several previous studies had analyzed the responses of B cells to HIV-1 trimer vaccine or T cell repertoire of rhesus macaques using this technique, however, there are little studies that had performed a comprehensive analysis of immune repertoire of rhesus macaques, including T and B lymphocytes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813327/recent-developments-in-understanding-ethnocultural-and-race-differences-in-trauma-exposure-and-ptsd
#13
REVIEW
Anu Asnaani, Brittany Hall-Clark
Our understanding of demographic specifications that put certain individuals at greater risk for trauma exposure and subsequent development of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has grown significantly over the past few decades. This brief review specifically examines the studies exploring the potential influence of ethnocultural and racial group status on trauma exposure and PTSD, with a focus on findings published recently in the past five years. We first provide a brief review of current epidemiological data examining associations among ethnicity/culture/race and trauma exposure/PTSD...
April 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813166/are-inner-city-children-with-asthma-receiving-specialty-care-as-recommended-in-national-asthma-guidelines
#14
Karen L Warman, Ellen J Silver
OBJECTIVE: To examine whether children with asthma in an urban healthcare network are receiving asthma specialty care, and which factors, if any, are associated with receipt of this care, including: child's racial/ethnic group, age, socio-economic status (SES), insurance, and/or acute care utilization. METHODS: This study is a retrospective cohort study of children ages 7- 17 years old who received primary care in an urban medical center in 2012 and had a primary or secondary ICD9 code for asthma...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Asthma: Official Journal of the Association for the Care of Asthma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813005/identification-and-functional-divergence-analysis-of-wox-gene-family-in-paper-mulberry
#15
Feng Tang, Naizhi Chen, Meiling Zhao, Yucheng Wang, Ruiping He, Xianjun Peng, Shihua Shen
The WOX (WUSCHEL-related homeobox) is a plant-specific transcription factor involved in plant development and stress response. However, few studies have been reported on the WOX gene in woody plants. In this study, 10 BpWOX genes were isolated from paper mulberry by RACE-PCR and categorized into three clades through phylogenetic analysis, ancient, intermediate and WUS clade. Among them, five members had the transcriptional activity detected by yeast one-hybrid and seven were uniquely localized to the nucleus through green fluorescent protein (GFP) observation...
August 16, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812713/female-plasticity-tends-to-reduce-sexual-conflict
#16
David V McLeod, Troy Day
Sexual conflict is the divergence of evolutionary interests between the sexes. A neglected aspect of sexual conflict theory is that the conflict often occurs within the female's body, which can lead to a power asymmetry between the sexes. In particular, the female may often be able to respond flexibly to the actions of the male, and so exhibits plasticity. Here, we consider the implications of female plasticity, and find that it tends to result in lower levels of sexual conflict. We then relate our results to a comparison of pre- versus post-copulatory sexual conflict, and we also show that this asymmetry between males and females reduces the likelihood of runaway selection, preventing co-evolutionary arms races...
February 13, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812287/racial-discrimination-and-mental-health-in-the-usa-testing-the-reverse-racism-hypothesis
#17
Bongki Woo
OBJECTIVE: The present study examined whether the health disadvantages consequent of racial discrimination experienced by four racial/ethnic minority groups are equivalent with that of the dominant racial group. METHOD: Data was derived from the 2013 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Logistic regression and heterogeneous choice models were used to test the moderating role of race/ethnicity in regards to the associations between racial discrimination and ten DSM-V diagnoses...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812255/persisting-racial-disparities-in-colonoscopy-screening-of-persons-with-a-family-history-of-colorectal-cancer
#18
Meng-Han Tsai, Sudha Xirasagar, Piet C de Groen
With 23 and 47% higher colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence and mortality, respectively, among African Americans vs. Whites, CRC screening studies are important. Screening guidelines recommend 5-yearly colonoscopy screening of persons with a family history of CRC (first-degree relatives, FDRs), beginning at 40 years of age. For this elevated-risk group, colonoscopy screening is preferred because of the risk of more aggressive cancer that may elude early detection by other methods. African Americans with a family history of CRC are at the intersection of two elevated risk demographics, race and FDR status...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811987/early-complications-and-outcomes-in-adult-spinal-deformity-surgery-an-nsqip-study-based-on-5803-patients
#19
Nathan J Lee, Parth Kothari, Jun S Kim, John I Shin, Kevin Phan, John Di Capua, Sulaiman Somani, Dante M Leven, Javier Z Guzman, Samuel K Cho
STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective analysis. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to determine the incidence, impact, and risk factors for short-term postoperative complications following elective adult spinal deformity (ASD) surgery. METHODS: Current Procedural Terminology codes were used to query the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS NSQIP) for adults who underwent spinal deformity surgery from 2010 to 2014...
August 2017: Global Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811604/multimerization-is-required-for-antigen-binding-activity-of-an-engineered-igm-igg-chimeric-antibody-recognizing-a-skin-related-antigen
#20
Kwesi Teye, Koji Hashimoto, Sanae Numata, Kunihiro Ohta, Marek Haftek, Takashi Hashimoto
Monoclonal antibodies offer great tools for research. We encountered a potentially useful mouse IgM monoclonal antibody whose antigen is expressed in normal skin but lost in human skin cancer. Because IgM is difficult to work with and the antigen was unknown, we decided to convert the IgM (µ) to IgG (γ) version. After cDNA for the antibody was obtained by RACE PCR, we made a series of molecules with different combinations of IgM and IgG domains. Whereas VH-Cµ1-Cµ2-Cγ3 and VH-Cµ1-Cµ2-Hinge-Cγ2-Cγ3 functionally bound to the antigen, VH-Cγ1-Hinge-Cγ2-Cγ3, VH-Cµ1-Hinge-Cγ2-Cγ3, and VH-Cµ1-Cµ2-Cγ2-Cγ3 did not...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
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