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Race Relations

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329871/variations-in-social-network-type-membership-among-older-african-americans-caribbean-blacks-and-non-hispanic-whites
#1
Ann W Nguyen
Objectives: This study examined race differences in the probability of belonging to a specific social network typology of family, friends, and church members. Method: Samples of African Americans, Caribbean blacks, and non-Hispanic whites aged 55+ were drawn from the National Survey of American Life. Typology indicators related to social integration and negative interactions with family, friendship, and church networks were used. Latent class analysis was used to identify typologies, and latent class multinomial logistic regression was used to assess the influence of race, and interactions between race and age, and race and education on typology membership...
February 28, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329327/association-of-accelerometer-measured-physical-activity-with-leukocyte-telomere-length-among-older-women
#2
Aladdin H Shadyab, Michael J LaMonte, Charles Kooperberg, Alexander P Reiner, Cara L Carty, Todd M Manini, Lifang Hou, Chongzhi Di, Andrea Z LaCroix
Background: Previous studies on physical activity and telomere length have relied largely upon self-reported physical activity data, and few studies have examined older adults. The association of objectively measured physical activity with leukocyte telomere length (LTL) is currently unknown. Methods: In this study, we examined cross-sectional associations between accelerometer-measured total, light, and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and LTL, measured using Southern blot...
March 9, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329251/factors-associated-with-accelerated-hospitalization-and-re-hospitalization-among-medicare-home-health-patients
#3
Matthew C Lohman, Emily A Scherer, Karen L Whiteman, Rebecca L Greenberg, Martha L Bruce
Background: Preventing hospitalizations and re-hospitalizations of older adults receiving Medicare home health (HH) services is a key goal for patients and care providers. This study aimed to identify factors related to greater risk of and earlier hospitalizations from HH, a key step in targeting preventive efforts. Methods: Data come from Medicare mandated start-of-care assessments from 87,780 HH patients served by 132 agencies in 32 states, collected from January 2013 to March 2015...
January 19, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329057/coronary-artery-calcification-and-risk-of-cardiovascular-disease-and-death-among-patients-with-chronic-kidney-disease
#4
Jing Chen, Matthew J Budoff, Muredach P Reilly, Wei Yang, Sylvia E Rosas, Mahboob Rahman, Xiaoming Zhang, Jason A Roy, Eva Lustigova, Lisa Nessel, Virginia Ford, Dominic Raj, Anna C Porter, Elsayed Z Soliman, Jackson T Wright, Myles Wolf, Jiang He
Importance: Coronary artery calcification (CAC) is highly prevalent in dialysis-naive patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, there are sparse data on the association of CAC with subsequent risk of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality in this population. Objective: To study the prospective association of CAC with risk of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality among dialysis-naive patients with CKD. Design, Setting, and Participants: The prospective Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort study recruited adults with an estimated glomerular filtration rate of 20 to 70 mL/min/1...
March 22, 2017: JAMA Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328547/predictors-and-impact-of-self-reported-suboptimal-effort-on-estimates-of-prevalence-of-hiv-associated-neurocognitive-disorders
#5
Andrew J Levine, Eileen Martin, Ned Sacktor, Cynthia Munro, James Becker
BACKGROUND: Prevalence estimates of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) may be inflated. Estimates are determined via cohort studies in which participants may apply suboptimal effort on neurocognitive testing, thereby inflating estimates. Additionally, fluctuating HAND severity over time may be related to inconsistent effort. To address these hypotheses, we characterized effort in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study. METHODS: After neurocognitive testing, 935 participants (525 HIV-, 410 HIV+) completed the Visual Analogue Effort Scale (VAES), rating their effort from 0-100%...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327461/muscle-strength-is-impaired-in-men-but-not-in-women-living-with-hiv-taking-antiretroviral-therapy
#6
Vitor Hf Oliveira, Susana L Wiechmann, Argéria Ms Narciso, Allison R Webel, Rafael Deminice
BACKGROUND: There is evidence that HIV Antiretroviral Therapy adverse effects may be sex-dependent, but data examing these sex differences in muscle strength is scarce. Our aim was to compare dynamic and isokinetic parameters of muscle strength between HIV-infected men and women to HIV-uninfected subjects. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, muscle strength was evaluated in 44 HIV-infected (20 men, 24 women) and 25 age-, race- and body mass index-matched HIV-uninfected subjects (11 men, 14 women)...
March 22, 2017: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325866/temporal-and-demographic-trends-in-glomerular-disease-epidemiology-in-the-southeastern-united-states-1986-2015
#7
Michelle M O'Shaughnessy, Susan L Hogan, Caroline J Poulton, Ronald J Falk, Harsharan K Singh, Volker Nickeleit, J Charles Jennette
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Large-scale, contemporary studies exploring glomerular disease epidemiology in the United States are lacking. We aimed to determine 30-year temporal and demographic trends in renal biopsy glomerular disease diagnosis frequencies in the southeastern United States. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: In this cross-sectional, observational study, we identified all patients with a native kidney biopsy specimen showing one of 18 widely recognized glomerular disease diagnoses referred to the University of North Carolina Chapel Hill Division of Nephropathology between 1986 and 2015...
March 21, 2017: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325737/measures-matter-the-local-exposure-isolation-lex-is-metrics-and-relationships-between-local-level-segregation-and-breast-cancer-survival
#8
EDITORIAL
Amin Bemanian, Kirsten M M Beyer
Background: The Black-to-White disparity in breast cancer survival is increasing, and racial residential segregation is a potential driver for this trend. However, study findings have been mixed, and no study has comprehensively compared the effectiveness of different local-level segregation metrics in explaining cancer survival.Methods: We proposed a set of new local segregation metrics named local exposure and isolation (LEx/Is) and compared our new local isolation metric with two related metrics, the location quotient (LQ) and the index of concentration at extremes (ICE), across the 102 largest U...
March 21, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325493/determining-the-epidemiologic-outcome-and-prognostic-factors-of-oral-malignant-melanoma-by-using-the-surveillance-epidemiology-and-end-results-database
#9
Robert J Lee, Serena A Lee, Thomas Lin, Kevin K Lee, Russell E Christensen
BACKGROUND: The authors conducted a retrospective analysis to determine the epidemiologic, outcome, and prognostic factors in patients with oral malignant melanoma (OMM). METHODS: The authors used the US National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database to analyze patients with OMM from 1973 to 2012. Study variables included age, sex, race, decade of diagnosis, extent of disease, tumor size, treatment modality, and socioeconomic status (SES)...
March 18, 2017: Journal of the American Dental Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324815/gender-and-race-ethnic-differences-in-the-persistence-of-alcohol-drug-and-poly-substance-use-disorders
#10
Elizabeth A Evans, Christine E Grella, Donna L Washington, Dawn M Upchurch
AIMS: To examine gender and racial/ethnic differences in the effect of substance use disorder (SUD) type on SUD persistence. METHODS: Data were provided by 1025 women and 1835 men from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) to examine whether gender and race/ethnicity (Non-Hispanic White, Black, Hispanic) moderate the effects of DSM-IV defined past-12 month SUD type (alcohol, drug, poly-substance) on SUD persistence at 3-year follow-up, controlling for covariates...
March 7, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324791/spatio-temporal-neighborhood-impacts-on-internalizing-and-externalizing-behaviors-in-u-s-elementary-school-children-effect-modification-by-child-and-family-socio-demographics
#11
Jamie L Humphrey, Elisabeth D Root
Increasing evidence from experimental and non-experimental research has shown that children residing in disadvantaged neighborhoods exhibit greater levels of internalizing and externalizing behaviors, above and beyond individual characteristics, and family or school contexts. Using the ECLS-K, a nationally representative, longitudinal survey of U.S. school children, this study examined direct neighborhood effects on internalizing (N = 14,870; N = 10,610) and externalizing (N = 14,960; N = 10,730) behaviors at the beginning and end of elementary school...
March 12, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324675/arterial-stiffness-in-hiv-infected-youth-and-associations-with-hiv-related-variables
#12
Allison Ross Eckard, Paolo Raggi, Joshua H Ruff, Mary Ann O'Riordan, Julia C Rosebush, Danielle Labbato, Julie E Daniels, Monika Uribe-Leitz, Christopher T Longencker, Grace A McComsey
Children and young adults infected with HIV are at elevated risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, scarce data exist on the utility of non-invasive methods to diagnose subclinical CVD, such as pulse wave velocity (PWV), a non-invasive measure of arterial stiffness. The objectives of this study were to assess the relationship of carotid-femoral PWV with subclinical atherosclerosis measured by carotid intima-media thickness (IMT), compare measurements to healthy controls, and evaluate variables associated with PWV in HIV-infected youth...
March 21, 2017: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323826/apoe-related-risk-of-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-dementia-for-prevention-trials-an-analysis-of-four-cohorts
#13
Jing Qian, Frank J Wolters, Alexa Beiser, Mary Haan, M Arfan Ikram, Jason Karlawish, Jessica B Langbaum, John M Neuhaus, Eric M Reiman, J Scott Roberts, Sudha Seshadri, Pierre N Tariot, Beth McCarty Woods, Rebecca A Betensky, Deborah Blacker
BACKGROUND: With the onset of prevention trials for individuals at high risk for Alzheimer disease, there is increasing need for accurate risk prediction to inform study design and enrollment, but available risk estimates are limited. We developed risk estimates for the incidence of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or dementia among cognitively unimpaired individuals by APOE-e4 dose for the genetic disclosure process of the Alzheimer's Prevention Initiative Generation Study, a prevention trial in cognitively unimpaired APOE-e4/e4 homozygote individuals...
March 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323823/clustering-of-cardiovascular-risk-factors-and-carotid-intima-media-thickness-the-use-imt-study
#14
Xin Wang, Geertje W Dalmeijer, Hester M den Ruijter, Todd J Anderson, Annie R Britton, Jacqueline Dekker, Gunnar Engström, Greg W Evans, Jacqueline de Graaf, Diederick E Grobbee, Bo Hedblad, Suzanne Holewijn, Ai Ikeda, Jussi Kauhanen, Kazuo Kitagawa, Akihiko Kitamura, Sudhir Kurl, Eva M Lonn, Matthias W Lorenz, Ellisiv B Mathiesen, Giel Nijpels, Shuhei Okazaki, Joseph F Polak, Jacqueline F Price, Christopher M Rembold, Maria Rosvall, Tatjana Rundek, Jukka T Salonen, Matthias Sitzer, Coen D A Stehouwer, Tomi-Pekka Tuomainen, Sanne A E Peters, Michiel L Bots
BACKGROUND: The relation of a single risk factor with atherosclerosis is established. Clinically we know of risk factor clustering within individuals. Yet, studies into the magnitude of the relation of risk factor clusters with atherosclerosis are limited. Here, we assessed that relation. METHODS: Individual participant data from 14 cohorts, involving 59,025 individuals were used in this cross-sectional analysis. We made 15 clusters of four risk factors (current smoking, overweight, elevated blood pressure, elevated total cholesterol)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323566/racial-differences-in-the-associations-of-posttraumatic-stress-and-insomnia-with-body-mass-index-among-trauma-exposed-veterans
#15
Aaron A Lee, Jeanne M Gabriele
Posttraumatic stress is associated with increased body mass index (BMI) and rates of obesity. Black adults are at greater risk for obesity, trauma exposure, development of posttraumatic stress disorder, and comorbid sleep problems compared to White adults. Accordingly, Black adults with a history of trauma exposure may be at greater risk for elevated BMI associated with posttraumatic stress and insomnia. Multiple linear regression was used to examine race as a moderator of the relationship between posttraumatic symptoms and insomnia with BMI in a sample of Black and White trauma-exposed Veterans (N = 171), controlling for age and sex...
March 21, 2017: Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323443/impact-of-abdominal-adipose-depots-and-race-on-risk-for-colorectal-cancer-a-case-control-study
#16
Sandra L Gomez-Perez, Vivek Chaudhry, Winnie Mar, Bimal Patel, Giamila Fantuzzi, Sally Freels, Carol A Braunschweig
Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) but not subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) is associated with obesity-related diseases including colorectal cancer (CRC). Superficial SAT (SSAT) and deep SAT (DSAT), components of SAT, also appear to independently influence disease risk. These abdominal adipose tissues (AATs) are not extensively studied in connection with CRC and have not been explored in the United States despite known racial variations in body composition. We conducted a case-control study that compared associations between AAT with CRC risk and race of African-American (AA) and non-Hispanic white (NHW) men with incident CRC matched by age, body mass index, and race (N = 158, 79/group)...
March 21, 2017: Nutrition and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323373/the-impact-of-mental-illness-on-uptake-of-genetic-counseling-for-hereditary-breast-cancer-and-ovarian-cancer-in-a-multiethnic-cohort-of-breast-cancer-patients
#17
Marra G Ackerman, Peter A Shapiro, Austin Coe, Meghna S Trivedi, Katherine D Crew
We evaluated whether mental illness is a barrier to genetic counseling for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC) in multiethnic breast cancer patients. We conducted a retrospective analysis of 308 women with newly diagnosed breast cancer and eligible for HBOC genetic testing seen in the breast clinic of an academic, urban medical center from 2007 to 2015. Uptake of genetic services and history of mental health disorder (MHD), defined as a psychiatric diagnosis or treatment with an antidepressant, mood stabilizer, anxiolytic, or antipsychotic medication, were ascertained by medical chart review...
March 21, 2017: Breast Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322644/meta-analyses-of-predictors-of-health-practices-in-pregnant-women
#18
Barbara L Cannella, Adela Yarcheski, Noreen E Mahon
The aims of this study were to identify predictors of health practices of pregnant women in the literature reviewed, to use meta-analysis to ascertain the mean effect size (ES) across studies between each predictor and health practices, and to examine four moderators on each predictor-health practices relationship. Using preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses guidelines for the literature assessed, 32 published studies or doctoral dissertations completed between 1992 and 2015 met the inclusion criteria...
December 1, 2016: Western Journal of Nursing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322450/patient-compliance-following-isolated-mandibular-fracture-repair
#19
J Paul Radabaugh, Adam Van Horn, Stephen A Chan, Jared M Shelton, Thomas J Gal
OBJECTIVE: Compliance with postoperative care in the maxillofacial trauma population often is considered poor. This lack of follow-up does not seem to be a function of decreased access to care but rather its anticipated lack of utilization. The goal of this study is to identify what factors are associated with increased compliance in postoperative management of mandible fractures. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. METHODS: Using Current Procedural Terminology codes to identify maxillofacial injuries requiring operative repair, a subset of isolated mandibular fractures was identified...
March 21, 2017: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322176/gender-regimes-in-ontario-nursing-homes-organization-daily-work-and-bodies
#20
Palle Storm, Susan Braedley, Sally Chivers
Today more men work in the long-term care sector, but men are still in the minority. Little is known about men's experiences in care work, and the dilemmas and opportunities they face because of their gender. This article focuses on men care workers' integration into the organization and flow of nursing home work as perceived by these workers and staff members. Using a rapid ethnography method in two Ontario nursing homes, we found work organization affected interpretations of gender and race, and that workers' scope for discretion affected the integration and acceptance of men as care workers...
March 21, 2017: Canadian Journal on Aging, la Revue Canadienne du Vieillissement
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