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Race Relations

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457521/relationships-between-race-ethnicity-and-health-care-utilization-among-older-post-acute-home-health-care-patients
#1
Jo-Ana D Chase, David Russell, Liming Huang, Alexandra Hanlon, Melissa O'Connor, Kathryn H Bowles
Few studies have explored racial/ethnic differences in health care outcomes among patients receiving home health care (HHC), despite known differences in other care settings. We conducted a retrospective cohort study examining racial/ethnic disparities in rehospitalization and emergency room (ER) use among post-acute patients served by a large northeastern HHC agency between 2013 and 2014 ( N = 22,722). We used multivariable binomial logistic regression to describe the relationship between race/ethnicity and health care utilization outcomes, adjusting for individual-level factors that are conceptually related to health service use...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Applied Gerontology: the Official Journal of the Southern Gerontological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455901/prevalence-of-mental-disorders-and-related-functioning-and-treatment-engagement-among-people-with-diabetes
#2
Matthew Tyler Boden
AIMS: To examine prevalence, functioning and treatment associated with all DSM-5 12-month mood, anxiety, eating and substance use disorders among people with diabetes in data obtained from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions-III. METHODS: Through multistage stratified randomized sampling a sample representative of the United States civilian population was obtained. Prevalence of diabetes (Type 1 and 2), DSM-5 disorders, physical and mental functioning, and treatment utilization were assessed via telephone interview...
March 2018: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455383/healthcare-experiences-of-low-income-women-with-prior-gestational-diabetes
#3
Reena Oza-Frank, Elizabeth Conrey, Jo Bouchard, Cynthia Shellhaas, Mary Beth Weber
Introduction An important yet understudied component of postpartum type 2 diabetes risk reduction among high risk women is experiences with the healthcare system. Our objective was to describe the healthcare experiences of a diverse, low-income sample of women with prior GDM, including their suggestions for improving care. Methods Focus groups were conducted among African American, Hispanic, and Appalachian women who were diagnosed with GDM within the past 10 years. Participants were recruited from community and medical resources...
February 17, 2018: Maternal and Child Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454832/identification-and-functional-analysis-of-inhibitor-of-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-kinase-ikk-from-scylla-paramamosain-the-first-evidence-of-three-ikks-in-crab-species-and-their-expression-profiles-under-biotic-and-abiotic-stresses
#4
Mei Jiang, Dan-Dan Tu, Wen-Bin Gu, Yi-Lian Zhou, Qi-Hui Zhu, Xiao-Ling Guo, Miao-An Shu
IKK (inhibitor of NF-κB kinase) is the core regulator for NF-κB (nuclear factor-κB) pathway against pathogenic invasion in vertebrates or invertebrates. However, the IKK from crab species has not yet been identified. In the present study, three full-length cDNA sequences of IKKs from mud crab Scylla paramamosain, designated as SpIKKβ, SpIKKε1 and SpIKKε2, were firstly cloned through RT-PCR and RACE methods. This is also the first report about the identification of two IKKε genes in mud crab and even in crustaceans...
February 15, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454356/multiple-forms-of-discrimination-and-relationships-with-health-and-wellbeing-findings-from-national-cross-sectional-surveys-in-aotearoa-new-zealand
#5
Donna Cormack, James Stanley, Ricci Harris
BACKGROUND: The complex ways in which experiences of discrimination are patterned in society, including the exposure of communities to multiple overlapping forms of discrimination within social systems of oppression, is increasingly recognised in the health sciences. However, research examining the impacts on health and contribution to racial/ethnic health inequities remains limited. This study aims to contribute to the field by exploring the prevalence and patterning of experience of multiple forms of discrimination in Aotearoa/New Zealand, and associations with health and wellbeing...
February 17, 2018: International Journal for Equity in Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452389/parity-associated-with-telomere-length-among-us-reproductive-age-women
#6
A Z Pollack, K Rivers, K A Ahrens
STUDY QUESTION: Is telomere length related to parity among a nationally representative sample of US reproductive age women? SUMMARY ANSWER: History of live birth was associated with shorter telomere length. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Shorter telomeres have been linked with a range of chronic health conditions and mortality and parity has been associated with health indicators. However, there is a lack of research on how parity relates to telomere length...
February 14, 2018: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452335/change-in-cardiometabolic-risk-among-blacks-whites-and-hispanics-findings-from-the-health-and-retirement-study
#7
Uchechi A Mitchell, Jennifer A Ailshire, Eileen M Crimmins
Background: Blacks experience greater multi-system physiological dysregulation, or cumulative biological risk, which is associated with poor cardiometabolic health and mortality. In this study, we assess race differences in change in risk over four years among older whites, blacks and Hispanics. Method: We examined race differences in 4-year change in individual biomarkers and a cumulative measure of risk-cardiometabolic risk (CMR)-using data for each respondent from two waves of the Health and Retirement Study's biomarker assessment (n=5,512)...
February 14, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452277/association-between-obesity-and-acute-severity-among-patients-hospitalized-for-asthma-exacerbation
#8
Sarah Kyuragi Luthe, Atsushi Hirayama, Tadahiro Goto, Mohammad Kamal Faridi, Carlos A Camargo, Kohei Hasegawa
BACKGROUND: Although studies have demonstrated relations between obesity and incident asthma, little is known about the association of obesity with acute severity in adults hospitalized for asthma exacerbation. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association of obesity with acute severity of asthma exacerbation. METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study using population-based data of 8 geographically diverse US states from 2010 through 2013...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451893/vegetative-compatibility-groups-partition-variation-in-the-virulence-of-verticillium-dahliae-on-strawberry
#9
Rong Fan, Helen M Cockerton, Andrew D Armitage, Helen Bates, Emma Cascant-Lopez, Laima Antanaviciute, Xiangming Xu, Xiaoping Hu, Richard J Harrison
Verticillium dahliae infection of strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa) is a major cause of disease-induced wilting in soil-grown strawberries across the world. To understand what components of the pathogen are affecting disease expression, the presence of the known effector VdAve1 was screened in a sample of Verticillium dahliae isolates. Isolates from strawberry were found to contain VdAve1 and were divided into two major clades, based upon their vegetative compatibility groups (VCG); no UK strawberry isolates contained VdAve1...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451888/ecogeography-of-teosinte
#10
José de Jesús Sánchez González, José Ariel Ruiz Corral, Guillermo Medina García, Gabriela Ramírez Ojeda, Lino De la Cruz Larios, James Brendan Holland, Roberto Miranda Medrano, Giovanni Emmanuel García Romero
Adaptation of crops to climate change has motivated an increasing interest in the potential value of novel traits from wild species; maize wild relatives, the teosintes, harbor traits that may be useful to maize breeding. To study the ecogeographic distribution of teosinte we constructed a robust database of 2363 teosinte occurrences from published sources for the period 1842-2016. A geographical information system integrating 216 environmental variables was created for Mexico and Central America and was used to characterize the environment of each teosinte occurrence site...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451299/low-childhood-subjective-social-status-and-telomere-length-in-adulthood-the-role-of-attachment-orientations
#11
Kyle W Murdock, Annina Seiler, Diana A Chirinos, Luz M Garcini, Sally L Acebo, Sheldon Cohen, Christopher P Fagundes
Low subjective social status (SSS) in childhood places one at greater risk of a number of health problems in adulthood. Theoretical and empirical evidence indicates that exposure to supportive parenting may buffer the negative effects of low childhood SSS on adult health. Given the importance of supportive caregivers and close others for the development of attachment orientations throughout the lifespan, attachment theory may be important for understanding why some individuals are resilient to the negative effects of low childhood SSS on adult health while others are not...
February 16, 2018: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450681/factors-related-to-the-probable-ptsd-after-the-9-11-world-trade-center-attack-among-asian-americans
#12
Winnie W Kung, Xinhua Liu, Debbie Huang, Patricia Kim, Xiaoran Wang, Lawrence H Yang
Despite the fact that Asians constituted a sizeable proportion of those exposed to the World Trade Center attack on September 11, 2001 due to its proximity to Chinatown and many South Asians working in the nearby buildings, no study had focused on examining the mental health impact of the attack in this group. Based on data collected by the World Trade Center Health Registry from a sample of 4721 Asians 2-3 years after the disaster, this study provides a baseline investigation for the prevalence and the risk and protective factors for PTSD among Asian Americans directly exposed to the attack and compared this population against 42,862 non-Hispanic Whites...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449443/sex-differences-in-ischemic-heart-disease-advances-obstacles-and-next-steps
#13
Niti R Aggarwal, Hena N Patel, Laxmi S Mehta, Rupa M Sanghani, Gina P Lundberg, Sandra J Lewis, Marla A Mendelson, Malissa J Wood, Annabelle S Volgman, Jennifer H Mieres
Evolving knowledge of sex-specific presentations, improved recognition of conventional and novel risk factors, and expanded understanding of the sex-specific pathophysiology of ischemic heart disease have resulted in improved clinical outcomes in women. Yet, ischemic heart disease continues to be the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in women in the United States. The important publication by the Institute of Medicine titled "Women's Health Research-Progress, Pitfalls, and Promise," highlights the persistent disparities in cardiovascular disease burden among subgroups of women, particularly women who are socially disadvantaged because of race, ethnicity, income level, and educational attainment...
February 2018: Circulation. Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448824/influence-of-diagnosis-and-other-factors-on-patients-expectations-of-foot-and-ankle-surgery
#14
Elizabeth A Cody, Huong T Do, Jayme C B Koltsov, Carol A Mancuso, Scott J Ellis
BACKGROUND: Many patient factors have been associated with higher or lower expectations of orthopaedic surgery. In foot and ankle surgery, the diverse diagnoses seen may also influence expectations. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between diagnosis and patients' preoperative expectations of elective foot and ankle surgery. METHODS: Two hundred seventy-eight patients undergoing elective foot or ankle surgery for 1 of 7 common diagnoses were enrolled in a prospective cohort study...
February 1, 2018: Foot & Ankle International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447783/representation-of-black-patients-in-randomized-clinical-trials-of-heart-failure-with-reduced-ejection-fraction
#15
REVIEW
Lonnie T Sullivan, Tiffany Randolph, Peter Merrill, Larry R Jackson, Chidiebube Egwim, Monique A Starks, Kevin L Thomas
BACKGROUND: Black individuals have a disproportionately higher burden of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) relative to other racial and ethnic populations. We conducted a systematic review to determine the representation, enrollment trends, and outcomes of black patients in historic and contemporary randomized clinical trials (RCTs) for HFrEF. METHODS: We searched PubMed and Embase for RCTs of patients with chronic HFrEF that evaluated therapies that significantly improved clinical outcomes...
March 2018: American Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447448/gendered-racism-and-the-sexual-and-reproductive-health-of-black-and-latina-women
#16
Lisa Rosenthal, Marci Lobel
OBJECTIVE: To understand health disparities, it is important to use an intersectional framework that examines unique experiences of oppression faced by particular groups due to their intersecting identities and social positions linked to societal structures. We focus on Black and Latina women and their experiences with 'gendered racism' - unique forms of oppression due to the intersection of race/ethnicity and gender - to foster understanding of disparities between Black and Latina versus White women in sexual and reproductive health outcomes in the U...
February 15, 2018: Ethnicity & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447263/insurance-status-and-cancer-treatment-mediate-the-association-between-race-ethnicity-and-cervical-cancer-survival
#17
Sarah C Markt, Tianyu Tang, Angel M Cronin, Ingrid T Katz, Brooke E Howitt, Neil S Horowitz, Larissa J Lee, Alexi A Wright
Cervical cancer outcomes remain poor among disadvantaged populations, including ethnic minorities, low-income, and underinsured women. The aim of this study was to evaluate the mechanisms that underlie the observed association between race/ethnicity and cervical cancer survival. We identified 13,698 women, ages 21 to 64 years, diagnosed with stages I-III primary cervical cancer between 2007-2013 in Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER). Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models evaluated associations between race/ethnicity (Non-Hispanic White, Non-Hispanic Black, Hispanic, Other) and cervical cancer-specific mortality...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446800/biology-of-vibrio-cholera-editorial-overview
#18
EDITORIAL
Felipe Cava
In this monographic issue, we have the pleasure to present contributions from six of the leading laboratories at the forefront of Vibrio cholerae genetics, ecology and evolution, together with a brief tribute by Diego Romero to Doctor Jaime Ferrán y Clua, a pioneering Spanish bacteriologist who developed the first vaccine against this pathogen. V. cholerae is a free-living aquatic bacterium that interacts with and infects a variety of organisms. In humans it causes cholera, the deadly diarrhoea that was responsible for millions of deaths during seven pandemics since 1817, and still thousands every year...
September 2017: International Microbiology: the Official Journal of the Spanish Society for Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446554/impact-of-cigarette-smoking-on-the-relationship-between-bmi-and-insulin-longitudinal-observation-from-the-bogalusa-heart-study
#19
Ying Li, Tao Zhang, Tianshu Han, Shengxu Li, Lydia Bazzano, Jiang He, Wei Chen
BACKGROUND: Despite the inverse association between cigarette smoking and body mass index (BMI), it is unknown about whether the effect of smoking on insulin is mediated through decreased BMI. This study aims to examine the temporal relationship between BMI and insulin, the impact of smoking on this relationship and mediation effect of BMI on the association between smoking and insulin levels. METHODS: The longitudinal cohort consisted of 1,121 adults (807 whites and 314 blacks, mean age=42...
February 15, 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446507/technical-determinants-of-biathlon-standing-shooting-performance-before-and-after-race-simulation
#20
Simo Ihalainen, Marko S Laaksonen, Sami Kuitunen, Antti Leppävuori, Jussi Mikkola, Stefan Josef Lindinger, Vesa Linnamo
The aim of this study was to identify performance determining factors in biathlon standing shooting in rest and after intense exercise. Eight Finnish national and nine junior team biathletes participated in the study. Participants fired 40 resting shots (REST) and 2*5 competition simulation shots (LOAD) after 5 min of roller skiing at 95% of peak heart rate. Hit percentage, aiming point trajectory and postural balance were measured from each shot. Cleanness of triggering (ATV, movement of the aiming point 0-0...
February 15, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
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