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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923290/use-of-adult-sensory-panel-to-study-individual-differences-in-the-palatability-of-a-pediatric-hiv-treatment-drug
#1
Julie A Mennella, Phoebe S Mathew, Elizabeth D Lowenthal
PURPOSE: The recommended first-line treatment for young children infected with HIV includes the liquid formulation of the co-formulated protease inhibitors lopinavir/ritonavir (Kaletra(®) [Abbott Laboratories, Chicago, Illinois]). Clinical reports indicate that some children readily accept the taste of Kaletra, whereas others strongly reject it, which can deter therapeutic adherence and outcomes. METHODS: As a proof-of-concept approach, a sensory panel of genotyped adults was used to document the range of individual differences in the taste and palatability (hedonics) of the liquid formulation of Kaletra and other taste stimuli, including common excipients...
September 15, 2017: Clinical Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903520/hepatic-renal-hematologic-and-inflammatory-markers-in-hiv-infected-children-on-long-term-suppressive-antiretroviral-therapy
#2
Ann J Melvin, Meredith Warshaw, Alexandra Compagnucci, Yacine Saidi, Linda Harrison, Anna Turkova, Gareth Tudor-Williams
Background: Data on long-term toxicity of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in HIV-infected children are sparse. PENPACT-1 was an open-label trial in which HIV-infected children were assigned randomly to receive protease inhibitor (PI)- or nonnucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-based ART. Methods: We examined changes in clinical, immunologic, and inflammatory markers from baseline to year 4 in the subset of children in the PENPACT-1 study who experienced viral suppression between week 24 and year 4 of ART...
September 1, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895059/central-nervous-system-penetrating-antiretrovirals-impair-energetic-reserve-in-striatal-nerve-terminals
#3
Kelly L Stauch, Katy Emanuel, Benjamin G Lamberty, Brenda Morsey, Howard S Fox
The use of antiretroviral (ARV) drugs with central nervous system (CNS) penetration effectiveness (CPE) may be useful in the treatment of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) as well as targeting a CNS reservoir in strategies to achieve a functional cure for HIV. However, increased cognitive deficits are linked to at least one of these drugs (efavirenz). As mitochondrial dysfunction has been found with a number of ARVs, and as such can affect neuronal function, the objective of this study was to assess the effects of ARV with high CPE for toxicological profiles on presynaptic nerve terminal energy metabolism...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893758/antiretroviral-therapy-for-pregnant-women-living-with-hiv-or-hepatitis-b-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#4
Reed A Siemieniuk, Farid Foroutan, Reza Mirza, Jinell Mah Ming, Paul E Alexander, Arnav Agarwal, Olufunmilayo Lesi, Arnaud Merglen, Yaping Chang, Yuan Zhang, Hassan Mir, Elliot Hepworth, Yung Lee, Dena Zeraatkar, Gordon H Guyatt
OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of various antiretroviral/antiviral regimens in pregnant women living with HIV or hepatitis B virus (HBV). DESIGN: We performed random effects meta-analysis for HIV-related outcomes and network meta-analysis for HBV outcomes, and used the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) framework to assess quality separately for each outcome. DATA SOURCES: Embase and Medline to February 2017...
September 11, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875397/boceprevir-and-antiretroviral-pharmacokinetic-interactions-in-hiv-hcv-co-infected-persons-aids-clinical-trials-group-study-a5309s
#5
Jennifer J Kiser, Darlene Lu, Susan L Rosenkranz, Gene D Morse, Robin DiFrancesco, Kenneth E Sherman, Adeel A Butt
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the magnitude of drug interactions between the hepatitis C virus (HCV) protease inhibitor boceprevir (BOC) and antiretroviral (ARV) agents in persons with HIV/HCV co-infection. METHODS: Participants taking two nucleos(t)ide analogs with either efavirenz, raltegravir, or ritonavir-boosted atazanavir, darunavir, or lopinavir underwent intensive pharmacokinetic (PK) sampling for ARV 2 weeks before (week 2) and 2 weeks after initiating BOC (week 6) and for BOC at week 6...
September 5, 2017: Drugs in R&D
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861811/differential-effects-of-antiretroviral-drugs-on-neurons-in-vitro-roles-for-oxidative-stress-and-integrated-stress-response
#6
Anna L Stern, Rebecca N Lee, Nina Panvelker, Jiean Li, Jenna Harowitz, Kelly L Jordan-Sciutto, Cagla Akay-Espinoza
Mounting evidence suggests that antiretroviral drugs may contribute to the persistence of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND), which impact 30%-50% of HIV-infected patients in the post-antiretroviral era. We previously reported that two first generation HIV protease inhibitors, ritonavir and saquinavir, induced oxidative stress, with subsequent neuronal death in vitro, which was reversed by augmentation of the endogenous antioxidant response by monomethyl fumarate. We herein determined whether two newer-generation PIs, darunavir and lopinavir, were deleterious to neurons in vitro...
August 31, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology: the Official Journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855003/a-review-of-candidate-therapies-for-middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-from-a-molecular-perspective
#7
Ali A Rabaan, Shamsah H Alahmed, Ali M Bazzi, Hatem M Alhani
There have been 2040 laboratory-confirmed cases of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in 27 countries, with a mortality rate of 34.9 %. There is no specific therapy. The current therapies have mainly been adapted from severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV) treatments, including broad-spectrum antibiotics, corticosteroids, interferons, ribavirin, lopinavir-ritonavir or mycophenolate mofetil, and have not been subject to well-organized clinical trials. The development of specific therapies and vaccines is therefore urgently required...
August 31, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844174/novel-reverse-electrodialysis-driven-iontophoretic-system-for-topical-and-transdermal-delivery-of-poorly-permeable-therapeutic-agents
#8
Ki-Taek Kim, Joon Lee, Min-Hwan Kim, Ju-Hwan Park, Jae-Young Lee, Joo-Hyun Song, Minwoong Jung, Myoung-Hoon Jang, Hyun-Jong Cho, In-Soo Yoon, Dae-Duk Kim
Topical and transdermal drug delivery has great potential in non-invasive and non-oral administration of poorly bioavailable therapeutic agents. However, due to the barrier function of the stratum corneum, the drugs that can be clinically feasible candidates for topical and transdermal delivery have been limited to small-sized lipophilic molecules. Previously, we fabricated a novel iontophoretic system using reverse electrodialysis (RED) technology (RED system). However, no study has demonstrated its utility in topical and/or transdermal delivery of poorly permeable therapeutic agents...
November 2017: Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838776/the-effect-of-lopinavir-ritonavir-and-lopinavir-ritonavir-loaded-plga-nanoparticles-on-experimental-toxoplasmosis
#9
Iman Fathy Abou-El-Naga, Eman Dorry El Kerdany, Rasha Fadly Mady, Thanaa Ibrahim Shalaby, Enas Mohammed Zaytoun
A marked reduction has been achieved in the incidence and clinical course of toxoplasmic encephalitis after the introduction of protease inhibitors within the treatment regimen of HIV (HIV-PIs). This work was undertaken to study for the first time, the efficacy of HIV-PIs, lopinavir/ritonavir (L/R), as a therapeutic agent in acute experimental toxoplasmosis. Lopinavir/ritonavir (L/R) were used in the same ratio present in aluvia, a known HIV-PIs drug used in the developing countries in the treatment regimens of AID's patient...
August 21, 2017: Parasitology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28825944/brief-report-lopinavir-hair-concentrations-are-the-strongest-predictor-of-viremia-in-hiv-infected-asian-children-and-adolescents-on-second-line-antiretroviral-therapy
#10
Jillian Pintye, Peter Bacchetti, Sirinya Teeraananchai, Stephen Kerr, Wasana Prasitsuebsai, Thida Singtoroj, Karen Kuncze, Alexander Louie, Catherine A Koss, Chengshi Jin, Nhi Phung, Howard Horng, Annette H Sohn, Monica Gandhi
BACKGROUND: Children/adolescents display suboptimal antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence and outcomes versus adults. Hair ART concentrations are objective adherence measures that predict viremia in adults but longitudinal data on hair levels in pediatric populations is limited. We assessed the predictive utility of hair lopinavir levels on viremia among youth on second-line ART. METHODS: We examined predictors of viremia (HIV-1 RNA >400 and >1000 copies/ml) at least 24 weeks after switch to lopinavir-based second-line ART in a cohort of HIV-infected Asian children followed between 2011 and 2014...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805110/lack-of-interaction-of-lopinavir-solid-drug-nanoparticles-with-cells-of-the-immune-system
#11
Neill J Liptrott, Marco Giardiello, Tom O McDonald, Steven P Rannard, Andrew Owen
AIM: We previously demonstrated that solid drug nanoparticles (SDNs) lopinavir (LPV) dispersed into aqueous media display favorable pharmacokinetics. METHODS: The impact of LPV SDNs on the function and phenotype of primary human T cells and macrophages (primary sites of HIV replication) was investigated. RESULTS: LPV significantly increased IL-1β (ninefold higher than untreated cells; p = 0.045) and TNF-α (sixfold higher than untreated cells; p = 0...
August 14, 2017: Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800382/suboptimal-cotrimoxazole-prophylactic-concentrations-in-hiv-infected-children-according-to-the-who-guidelines
#12
C Pressiat, V Mea-Assande, C Yonaba, J-M Treluyer, D-L Dahourou, M Amorissani-Folquet, S Blanche, F Eboua, D Ye, G Lui, K Malateste, Y Zheng, V Leroy, D Hirt
AIMS: A clinical study was conduct in HIV-infected children to evaluate the prophylactic doses of cotrimoxazole (sulfamethoxazole (SMX) and trimethoprim (TMP)) advised by WHO. METHODS: Children received lopinavir-based antiretroviral therapy with cotrimoxazole prophylaxis (200 mg of SMX/ 40 mg of TMP once daily). Nonlinear mixed effects modelling approach was used to analyze plasma concentrations. Factors that could impact the pharmacokinetic profile were investigate...
August 11, 2017: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797181/hiv-resistance-with-correlation-to-pmtct-regimen-in-hiv-infected-infants-in-northern-tanzania
#13
Dorothy Elizabeth Dow, Werner Schimana, Balthazar M Nyombi, Blandina T Mmbaga, Aisa M Shayo, John A Bartlett, Charles G Massambu, Emmanuel G Kifaro, Elizabeth L Turner, Todd DeMarco, Fangping Cai, Coleen Cunningham, Ann M Buchanan
Prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) guidelines recommend that all HIV-infected pregnant woman receive antiretroviral therapy (Option B) and HIV-infected infants should initiate therapy with a protease inhibitor based regimen; however, implementation of these guidelines has lagged in many resource-limited settings. Tanzania only recently implemented these guidelines with little country specific data to inform whether HIV non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) resistance was present among infected infants under the Option A guidelines...
August 11, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783807/comparative-safety-of-antiretroviral-treatment-regimens-in-pregnancy
#14
Rebecca Zash, Denise L Jacobson, Modiegi Diseko, Gloria Mayondi, Mompati Mmalane, Max Essex, Chipo Petlo, Shahin Lockman, Joseph Makhema, Roger L Shapiro
Importance: Maternal antiretroviral treatment (ART) started before conception may increase the risk for adverse birth outcomes among women with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, but whether the risk differs by ART regimen is unknown. Objective: To compare the risk for selected birth outcomes by maternal ART regimen. Design, Setting, and Participants: This observational birth outcomes surveillance study compared all live births and stillbirths with a gestational age of at least 24 weeks in 8 geographically dispersed government hospitals throughout Botswana (approximately 45% of births nationwide)...
August 7, 2017: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770596/high-rates-of-viral-suppression-in-adults-and-children-with-high-cd4-counts-using-a-streamlined-art-delivery-model-in-the-search-trial-in-rural-uganda-and-kenya
#15
Dalsone Kwarisiima, Moses R Kamya, Asiphas Owaraganise, Florence Mwangwa, Dathan M Byonanebye, James Ayieko, Albert Plenty, Doug Black, Tamara D Clark, Bridget Nzarubara, Katherine Snyman, Lillian Brown, Elizabeth Bukusi, Craig R Cohen, Elvin H Geng, Edwin D Charlebois, Theodore D Ruel, Maya L Petersen, Diane Havlir, Vivek Jain
INTRODUCTION: The 2015 WHO recommendation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) for all HIV-positive persons calls for treatment initiation in millions of persons newly eligible with high CD4+ counts. Efficient and effective care models are urgently needed for this population. We evaluated clinical outcomes of asymptomatic HIV-positive adults and children starting ART with high CD4+ counts using a novel streamlined care model in rural Uganda and Kenya. METHODS: In the 16 intervention communities of the HIV test-and-treat Sustainable East Africa Research for Community Health Study (NCT01864603), all HIV-positive individuals irrespective of CD4 were offered ART (efavirenz [EFV]/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate + emtricitabine (FTC) or lamivudine (3TC)...
July 21, 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764578/developments-in-early-diagnosis-and-therapy-of-hiv-infection-in-newborns
#16
Francisco Canals, Mar Masiá, Félix Gutiérrez
Infants who acquire HIV have an exceptionally high risk of morbidity and mortality if they do not receive antiretroviral therapy (ART). Areas covered: This review aims to summarize the currently available evidence on ART in HIV-infected neonates. Data were obtained from literature searches from PubMed, abstracts from International Conferences (2000-2017), and authors' files. Expert opinion: Current evidence favors early diagnosis and prompt ART of HIV infection in newborns. The precise timing of initiation of ART remains undetermined...
August 2, 2017: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758024/serum-lipid-and-glucose-profiles-in-hiv-positive-nigerian-children
#17
EDITORIAL
Olukemi O Ige, Christopher S Yilgwan, Augustine O Ebonyi, Ruth Adah, Idris Adedeji, Esther S Yiltok, Stephen Oguche, Fidelia Bode-Thomas
OBJECTIVES: To describe the fasting serum lipid and glucose profiles of HIV-positive Nigerian children and determine the prevalence and risk factors for dyslipidaemia and hyperglycaemia, which are risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. METHODS: This was a comparative cross-sectional study carried out at the Paediatric Infectious Disease Clinic (PIDC) of the Jos University Teaching Hospital (JUTH) for HIV-positive children and at two primary schools in Jos for HIV-negative children as controls...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Virus Eradication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753637/collaborative-update-of-a-rule-based-expert-system-for-hiv-1-genotypic-resistance-test-interpretation
#18
Roger Paredes, Philip L Tzou, Gert van Zyl, Geoff Barrow, Ricardo Camacho, Sergio Carmona, Philip M Grant, Ravindra K Gupta, Raph L Hamers, P Richard Harrigan, Michael R Jordan, Rami Kantor, David A Katzenstein, Daniel R Kuritzkes, Frank Maldarelli, Dan Otelea, Carole L Wallis, Jonathan M Schapiro, Robert W Shafer
INTRODUCTION: HIV-1 genotypic resistance test (GRT) interpretation systems (IS) require updates as new studies on HIV-1 drug resistance are published and as treatment guidelines evolve. METHODS: An expert panel was created to provide recommendations for the update of the Stanford HIV Drug Resistance Database (HIVDB) GRT-IS. The panel was polled on the ARVs to be included in a GRT report, and the drug-resistance interpretations associated with 160 drug-resistance mutation (DRM) pattern-ARV combinations...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741965/cost-effectiveness-of-dolutegravir-abacavir-lamivudine-in-hiv-1-treatment-naive-tn-patients-in-france
#19
Gilles Pialoux, Anne-Geneviève Marcelin, Hélène Cawston, Caroline Guilmet, Laurent Finkielsztejn, Audrey Laurisse, Céline Aubin
BACKGROUND: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of an integrase inhibitor (INI), dolutegravir (DTG), in combination with abacavir (ABC)/lamivudine (3TC) in France, in treatment-naive (TN) HIV adult patients. METHODS: The ARAMIS microsimulation Markov model, evaluates costs and effects of DTG vs. first-line ARVs options including INIs (raltegravir, elvitegravir/c), protease inhibitors (PIs) (darunavir/r, atazanavir/r, lopinavir/r), non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (efavirenz and rilpivirine)...
July 31, 2017: Expert Review of Pharmacoeconomics & Outcomes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718515/impact-of-single-nucleotide-polymorphisms-on-plasma-concentrations-of-efavirenz-and-lopinavir-ritonavir-in-chinese-children-infected-with-the-human-immunodeficiency-virus
#20
Xia Liu, Qing Ma, Yan Zhao, Weiwei Mu, Xin Sun, Yuewu Cheng, Huiping Zhang, Ye Ma, Fujie Zhang
Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the genes that encode the cytochrome P450 (CYP) drug metabolizing enzymes and drug transporters have been reported to influence antiretroviral drug pharmacokinetics. Although primarily metabolized by CYP2B6 and -3A, efavirenz (EFV) and lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) are substrates of P-glycoprotein and the solute carrier organic (SLCO) anion transporter, respectively. We investigated the association between SNPs and efavirenz (EFV) or lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) concentrations in Chinese children infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)...
September 2017: Pharmacotherapy
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