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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065890/impact-of-obesity-on-antiretroviral-pharmacokinetics-and-immuno-virological-response-in-hiv-infected-patients-a-case-control-study
#1
Vincent Madelain, Minh P Le, Karen Champenois, Charlotte Charpentier, Roland Landman, Veronique Joly, Patrick Yeni, Diane Descamps, Yazdan Yazdanpanah, Gilles Peytavin
BACKGROUND: Obesity has high prevalence among HIV-infected patients. Increased adipose tissue mass affects the pharmacokinetics of numerous drugs, but few data are available for antiretroviral drugs. OBJECTIVES: In this study we aimed to explore the pharmacokinetics of antiretroviral drugs and the immuno-virological response in obese patients with HIV infection. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We examined data from 2009 to 2012 in our hospital's database for HIV-1-infected patients who received an antiretroviral drug (abacavir, emtricitabine, lamivudine, tenofovir, efavirenz, etravirine, nevirapine, atazanavir/ritonavir, darunavir/ritonavir, lopinavir/ritonavir or raltegravir)...
January 8, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038962/confirming-model-predicted-pharmacokinetic-interactions-between-bedaquiline-and-lopinavir-ritonavir-or-nevirapine-in-patients-with-hiv-and-drug-resistant-tuberculosis
#2
Margreke J E Brill, Elin M Svensson, Mishal Pandie, Gary Maartens, Mats O Karlsson
Bedaquiline and its metabolite M2 are metabolised by CYP3A4. The antiretrovirals ritonavir-boosted lopinavir (LPV/r) and nevirapine inhibit and induce CYP3A4, respectively. Here we aimed to quantify nevirapine and LPV/r drug-drug interaction effects on bedaquiline and M2 in patients co-infected with HIV and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) using population pharmacokinetic (PK) analysis and compare these with model-based predictions from single-dose studies in subjects without TB. An observational PK study was performed in three groups of MDR-TB patients during bedaquiline maintenance dosing: HIV-seronegative patients (n = 17); and HIV-infected patients using antiretroviral therapy including nevirapine (n = 17) or LPV/r (n = 14)...
December 14, 2016: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027284/antiretroviral-treatment-initiated-in-the-first-month-of-life
#3
Lisa Frigati, Elke Wynberg, Jean Maritz, Sandi Holgate, Mark F Cotton, Helena Rabie
BACKGROUND: Earlier diagnosis of HIV-infected infants facilitates earlier access to therapy and improved clinical outcomes. AIM: The aim of this study was describe the management of infants who started antiretroviral therapy in the first month of life. METHODS: A retrospective review was performed on HIV-infected neonates who started ART within the first month of life between January 2013 and March 2015. RESULTS: 997 neonates had one HIV PCR test...
December 23, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28019033/evidence-for-the-herg-liability-of-antihistamines-antipsychotics-and-anti-infective-agents-a-systematic-literature-review-from-the-aritmo-project
#4
REVIEW
Lorna Hazell, Emanuel Raschi, Fabrizio De Ponti, Simon H L Thomas, Francesco Salvo, Ernst Ahlberg Helgee, Scott Boyer, Miriam Sturkenboom, Saad Shakir
A systematic review was performed to categorize the hERG (human ether-a-go-go-related gene) liability of antihistamines, antipsychotics, and anti-infectives and to compare it with current clinical risk of torsade de pointes (TdP). Eligible studies were hERG assays reporting half-minimal inhibitory concentrations (IC50). A "hERG safety margin" was calculated from the IC50 divided by the peak human plasma concentration (free Cmax ). A margin below 30 defined hERG liability. Each drug was assigned an "uncertainty score" based on volume, consistency, precision, and internal and external validity of evidence...
December 26, 2016: Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018925/parasite-clearance-and-artemether-pharmacokinetics-parameters-over-the-course-of-artemether-lumefantrine-treatment-for-malaria-in-human-immunodeficiency-virus-hiv-infected-and-hiv-uninfected-ugandan-children
#5
Richard Kajubi, Liusheng Huang, Moses Were, Sylvia Kiconco, Fangyong Li, Florence Marzan, David Gingrich, Myaing M Nyunt, Joshua Ssebuliba, Norah Mwebaza, Francesca T Aweeka, Sunil Parikh
BACKGROUND: Artemisinins are primarily responsible for initial parasite clearance. Antimalarial pharmacokinetics (PK), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, and antiretroviral therapy have been shown to impact treatment outcomes, although their impact on early parasite clearance in children has not been well characterized. METHODS: Parasite clearance parameters were generated from twice-daily blood smears in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected Ugandan children treated with artemether-lumefantrine (AL)...
October 2016: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28010730/from-antiretroviral-therapy-access-to-provision-of-third-line-regimens-evidence-of-hiv-drug-resistance-mutations-to-first-and-second-line-regimens-among-ugandan-adults
#6
Ivan Namakoola, Ivan Kasamba, Billy N Mayanja, Patrick Kazooba, Joseph Lutaakome, Fred Lyagoba, Anne A Kapaata, Pontiano Kaleebu, Paula Munderi
BACKGROUND: HIV care programs in resource-limited settings have hitherto concentrated on antiretroviral therapy (ART) access, but HIV drug resistance is emerging. In a cross-sectional study of HIV-positive adults on ART for ≥6 months enrolled into a prospective cohort in Uganda, plasma HIV RNA was measured and genotyped if ≥1000 copies/ml. Identified Drug resistance mutations (DRMs) were interpreted using the Stanford database, 2009 WHO list of DRMs and the IAS 2014 update on DRMs, and examined and tabulated by ART drug classes...
December 23, 2016: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999018/cyclosporine-a-in-addition-to-standard-art-during-primary-hiv-1-infection-pilot-randomized-clinical-trial
#7
David Nicolás, Juan Ambrosioni, Omar Sued, Mercé Brunet, María López-Diéguez, Christian Manzardo, Fernando Agüero, Montserrat Tuset, Montserrat Plana, Alberto C Guardo, María Mar Mosquera, M Ángeles Muñoz-Fernández, Miguel Caballero, M Ángeles Marcos, José M Gatell, Elisa de Lazzari, Teresa Gallart, José M Miró
BACKGROUND: Initiating ART during acute/recent HIV-1 infection reduces viral reservoir formation. It has been proposed that, during this phase, the size of the viral reservoir could be further reduced by the association of immunomodulatory therapy with ART. Contradictory results have emerged, however, from two trials evaluating the impact on immune recovery and the viral reservoir of adding cyclosporine A to ART during primary HIV-1 infection. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Twenty patients with acute/recent HIV-1 infection were randomized to receive ART alone (tenofovir, emtricitabine and lopinavir/ritonavir) or associated with 8 weeks of cyclosporine A (0...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997522/second-and-third-line-antiretroviral-therapy-for-children-and-adolescents-a-scoping-review
#8
Erica Lazarus, Simone Nicol, Lisa Frigati, Martina Penazzato, Mark F Cotton, Elizabeth Centeno-Tablante, Avy Violari, Liesl Nicol
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization (WHO) identified a need for evidence to inform revision of second and third-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) options in children failing ART. We performed an in-depth scoping review of all available literature on second and subsequent line ART regimens in children younger than 18 years. METHODS: We comprehensively searched, without language or date limitations, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform and ClinicalTrials...
December 15, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974330/post-exposure-prophylaxis-guidelines-for-children-and-adolescents-potentially-exposed-to-hiv
#9
REVIEW
Alasdair Bamford, Gareth Tudor-Williams, Caroline Foster
UK guidelines for HIV post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) in adults have recently been updated. Indications for PEP have been modified and there has been a change in the recommended antiretroviral therapy for adults to a combination of raltegravir with tenofovir and emtricitabine (Truvada). Raltegravir and tenofovir are now available in paediatric formulations and offer improved safety and tolerability over previously recommended ritonavir-boosted lopinavir with zidovudine. This guideline provides recommendations for those caring for children potentially exposed to HIV and other bloodborne viruses in primary care, emergency departments, secondary care and specialist paediatric HIV centres...
January 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27938348/early-antiretroviral-treatment-eart-limits-viral-diversity-over-time-in-a-long-term-hiv-viral-suppressed-perinatally-infected-child
#10
Paolo Palma, Paola Zangari, Claudia Alteri, Hyppolite K Tchidjou, Emma Concetta Manno, Giuseppina Liuzzi, Carlo Federico Perno, Paolo Rossi, Ada Bertoli, Stefania Bernardi
BACKGROUND: HIV genetic diversity implicates major challenges for the control of viral infection by the immune system and for the identification of an effective immunotherapeutic strategy. With the present case report we underline as HIV evolution could be effectively halted by early antiretroviral treatment (eART). Few cases supported this evidence due to the difficulty of performing amplification and sequencing analysis in long-term viral suppressed patients. Here, we reported the case of limited HIV-1 viral evolution over time in a successful early treated child...
December 9, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936233/malaria-in-hiv-infected-children-receiving-hiv-protease-inhibitor-compared-with-non-nucleoside-reverse-transcriptase-inhibitor-based-antiretroviral-therapy-impaact-p1068s-substudy-to-p1060
#11
Charlotte V Hobbs, Erin E Gabriel, Portia Kamthunzi, Gerald Tegha, Jean Tauzie, Elizabeth Petzold, Linda Barlow-Mosha, Benjamin H Chi, Yonghua Li, Tiina Ilmet, Brian Kirmse, Jillian Neal, Sunil Parikh, Nagamah Deygoo, Patrick Jean Philippe, Lynne Mofenson, William Prescott, Jingyang Chen, Philippa Musoke, Paul Palumbo, Patrick E Duffy, William Borkowsky
BACKGROUND: HIV and malaria geographically overlap. HIV protease inhibitors kill malaria parasites in vitro and in vivo, but further evaluation in clinical studies is needed. METHODS: Thirty-one children from Malawi aged 4-62 months were followed every 3 months and at intercurrent illness visits for ≤47 months (September 2009-December 2011). We compared malaria parasite carriage by blood smear microscopy (BS) and confirmed clinical malaria incidence (CCM, or positive BS with malaria symptoms) in children initiated on HIV antiretroviral therapy (ART) with zidovudine, lamivudine, and either nevirapine (NVP), a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor, or lopinavir-ritonavir (LPV-rtv), a protease inhibitor...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935971/costs-of-care-of-hiv-infected-children-initiating-lopinavir-ritonavir-based-antiretroviral-therapy-before-the-age-of-two-in-cote-d-ivoire
#12
Sophie Desmonde, Divine Avit, Junie Petit, Madeleine Amorissani Folquet, Francois Tanoh Eboua, Clarisse Amani Bosse, Evelyne Dainguy, Véronique Mea, Marguerite Timite-Konan, Sylvie Ngbeché, Andrea Ciaranello, Valeriane Leroy
OBJECTIVES: To access the costs of care for Ivoirian children before and after initiating LPV/r-based antiretroviral therapy (ART) before the age of two. METHODS: We assessed the direct costs of care for all HIV-infected children over the first 12 months on LPV/r-based ART initiated <2 years of age in Abidjan. We recorded all drug prescriptions, ART and cotrimoxazole prophylaxis delivery, medical analyses/examinations and hospital admissions. We compared these costs to those accrued in the month prior to ART initiation...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925025/initiatives-to-challenge-patent-barriers-and-their-relationship-with-the-price-of-medicines-procured-by-the-brazilian-unified-national-health-system
#13
Carolinne Thays Scopel, Gabriela Costa Chaves
Since 1996, when antiretroviral (ARV) treatments started being guaranteed to people living with HIV in Brazil, the government has faced the challenge of ensuring sustainability of this policy within a context of incorporating patented medicines. This article sought to analyze the historical series of the price of lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) in Brazil and in the international market also considering the initiatives to challenge patent barriers between 2001 and 2012. The methods used were mapping initiatives to challenge LPV/r patent barriers and the analysis of historical series of its price in Brazil and in the international market...
December 1, 2016: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901085/wide-variation-in-susceptibility-of-transmitted-founder-hiv-1-subtype-c-isolates-to-protease-inhibitors-and-association-with-in-vitro-replication-efficiency
#14
Katherine A Sutherland, Dami A Collier, Daniel T Claiborne, Jessica L Prince, Martin J Deymier, Richard A Goldstein, Eric Hunter, Ravindra K Gupta
The gag gene is highly polymorphic across HIV-1 subtypes and contributes to susceptibility to protease inhibitors (PI), a critical class of antiretrovirals that will be used in up to 2 million individuals as second-line therapy in sub Saharan Africa by 2020. Given subtype C represents around half of all HIV-1 infections globally, we examined PI susceptibility in subtype C viruses from treatment-naïve individuals. PI susceptibility was measured in a single round infection assay of full-length, replication competent MJ4/gag chimeric viruses, encoding the gag gene and 142 nucleotides of pro derived from viruses in 20 patients in the Zambia-Emory HIV Research Project acute infection cohort...
November 30, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895016/are-prophylactic-and-therapeutic-target-concentrations-different-the-case-of-lopinavir-ritonavir-or-lamivudine-administered-to-infants-for-the-prevention-of-mother-to-child-hiv-1-transmission-during-breastfeeding
#15
Frantz Foissac, Jörn Blume, Jean-Marc Tréluyer, Thorkild Tylleskär, Chipepo Kankasa, Nicolas Meda, James K Tumwine, Mandisa Singata-Madliki, Kim Harper, Silvia M Illamola, Naïm Bouazza, Nicolas Nagot, Philippe Van de Perre, Stéphane Blanche, Déborah Hirt
The ANRS 12174 trial assessed the efficacy and tolerance of LPV/r versus 3TC prophylaxis administered to breastfed infants, whose HIV-infected mothers were not on ART. In this sub-study, we assessed LPV/r and 3TC pharmacokinetics to evaluate the percentage of infants with therapeutic plasma concentrations and to discuss these data in the context of a prophylactic treatment. Infants from the South African trial site underwent blood sampling for pharmacokinetic study at week 6, 26 and 38 of life. We applied a Bayesian approach to derive the 3TC and LPV pharmacokinetic parameters based on previously published pharmacokinetic models for HIV-infected children...
November 28, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890952/a-study-of-antiretroviral-resistance-patterns-in-treatment-experienced-and-naive-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-patients
#16
Raj Harjani, Ram Malkani
BACKGROUND: About 10% of the patients had surveillance drug-related mutations for nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) and protease inhibitors (PIs) in an Indian study. It was also reported that resistance was maximum for nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) and minimum for PIs. METHODS: The present study was a cross-sectional assessment of 21 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals attending a HIV care center in a tertiary care center in Mumbai, Maharashtra, India...
July 2016: Indian Journal of Sexually Transmitted Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889708/mir-34a-is-a-common-link-in-both-hiv-and-antiretroviral-therapy-induced-vascular-aging
#17
Jiaxin Zhan, Shanshan Qin, Lili Lu, Xiamin Hu, Jun Zhou, Yeying Sun, Jian Yang, Ying Liu, Zunzhe Wang, Ning Tan, Jiyan Chen, Chunxiang Zhang
Both HIV and antiretroviral therapy could induce vascular aging with unclear mechanisms. In this study, via microarray analysis, we identified, for the first time, that miR-34a expression was significantly increased in both HIV-infected, and antiretroviral agents-treated vessels and vascular endothelial cells (ECs) from these vessels. In cultured ECs, miR-34a expression was significantly increased by HIV-Tat protein and by the antiretroviral agents, lopinavir/ritonavir. Both HIV-Tat protein and antiretroviral agents could induce EC senescence, which was inhibited by miR-34a inhibition...
November 26, 2016: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888600/-darunavir-cobicistat-monotherapy-experience-in-a-tertiary-hospital
#18
L Yunquera-Romero, R Asensi-Díez, J C Del Rio-Valencia, I Muñoz-Castillo, M A Castaño-Carracedo
OBJECTIVE: Ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor (IP/r) monotherapy: darunavir/ritonavir (DRV/r) or lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) monotherapy is only provided in the major treatment guidelines in pretreated patients to prevent toxicity associated with nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI), reduce costs and simplify antiretroviral treatment. To start IP/r monotherapy, according to GESIDA guidelines 2016, patients need to meet the following criteria: absence of chronic hepatitis B, plasma viral load <50 copies/ mL for at least 6 months and absence of protease inhibitors mutations or previous virologic failures to IP/r...
December 2016: Revista Española de Quimioterapia: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Quimioterapia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875362/relationship-between-hiv-infection-antiretroviral-therapy-inflammatory-markers-and-cerebrovascular-endothelial-function-among-adults-in-urban-china
#19
Felicia C Chow, Yanling Li, Yinghuan Hu, Joy Chan, Huanling Wang, Weihai Xu, Richard W Price, Farzaneh A Sorond, Taisheng Li
BACKGROUND: Cerebrovascular risk is increased in people living with HIV infection compared with age-matched uninfected individuals. Cerebrovascular endothelial dysfunction related to antiretroviral therapy and inflammation may contribute to higher stroke risk in HIV infection. METHODS: We compared cerebral vasoreactivity-a measure of cerebrovascular endothelial function assessed by the breath holding index (BHI) using transcranial Doppler ultrasound-between virologically suppressed Chinese HIV-infected individuals followed in an HIV clinic in Beijing, China and uninfected controls...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27828808/managing-chronic-kidney-disease-in-the-older-adults-living-with-hiv
#20
Frank A Post
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: HIV replication and immunodeficiency are important risk factors for chronic kidney disease (CKD). Widespread use of antiretrovirals that may affect kidney function underscores the need for monitoring kidney function, allowing early detection of drug-induced kidney injury and identification of patients who may benefit from antiretroviral therapy switches. RECENT FINDINGS: Several cohorts have reported an increased incidence of CKD with tenofovir [tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF)], atazanavir, and lopinavir, and CKD risk scores have been developed to identify those most at risk of kidney disease progression while receiving these agents...
February 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
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