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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781044/sleeve-gastrectomy-in-morbidly-obese-hiv-patients-focus-on-anti-retroviral-treatment-absorption-after-surgery
#1
Chloé Amouyal, Marion Buyse, Lea Lucas-Martini, Déborah Hirt, Laurent Genser, Adriana Torcivia, Jean-Luc Bouillot, Jean-Michel Oppert, Judith Aron-Wisnewsky
CONTEXT: Anti-retroviral therapy (ART) dramatically reduced AIDS development, thus enabling patients to live as long as the general population. New challenges have emerged particularly cardiometabolic diseases and weight gain, with some HIV patients seeking bariatric surgery (BS). However, BS outcomes during HIV remain poorly described, with scarce data on ART pharmacokinetic post-BS. OBJECTIVE: Describing sleeve gastrectomy (SG) results in HIV patients in terms of ART pharmacokinetic, HIV control, weight loss, and metabolic outcomes...
May 20, 2018: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777425/the-use-of-hiv-post-exposure-prophylaxis-in-forensic-medicine-following-incidents-of-sexual-violence-in-hamburg-germany-a-retrospective-study
#2
Julia Ebert, Jan Peter Sperhake, Olaf Degen, Ann Sophie Schröder
In Hamburg, Germany, the initiation of HIV post-exposure prophylaxis (HIV PEP) in cases of sexual violence is often carried out by forensic medical specialists (FMS) using the city's unique Hamburg Model. FMS-provided three-day HIV PEP starter packs include a combination of raltegravir and emtricitabine/tenofovir. This study aimed to investigate the practice of offering HIV PEP, reasons for discontinuing treatment, patient compliance, and whether or not potential perpetrators were tested for HIV. We conducted a retrospective study of forensic clinical examinations carried out by the Hamburg Department of Legal Medicine following incidents of sexual violence from 2009 to 2016...
May 18, 2018: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771789/raltegravir-1200-mg-once-daily-vs-400-mg-twice-daily-with-emtricitabine-and-tenofovir-disoproxil-fumarate-for-previously-untreated-hiv-1-infection-week-96-results-from-oncemrk-a-randomized-double-blind-non-inferiority-trial
#3
Pedro Cahn, Paul E Sax, Kathleen Squires, Jean-Michel Molina, Winai Ratanasuwan, Mohammed Rassool, Mark Bloch, Xia Xu, Yan Zhou, Brenda Homony, Deborah Hepler, Hedy Teppler, George J Hanna, Bach-Yen Nguyen, Wayne Greaves
BACKGROUND: Raltegravir 1200mg (2x600mg tablets) once daily (QD) demonstrated non-inferior efficacy and similar safety to raltegravir 400mg BID at Week 48 of the ONCEMRK trial. Here we report the Week 96 results from this study. METHODS: ONCEMRK is a phase 3, multicenter, double-blind, non-inferiority trial comparing raltegravir 1200mg QD to raltegravir 400mg BID in treatment-naïve HIV-1-infected adults. Participants were assigned (2:1) to raltegravir 2x600mg QD or 400mg BID, both with emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (FTC/TDF) for 96 weeks...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770748/the-effect-of-switching-protease-inhibitors-to-raltegravir-on-endothelial-function-in-hiv-infected-patients
#4
Maaike Krikke, Kiki Tesselaar, Guido E L van den Berk, Sigrid A Otto, Laura H Freriks, Steven F L van Lelyveld, Frank J L Visseren, Andy I M Hoepelman, Joop E Arends
Objective Lipid management is one of the cornerstones of cardiovascular risk reduction. Treatment of HIV infection with protease inhibitors (PIs) may cause dyslipidaemia, whilst the integrase inhibitor raltegravir (RAL) has a relatively favorable effect on plasma lipids. We examined the effect of switching from PIs to RAL on endothelial function, and its effect on immunological and inflammatory parameters. Methods We performed a 16-week open-label prospective crossover study: 8 weeks intervention (switch PIs to RAL) and 8 weeks control (unchanged cART regimen)...
April 2018: HIV Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760693/treatment-intensification-in-hiv-infected-patients-is-associated-with-reduced-frequencies-of-regulatory-t-cells
#5
Eva M Grützner, Tanja Hoffmann, Eva Wolf, Elke Gersbacher, Ashley Neizert, Renate Stirner, Ramona Pauli, Albrecht Ulmer, Jürgen Brust, Johannes R Bogner, Hans Jaeger, Rika Draenert
In untreated HIV infection, the efficacy of T cell responses decreases over the disease course, resulting in disease progression. The reasons for this development are not completely understood. However, immunosuppressive cells are supposedly crucially involved. Treatment strategies to avoid the induction of these cells preserve immune functions and are therefore the object of intense research efforts. In this study, we assessed the effect of treatment intensification [=5-drug antiretroviral therapy (ART)] on the development of suppressive cell subsets...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759422/executive-summary-of-the-gesida-national-aids-plan-consensus-document-on-antiretroviral-therapy-in-adults-infected-by-the-human-immunodeficiency-virus-updated-january-2018
#6
(no author information available yet)
This update to the document on antiretroviral therapy (ART) in adults, which has been prepared jointly by GeSIDA and the Spanish National AIDS Plan for the last two decades, supersedes the document published in 2017.1 The update provides physicians treating HIV-1-infected adults with evidence-based recommendations to guide their therapeutic decisions. The main difference with respect to the previous document concerns recommended initial ART regimens, only three of which are maintained as preferential. All three include dolutegravir or raltegravir, together with emtricitabine/tenofovir alafenamide or abacavir/lamivudine...
May 11, 2018: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746485/adiponectin-and-the-steatosis-marker-chi3l1-decrease-following-switch-to-raltegravir-compared-to-continued-pi-nnrti-based-antiretroviral-therapy
#7
Obiageli Offor, Netanya Utay, David Reynoso, Anoma Somasunderam, Judith Currier, Jordan Lake
BACKGROUND: People with HIV are at for metabolic syndrome (MetS) and fatty liver disease, but the role of Antiretroviral therapy (ART) is poorly understood. MetS and fatty liver disease been associated with changes in adiponectin, soluble ST2 (sST2), chitinase 3-like 1 (Chi3L1), hyaluronic acid (HA), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1), lysyl oxidase-like-2 (LOXL2) and transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) concentrations in HIV-uninfected populations. Protease (PI) and non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI) may contribute to these comorbidities, but the effects of switching from PI- or NNRTI to raltegravir (RAL) on these biomarkers is unknown...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746268/bictegravir
#8
Vincenzo Spagnuolo, Antonella Castagna, Adriano Lazzarin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In this review, we will highlight and discuss the recent efficacy and safety data of bictegravir (BIC), a novel second-generation integrase strand transfer inhibitor (INSTI) that has been recently approved, in coformulation with emtricitabine and tenofovir alafenamide (B/F/TAF), for the treatment of HIV-1 infection in antiretroviral naïve subjects and in those with suppressed viremia. RECENT FINDINGS: Preclinical data showed that BIC has a genetic barrier that is higher than that of raltegravir and elvitegravir but is similar to that of dolutegravir (DTG), with retained activity in vitro against isolates containing substitutions associated with resistance against other INSTIs...
May 4, 2018: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743555/impact-of-ugt1a1-polymorphisms-on-raltegravir-and-its-glucuronide-plasma-concentrations-in-a-cohort-of-hiv-1-infected-patients
#9
Leïla Belkhir, Carole Seguin-Devaux, Laure Elens, Caroline Pauly, Nicolas Gengler, Serge Schneider, Jean Ruelle, Vincent Haufroid, Bernard Vandercam
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of UGT1A1 polymorphisms on Raltegravir (RAL) and its metabolite RAL-glucuronide trough plasma concentrations ([RAL]plasma and [RAL-glu]plasma) and on the metabolic ratio (MR): [RAL-glu]plasma/[RAL]plasma. UGT1A1 genotyping was performed on 96 patients. 44% (n = 42) were homozygous UGT1A1*1/*1 while 50% (n = 48) and 6% (n = 6) were UGT1A1*28 and UGT1A1*36 carriers, respectively. The median concentration and interquartile range (IQR) of [RAL]plasma were 88...
May 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29714167/virological-and-immunological-responses-to-raltegravir-and-dolutegravir-in-the-gut-associated-lymphoid-tissue-of-hiv-infected-men-and-women
#10
Michael D Weber, Elizabeth Andrews, Heather A Prince, Craig Sykes, Elias P Rosen, Camden Bay, Nicholas J Shaheen, Ryan D Madanick, Evan S Dellon, Kristina De Paris, Julie Ae Nelson, Cynthia L Gay, Angela Dm Kashuba
BACKGROUND: Raltegravir (RTG) and dolutegravir (DTG) have different pharmacokinetic patterns in the gastrointestinal tract. To determine if this results in pharmacodynamic differences, we compared HIV RNA, HIV DNA, and immunological markers in gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) of HIV-infected participants receiving RTG or DTG with tenofovir+emtricitabine (TDF/FTC). METHODS: GALT specimens from the terminal ileum, splenic flexure, and rectum were obtained by colonoscopy at a single time point in 20 adults treated with RTG (n=10) or DTG (n=10) with HIV RNA <50 copies/mL...
May 1, 2018: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689469/extractability-mediated-stability-bias-and-hematocrit-impact-high-extraction-recovery-is-critical-to-feasibility-of-volumetric-adsorptive-microsampling-vams-in-regulated-bioanalysis
#11
Iris Xie, Yang Xu, Melanie Anderson, Ming Wang, Lingling Xue, Sheila Breidinger, Dina Goykhman, Eric J Woolf, Kevin P Bateman
Volumetric absorptive microsampling (VAMS), a new microsampling technique, was evaluated for its potential in supporting regulated bioanalysis. Our initial assessment with MK-0518 (raltegravir) using a direct extraction method resulted in 45-52% extraction recovery, significant hematocrit (Ht) related bias, and more importantly, unacceptable stability (>15% bias from nominal concentration) after 7-day storage. Our investigation suggested that the observed biases were not due to VAMS absorption, sampling techniques, lot-to-lot variability, matrix effect, and/or chemical stability of the compound, but rather the low extraction recovery...
April 5, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685113/differences-in-response-to-antiretroviral-therapy-in-hiv-positive-patients-being-treated-for-tuberculosis-in-eastern-europe-western-europe-and-latin-america
#12
Yanink Caro-Vega, Anna Schultze, Anne Marie W Efsen, Frank A Post, Alexander Panteleev, Aliaksandr Skrahin, Jose M Miro, Enrico Girardi, Daria N Podlekareva, Jens D Lundgren, Juan Sierra-Madero, Javier Toibaro, Jaime Andrade-Villanueva, Simona Tetradov, Jan Fehr, Joan Caylà, Marcelo H Losso, Robert F Miller, Amanda Mocroft, Ole Kirk, Brenda Crabtree-Ramírez
BACKGROUND: Efavirenz-based antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimens are preferred for treatment of adult HIV-positive patients co-infected with tuberculosis (HIV/TB). Few studies have compared outcomes among HIV/TB patients treated with efavirenz or non-efavirenz containing regimens. METHODS: HIV-positive patients aged ≥16 years with a diagnosis of tuberculosis recruited to the TB:HIV study between Jan 1, 2011, and Dec 31, 2013 in 19 countries in Eastern Europe (EE), Western Europe (WE), and Latin America (LA) who received ART concomitantly with TB treatment were included...
April 23, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682296/intensification-of-antiretroviral-treatment-with-raltegravir-for-pregnant-women-living-with-hiv-at-high-risk-of-vertical-transmission
#13
EDITORIAL
Thanyawee Puthanakit, Nattawan Thepnarong, Surasith Chaithongwongwatthana, Suvaporn Anugulruengkitt, Orawan Anunsittichai, Tuangtip Theerawit, Sasiwimol Ubolyam, Chitsanu Pancharoen, Praphan Phanuphak
Objectives:  The rate of vertical HIV transmission for women at high risk of HIV transmission stands at approximately 7.6%. In the present study we describe infant infection rates in women who had received raltegravir (RAL) intensification during pregnancy to a standard three-drug antiretroviral (ART) regimen in Thailand. Methods:  This prospective cohort study enrolled HIV-1-positive pregnant women at high risk of vertical transmission, as defined by (1) ART initiation at a gestational age (GA) ≥32 weeks or (2) HIV-1 RNA >1000 copies/mL at GA of 32-38 weeks while on ART...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Virus Eradication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661866/reciprocal-effects-of-antiretroviral-drugs-used-to-treat-hiv-infection-on-the-fibroblast-growth-factor-21-%C3%AE-klotho-system
#14
Ricardo Moure, Pere Domingo, Joan Villarroya, Laura Gasa, José M Gallego-Escuredo, Tania Quesada-López, Samantha Morón-Ros, Alberto F Maroto, Gracia M Mateo, Joan C Domingo, Francesc Villarroya, Marta Giralt
Following antiretroviral therapy, HIV-infected patients show increased circulating levels of the antidiabetic hormone fibroblast growth factor-21 (FGF21). In contrast, expression of the FGF21-obligatory co-receptor β-Klotho (KLB) is reduced in target tissues. This situation is comparable to the FGF21 resistance status observed in obesity and type-2 diabetes. Here, we performed the first systematic study of the effects of distinct members of different antiretroviral drug classes on the FGF21/KLB system in human hepatic, adipose, and skeletal muscle cells...
April 16, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629852/raltegravir-versus-lopinavir-ritonavir-for-treatment-of-hiv-infected-late-presenting-pregnant-women
#15
Carlos Brites, Isabella Nóbrega, Estela Luz, Ana Gabriela Travassos, Cynthia Lorenzo, Eduardo M Netto
Background Late-presenting pregnant women pose a challenge in the prevention of HIV-1 mother-to-child-transmission. We compared the safety and efficacy of raltegravir and lopinavir/ritonavir for this population. Methods We did a single-center, pilot, open-label, randomized trial in Brazil (N = 44). We randomly allocated late-presenting HIV-infected pregnant women (older than 18 years with a plasma HIV-1 RNA >1000 copies/mL) to receive raltegravir 400 mg twice a day or lopinavir/ritonavir 400/100 mg twice a day plus zidovudine and lamivudine (1:1)...
April 9, 2018: HIV Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628511/dolutegravir-neuropsychiatric-adverse-events-specific-drug-effect-or-class-effect
#16
Jean Cyr Yombi
Integrase strand transfer inhibitors (INSTIs) are a newer class of antiretroviral treatment for HIV-infected patient. INSTIs currently available for use are raltegravir, elvitegravir, dolutegravir (DTG), and bictegravir. Clinical studies using INSTIs have demonstrated an 80-90% efficiency in treating HIV-positive antiretroviral therapy - naive patients. They are recommended by internatioal guidelines as the preferred agents for the first-line regimen. INSTIs have also been demonstrated as safe and tolerable...
January 2018: AIDS Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623097/renal-effects-of-non-tenofovir-antiretroviral-therapy-in-patients-living-with-hiv
#17
REVIEW
Milena M McLaughlin, Aimee J Guerrero, Andrew Merker
A review of literature published regarding non-tenofovir antiretroviral agents causing renal adverse effects was conducted. The literature involving renal adverse effects and antiretroviral therapy is most robust with protease inhibitors, specifically atazanavir and indinavir, and includes reports of crystalluria, leukocyturia, nephritis, nephrolithiasis, nephropathy and urolithiasis. Several case reports describe potential nephropathy (including Fanconi syndrome) secondary to administration of abacavir, didanosine, lamivudine and stavudine...
2018: Drugs in Context
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621952/dolutegravir-as-a-trigger-for-dress-syndrome
#18
Charlotte Martin, Marie-Christine Payen, Stephane De Wit
Dolutegravir is an increasingly-used second-generation human immunodeficiency virus integrase strand transfer inhibitor. Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms (DRESS) syndrome has been described in several patients treated with raltegravir but to our knowledge, there is no previous report of DRESS syndrome associated with dolutegravir.
January 1, 2018: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29590335/first-line-raltegravir-emtricitabine-tenofovir-combination-in-hiv-2-infection-phase-2-non-comparative-trial-anrs-159-hiv-2
#19
Sophie Matheron, Diane Descamps, Sebastien Gallien, Amel Besseghir, Pierre Sellier, Laurent Blum, Emmanuel Mortier, Charlotte Charpentier, Roland Tubiana, Florence Damond, Gilles Peytavin, Diane Ponscarme, Fideline Collin, Francoise Brun-Vezinet, Genevieve Chene
Background: New options for first-line treatment of HIV-2 infection are needed. We evaluated an integrase inhibitor (raltegravir)-containing regimen. Methods: ART-naïve adults infected with HIV-2 only and history of CDC group B or C event, or a CD4 count <500 cells/μL, or a CD4 decrease >50 cells/μL/year over the past 3 years, or a confirmed plasma HIV-2 RNA (pVL) ≥100 copies (cp)/mL were eligible for this non-comparative trial. The composite primary endpoint was survival at 48 weeks (W48) without any of the following: CD4 gain from baseline <100 cells/μL, confirmed pVL ≥40 cp/mL from W24, raltegravir permanent discontinuation, incident B or C event...
March 24, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29577693/-tat-based-cell-cell-fusion-method-for-screening-hiv-1-fusion-inhibitors
#20
Xiaoli Wang, Yishu Yang, Sisi Shen, Xianliang Wang, Tian Feng, Qin Hu, Yi Zeng
An HIV-1 cell-cell fusion system was developed to screen HIV-1 entry inhibitors that block cell-cell fusion. In this system, the pEGFP-Tat plasmid was constructed and cotransfected into effector cells (HEK-293T) with HIV-1 envelope plasmid. TZM-bl cell, a genetically engineered cell line that expresses CD4, CXCR4, CCR5 as well as Tat-inducible β-galactosidase and luciferase reporter gene, was used as target cell. Thus, the co-culture of target cells and effector cells allows the cell fusion via Env and the activity of the fusion inhibitor can be quantified by measuring the reporter protein expression...
March 25, 2018: Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao, Chinese Journal of Biotechnology
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