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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330477/inhibition-of-human-endogenous-retrovirus-k-by-antiretroviral-drugs
#1
Richa Tyagi, Wenxue Li, Danelvis Parades, Mario A Bianchet, Avindra Nath
BACKGROUND: Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) are genomic sequences of retroviral origin which were believed to be integrated into germline chromosomes millions of years ago and account for nearly 8% of the human genome. Although mostly defective and inactive, some of the HERVs may be activated under certain physiological and pathological conditions. While no drugs are designed specifically targeting HERVs, there are a panel of antiretroviral drugs designed against the human immunodeficiency virus and approved by the Federal Drug Administration (FDA)...
March 22, 2017: Retrovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321326/first-canadian-case-report-of-kidney-transplantation-from-an-hiv-positive-donor-to-an-hiv-positive-recipient
#2
Georges Ambaraghassi, Héloïse Cardinal, Daniel Corsilli, Claude Fortin, Marie-Chantal Fortin, Valérie Martel-Laferrière, Jacques Malaise, Michel R Pâquet, Danielle Rouleau
RATIONALE: Kidney transplantation has become standard of care for carefully selected patients living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) era. American and European prospective cohort studies have reported similar patient and graft survival compared with HIV-negative kidney transplant recipients. Despite an increased rate of acute rejection, partially due to drug interactions, HIV immunovirologic parameter generally remains under control during immunosuppression...
2017: Canadian Journal of Kidney Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315856/an-update-on-hla-alleles-associated-with-adverse-drug-reactions
#3
Ingrid Fricke-Galindo, Adrián LLerena, Marisol López-López
Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are considered as an important cause of morbidity and mortality. The hypersensitivity reactions are immune-mediated ADRs, which are dose-independent, unpredictable and have been associated with several HLA alleles. The present review aimed to describe HLA alleles that have been associated with different ADRs in populations worldwide, the recommendations of regulatory agencies and pharmacoeconomic information and databases for the study of HLA alleles in pharmacogenetics. A systematic search was performed in June 2016 of articles relevant to this issue in indexed journals and in scientific databases (PubMed and PharmGKB)...
March 18, 2017: Drug Metabolism and Personalized Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303164/adverse-drug-reactions-triggered-by-the-common-hla-b-57-01-variant-a-molecular-docking-study
#4
George Van Den Driessche, Denis Fourches
BACKGROUND: Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) surface proteins are directly involved in idiosyncratic adverse drug reactions. Herein, we present a structure-based analysis of the common HLA-B*57:01 variant known to be responsible for several HLA-linked adverse effects such as the abacavir hypersensitivity syndrome. METHODS: First, we analyzed three X-ray crystal structures involving the HLA-B*57:01 protein variant, the anti-HIV drug abacavir, and different co-binding peptides present in the antigen-binding cleft...
2017: Journal of Cheminformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295028/structural-insights-into-the-%C3%AE-lactamase-activity-and-substrate-enantioselectivity-of-an-isochorismatase-like-hydrolase-from-microbacterium-hydrocarbonoxydans
#5
Shuaihua Gao, Yu Zhou, Weiwei Zhang, Wenhe Wang, You Yu, Yajuan Mu, Hao Wang, Xinqi Gong, Guojun Zheng, Yue Feng
(+)-γ-lactamase catalyzes the specific hydrolysis of (+)-γ-lactam out of the racemic γ-lactam (2-Azabicyclo[2.2.1]hept-5-en-3-one) to leave optically pure (-)-γ-lactam, which is the key building block of antiviral drugs such as carbovir and abacavir. However, no structural data has been reported on how the enzymes bind the γ-lactams and achieve their enantioselectivities. We previously identified an isochorismatase-like hydrolase (IHL, Mh33H4-5540) with (+)-γ-lactamase activity, which constitutes a novel family of γ-lactamase...
March 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287204/-biliary-and-kidney-lithiasis-during-treatment-with-daclatasvir-sofosbuvir-ribavirin-and-atazanavir-ritonavir-abacavir-lamivudine-in-an-hiv-hcv-genotype-4-infected-patient-a-case-report
#6
Andrea Vavassori, Paola Lanza, Ilaria Izzo, Salvatore Casari, Silvia Odolini, Serena Zaltron, Elena Festa, Francesco Castelli
New Direct-acting Antiviral Agents (DAA)-based anti-HCV therapies currently provide extraordinary opportunities to cure patients. Drug-drug interactions are however a real challenge during treatment. In particular, in HIV-infected patients in cART, DAA choice is limited by such interactions, which can result both in reduced efficacy and toxicity. We report the case of a HIV-infected patient on cART with atazanavir/ritonavir/abacavir/lamivudine, who presented kidney and biliary lithiasis, the latter treated with endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography and endoscopic biliary sphincterotomy, after beginning anti-HCV treatment with daclatasvir/sofosbuvir/ribavirin...
February 2017: Recenti Progressi in Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279181/a-mature-macrophage-is-a-principal-hiv-1-cellular-reservoir-in-humanized-mice-after-treatment-with-long-acting-antiretroviral-therapy
#7
Mariluz Araínga, Benson Edagwa, R Lee Mosley, Larisa Y Poluektova, Santhi Gorantla, Howard E Gendelman
BACKGROUND: Despite improved clinical outcomes seen following antiretroviral therapy (ART), resting CD4+ T cells continue to harbor latent human immunodeficiency virus type one (HIV-1). However, such cells are not likely the solitary viral reservoir and as such defining where and how others harbor virus is imperative for eradication measures. To such ends, we used HIV-1ADA-infected NOD.Cg-Prkdc (scid) Il2rg (tm1Wjl) /SzJ mice reconstituted with a human immune system to explore two long-acting ART regimens investigating their abilities to affect viral cell infection and latency...
March 9, 2017: Retrovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263802/abacavir-induces-platelet-endothelium-interactions-by-interfering-with-purinergic-signalling-a-step-from-inflammation-to-thrombosis
#8
Angeles Alvarez, Cesar Rios-Navarro, Maria Amparo Blanch-Ruiz, Victor Collado-Diaz, Isabel Andujar, Maria Angeles Martinez-Cuesta, Samuel Orden, Juan V Esplugues
The controversy connecting Abacavir (ABC) with cardiovascular disease has been fuelled by the lack of a credible mechanism of action. ABC shares structural similarities with endogenous purines, signalling molecules capable of triggering prothrombotic/proinflammatory programmes. Platelets are leading actors in the process of thrombosis. Our study addresses the effects of ABC on interactions between platelets and other vascular cells, while exploring the adhesion molecules implicated and the potential interference with the purinergic signalling pathway...
March 2, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263457/ombitasvir-paritaprevir-ritonavir-and-dasabuvir-drug-interactions-with-antiretroviral-agents-and-drugs-forsubstance-abuse
#9
Jennifer R King, Rajeev M Menon
AbbVie's 3 direct-acting antiviral (3D) regimen containing ombitasvir, paritaprevir, ritonavir, and dasabuvir with and without ribavirin is approved for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1 infection. Safe and efficacious antiviral regimens resulting in minimal to no drug-drug interactions (DDIs) with antiretrovirals are needed to ensure that patients coinfected with HCV and the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) achieve 12-week sustained virologic response rates similar to HCV-monoinfected patients...
March 2017: Clinical Pharmacology in Drug Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239430/hiv-infected-children-in-the-asia-pacific-region-with-baseline-severe-anemia-antiretroviral-therapy-and-outcomes
#10
Pagakrong Lumbiganon, Pope Kosalaraksa, Torsak Bunupuradah, David Boettiger, Vonthanak Saphonn, Khanh H Truong, Nia Kurniati, Rawiwan Hansudewechakul, Viet C Do, Tavitiya Sudjaritruk, Nagalingeswaran Kumarasamy, Nantakar Kongstan, Nik K N Yusoff, Lam V Nguyen, Dewi K Wati, Kamarul Razali, Annette H Sohn, Azar Kariminia
BACKGROUND: Severe anemia is common among children infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The choice of antiretroviral (ART) regimen needs careful consideration. No information is available regarding the initial ART regimens used in the Asia-Pacific region and the rate of switch of ART regimens in HIV-infected children with severe anemia. OBJECTIVES: To study the initial ART regimens and the rate of switch of ART regimens used during the first 36 months in HIV-infected children with severe anemia and to evaluate their clinical and laboratory outcomes...
June 2016: Asian Biomedicine: Research, Reviews and News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192529/first-line-antiretroviral-drug-discontinuations-in-children
#11
Melony Fortuin-de Smidt, Reneé de Waal, Karen Cohen, Karl-Günter Technau, Kathryn Stinson, Gary Maartens, Andrew Boulle, Ehimario U Igumbor, Mary-Ann Davies
INTRODUCTION: There are a limited number of paediatric antiretroviral drug options. Characterising the long term safety and durability of different antiretrovirals in children is important to optimise management of HIV infected children and to determine the estimated need for alternative drugs in paediatric regimens. We describe first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) durability and reasons for discontinuations in children at two South African ART programmes, where lopinavir/ritonavir has been recommended for children <3 years old since 2004, and abacavir replaced stavudine as the preferred nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor in 2010...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182783/correction-abacavir-lamivudine-plus-rilpivirine-is-an-effective-and-safe-strategy-for-hiv-1-suppressed-patients-48-week-results-of-the-simriki-retrospective-study
#12
Jesús Troya, Pablo Ryan, Esteban Ribera, Daniel Podzamczer, Victor Hontañón, Jose Alberto Terrón, Vicente Boix, Santiago Moreno, Pilar Barrufet, Manuel Castaño, Ana Carrero, María José Galindo, Ignacio Suárez-Lozano, Hernando Knobel, Miguel Raffo, Javier Solís, María Yllescas, Herminia Esteban, Juan González-García, Juan Berenguer, Arkaitz Imaz
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0164455.].
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162244/pharmacogenetics-of-hypersensitivity-drug-reactions
#13
Simone Negrini, Laurent Becquemont
Adverse drug reactions are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality and represent a major burden on the healthcare system. Some of those reactions are immunologically mediated (hypersensitivity reactions) and can be clinically subdivided into two categories: immediate reactions (IgE-related) and delayed reactions (T-cell-mediated). Delayed hypersensitivity reactions include both systemic syndromes and organ-specific toxicities and can be triggered by a wide range of chemically diverse drugs. Recent studies have demonstrated a strong genetic association between human leukocyte antigen alleles and susceptibility to delayed drug hypersensitivity...
January 3, 2017: Thérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143756/real-world-persistence-with-antiretroviral-therapy-for-hiv-in-the-united-kingdom-a-multicentre-retrospective-cohort-study
#14
Joseph M Lewis, Colette Smith, Adele Torkington, Craig Davies, Shazaad Ahmad, Andrew Tomkins, Jonathan Shaw, Margaret Kingston, Ghadeer Muqbill, Philip Hay, Larissa Mulka, Deborah Williams, Laura Waters, Nataliya Brima, Neal Marshall, Margaret Johnson, Mas Chaponda, Mark Nelson
OBJECTIVES: Persistence with an antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimen for HIV can be defined as the length of time a patient remains on therapy before stopping or switching. We aimed to describe ART persistence in treatment naïve patients starting therapy in the United Kingdom, and to describe differential persistence by treatment regimen. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study at eight UK centres of ART-naïve adults commencing ART between 2012 and 2015...
April 2017: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129253/hiv-drug-resistance-mutations-in-non-b-subtypes-after-prolonged-virological-failure-on-nnrti-based-first-line-regimens-in-sub-saharan-africa
#15
Cissy Kityo, Jennifer Thompson, Immaculate Nankya, Anne Hoppe, Emmanuel Ndashimye, Colin Warambwa, Ivan Mambule, Joep J van Oosterhout, Kara Wools-Kaloustian, Silvia Bertagnolio, Philippa J Easterbrook, Peter Mugyenyi, A Sarah Walker, Nicholas Paton
OBJECTIVE: To determine drug resistance mutation (DRM) patterns in a large cohort of patients failing non-nucleoside-reverse-transcriptase-inhibitor (NNRTI)-based first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimens in programmes without routine viral load (VL) monitoring and to examine inter-subtype differences in DRMs. DESIGN: Sequences from 787 adults/adolescents who failed an NNRTI-based first-line regimen in 13 clinics in Uganda, Kenya, Zimbabwe, Malawi were analysed...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124959/-prevalence-of-human-leukocyte-antigen-hla-b-57-01-in-hiv-infected-patients
#16
Aydın Deveci, Ahmet Yılmaz Çoban, Belma Durupınar
Deaths related with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections have been decreased by the introduction of combined anti-retroviral therapy (ART) into the clinical practice. Combined ART usually consists of two nucleoside/nucleotide analogs reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI) that is called backbone and a third drug that belongs to either non-nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI), protease inhibitors (PI), integrase strand transfer inhibitors (INSTI) or entry inhibitors. During abacavir therapy which is a member of NRTI, hypersensitivity reactions can occur approximately 4-9% of the patients that lead difficulties for the management of HIV infections...
October 2016: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079946/enantioselective-and-regiodivergent-addition-of-purines-to-terminal-allenes-synthesis-of-abacavir
#17
Niels Thieme, Bernhard Breit
The rhodium-catalyzed atom-economic asymmetric N-selective intermolecular addition of purine derivatives to terminal allenes is reported. Branched allylic purines were obtained in high yields, regioselectivity and outstanding enantioselectivity utilizing a Rh/Josiphos catalyst. Conversely, linear selective allylation of purines could be realized in good to excellent regio- and E/Z-selectivity with a Pd/dppf catalyst system. Furthermore, the new methodology was applied to a straightforward asymmetric synthesis of carbocyclic nucleoside abacavir...
January 12, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067719/insulin-resistance-and-markers-of-inflammation-in-hiv-infected-ugandan-children-in-the-chapas-3-trial
#18
Sahera Dirajlal-Fargo, Victor Musiime, Adrian Cook, Grace Mirembe, Julia Kenny, Ying Jiang, Sara Debanne, Nigel Klein, Grace A Mccomsey
BACKGROUND: Few studies have investigated metabolic complications in HIV-infected African children and their relation with inflammation. METHODS: We compared baseline and changes in insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and in markers of inflammation over 48 weeks, in a subset of antiretroviral therapy (ART) naïve Ugandan children from the CHAPAS-3 trial randomized to zidovudine (AZT), stavudine (D4T) or abacavir (ABC) based regimens. Non-parametric methods were used to explore between and within group differences and multivariable analyses to assess associations of HOMA-IR...
January 6, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065890/impact-of-obesity-on-antiretroviral-pharmacokinetics-and-immuno-virological-response-in-hiv-infected-patients-a-case-control-study
#19
Vincent Madelain, Minh P Le, Karen Champenois, Charlotte Charpentier, Roland Landman, Veronique Joly, Patrick Yeni, Diane Descamps, Yazdan Yazdanpanah, Gilles Peytavin
BACKGROUND: Obesity has high prevalence among HIV-infected patients. Increased adipose tissue mass affects the pharmacokinetics of numerous drugs, but few data are available for antiretroviral drugs. OBJECTIVES: In this study we aimed to explore the pharmacokinetics of antiretroviral drugs and the immuno-virological response in obese patients with HIV infection. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We examined data from 2009 to 2012 in our hospital's database for HIV-1-infected patients who received an antiretroviral drug (abacavir, emtricitabine, lamivudine, tenofovir, efavirenz, etravirine, nevirapine, atazanavir/ritonavir, darunavir/ritonavir, lopinavir/ritonavir or raltegravir)...
January 8, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061820/associations-of-statins-and-antiretroviral-drugs-with-the-onset-of-type-2-diabetes-among-hiv-1-infected-patients
#20
Vincenzo Spagnuolo, Laura Galli, Andrea Poli, Stefania Salpietro, Nicola Gianotti, Piermarco Piatti, Francesca Cossarini, Concetta Vinci, Elisabetta Carini, Adriano Lazzarin, Antonella Castagna
BACKGROUND: Statin use is associated with a modest increase in the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) among the general population. However, HIV-infected patients have a higher risk of developing DM, and it is unclear whether statins have a diabetogenic effect in these patients. Therefore, we investigated the associations of statin use and exposure to antiretroviral drugs with type 2 DM onset in a cohort of HIV-infected patients. METHODS: This retrospective, controlled, cohort study identified HIV-1-infected patients who did not have DM and were not receiving statins at their antiretroviral treatment (ART) initiation...
January 7, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
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