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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522147/cardiovascular-risk-in-advanced-na%C3%A3-ve-hiv-infected-patients-starting-antiretroviral-therapy-comparison-of-three-different-regimens-prevaleat-ii-cohort
#1
Paolo Maggi, Chiara Bellacosa, Armando Leone, Anna Volpe, Elena Delfina Ricci, Nicoletta Ladisa, Stefania Cicalini, Elisabetta Grilli, Rosaria Viglietti, Antonio Chirianni, Lara Ines Bellazzi, Renato Maserati, Canio Martinelli, Paola Corsi, Benedetto Maurizio Celesia, Federica Sozio, Gioacchino Angarano
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: PREVALEAT (PREmature VAscular LEsions and Antiretroviral Therapy) II is a multicenter, longitudinal cohort study aimed at the evaluation of cardiovascular risk among advanced HIV-positive, treatment-naïve patients starting their first therapy. We hypothesized that these patients, present a higher cardiovascular (CV) risk. METHODS: The study included all consecutive naïve patients with less than 200 CD4 cells/ml starting antiretroviral therapy...
May 5, 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520618/defining-a-cut-off-for-atazanavir-in-hair-samples-associated-with-virological-failure-among-adolescents-failing-second-line-antiretroviral-treatment
#2
Tariro Dianah Chawana, Monica Gandhi, Kusum Nathoo, Bernard Ngara, Alexander Louie, Howard Horng, David Katzenstein, John Metcalfe, Charles Fungai Brian Nhachi
BACKGROUND: Adequate antiretroviral exposure is crucial for virological suppression. We assessed the relationship between atazanavir hair levels with self-reported adherence, virological outcomes, and the effect of a home-based adherence intervention in HIV-infected adolescents failing 2-line antiretroviral treatment in Zimbabwe. METHODS: HIV-infected adolescents on atazanavir/ritonavir-based 2-line treatment for ≥6 months with viral load (VL) >1,000 copies/ml were randomised to either standard care (control) or standard care plus modified directly administered antiretroviral therapy (mDAART) (intervention)...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492392/predictors-of-estimated-glomerular-filtration-rate-progression-stabilization-or-improvement-after-chronic-renal-impairment-in-hiv-positive-individuals
#3
Lene Ryom, Amanda Mocroft, Ole Kirk, Peter Reiss, Michael Ross, Colette Smith, Olivier Moranne, Philippe Morlat, Christoph A Fux, Caroline Sabin, Andrew Phillips, Matthew Law, Jens D Lundgren
OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this analysis were to investigate predictors of progression, stabilization or improvement in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) after development of chronic renal impairment (CRI) in HIV-positive individuals. DESIGN: Prospective observational study. METHODS: The Data Collection on Adverse events of Anti-HIV Drugs (D:A:D) study participants progressing to CRI defined as confirmed, at least 3 months apart, and eGFR 70 ml/min per 1...
June 1, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482097/once-daily-atazanavir-cobicistat-and-darunavir-cobicistat-exposure-over-72%C3%A2-h-post-dose-in-plasma-urine-and-saliva-contribution-to-drug-pharmacokinetic-knowledge
#4
Emilie R Elliot, Alieu Amara, Nicole Pagani, Laura Else, Graeme Moyle, Alex Schoolmeesters, Chris Higgs, Saye Khoo, Marta Boffito
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 6, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458569/erratum-budget-impact-analysis-of-the-simplification-to-atazanavir-ritonavir-lamivudine-dual-therapy-of-hiv-positive-patients-receiving-atazanavir-based-triple-therapies-in-italy-starting-from-data-of-the-atlas-m-trial-corrigendum
#5
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443391/atazanavir-sulfate-cobicistat-for-the-treatment-of-hiv-infection
#6
Francisco Antunes
During last two decades several drugs were developed to offer long-term benefits in terms of virologic efficacy, favourable tolerability and toxicity profiles in treatment of HIV infection. Pharmacokinetics boosting of protease inhibitor allows a higher genetic barrier, as few or no drug-resistant mutations are detected in patients with virologic failure. Areas covered: Atazanavir sulfate + cobicistat (ATV/c) was recently approved for the treatment of HIV-1 infection. Bioequivalence between cobicistat (COBI) and ritonavir (RTV) as a pharmacoenhancer of ATV was established...
May 9, 2017: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438550/lipophilic-salts-of-poorly-soluble-compounds-to-enable-high-dose-lipidic-sedds-formulations-in-drug-discovery
#7
Michael Morgen, Ajay Saxena, Xue-Qing Chen, Warren Miller, Richard Nkansah, Aaron Goodwin, Jon Cape, Roy Haskell, Ching Su, Olafur Gudmundsson, Michael Hageman, Anoop Kumar, Gajendra Singh Chowan, Abhijith Rao, Vinay K Holenarsipur
Self-emulsifying drug delivery systems (SEDDS) have been used to solubilize poorly water-soluble drugs to improve exposure in high-dose pharmacokinetic (PK) and toxicokinetic (TK) studies. However, the absorbable dose is often limited by drug solubility in the lipidic SEDDS vehicle. This study focuses on increasing solubility and drug loading of ionizable drugs in SEDDS vehicles using lipophilic counterions to prepare lipophilic salts of drugs. SEDDS formulations of two lipophilic salts-atazanavir-2-naphthalene sulfonic acid (ATV-2-NSA) and atazanavir-dioctyl sulfosuccinic acid (ATV-Doc)-were characterized and their performance compared to atazanavir (ATV) free base formulated as an aqueous crystalline suspension, an organic solution, and a SEDDS suspension, using in vitro, in vivo, and in silico methods...
April 21, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424561/response-by-gender-of-hiv-1-infected-subjects-treated-with-abacavir-lamivudine-plus-atazanavir-with-or-without-ritonavir-for-144-weeks
#8
Kathleen E Squires, Benjamin Young, Lizette Santiago, Robin H Dretler, Sharon L Walmsley, Henry H Zhao, Gary E Pakes, Lisa L Ross, Mark S Shaefer
PURPOSE: The 144-week results of the open-label, multicenter Atazanavir/Ritonavir Induction with Epzicom Study (ARIES) were stratified by gender to compare treatment responses. METHODS: A total of 369 HIV-infected, antiretroviral-naïve subjects receiving once-daily abacavir/lamivudine + atazanavir/ritonavir (ATV/r) whose HIV-1 RNA was <50 copies/mL by week 30 were randomized 1:1 at week 36 to maintain or discontinue ritonavir for 108 subsequent weeks. Between- and within-treatment gender-related efficacy and safety differences were analyzed...
2017: HIV/AIDS: Research and Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407075/once-daily-atazanavir-cobicistat-and-darunavir-cobicistat-exposure-over-72%C3%A2-h-post-dose-in-plasma-urine-and-saliva-contribution-to-drug-pharmacokinetic-knowledge
#9
Emilie R Elliot, Alieu Amara, Nicole Pagani, Laura Else, Graeme Moyle, Alex Schoolmeesters, Chris Higgs, Saye Khoo, Marta Boffito
Background: We investigated the pharmacokinetics (PK) of atazanavir/cobicistat and darunavir/cobicistat once daily over 72 h following drug intake cessation in plasma, saliva and urine. Methods: Healthy volunteers received a fixed-dose combination of 300/150 mg of atazanavir/cobicistat once daily for 10 days, followed by a 10 day washout period and then a fixed-dose combination of 800/150 mg of darunavir/cobicistat once daily for 10 days. Full PK profiles were assessed for each phase for 72 h following day 10 and parameters determined to the last measurable concentration in plasma, saliva and urine by non-compartmental methods...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403692/severe-hypokalemia-due-to-a-possible-drug-drug-interaction-between-vinblastine-and-antiretrovirals-in-a-hiv-infected-patient-with-hodgkin-s-lymphoma
#10
Ezequiel Cordova, Laura Morganti, Andrea Odzak, Florencia Arcondo, Mariana Silva, Marcelo Zylberman, Claudia Rodriguez
A 60-year-old HIV-1 infected woman on antiretroviral therapy (emtricitabine/tenofovir, and ritonavir-boosted atazanavir) developed Hodgkin's lymphoma. The patient initiated ABVD (doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine and dacarbazine) chemotherapy and presented with neutropenia and severe hypokalemia. Hypokalemia was considered as part of a proximal tubular renal dysfunction, and other causes of hypokalemia were excluded. Due to suspicion of drug--drug interactions between antiretrovirals and vinblastine, ritonavir-boosted atazanavir was switched to dolutegravir and the patient continued emtricitabine/tenofovir...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403052/second-and-third-line-antiretroviral-therapy-for-children-and-adolescents-a-scoping-review
#11
REVIEW
Erica Lazarus, Simone Nicol, Lisa Frigati, Martina Penazzato, Mark F Cotton, Elizabeth Centeno-Tablante, Avy Violari, Liesl Nicol
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization identified a need for evidence to inform revision of second- and third-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) options in children failing ART. We performed an in-depth scoping review of all available literature on second-line and subsequent ART regimens in children younger than 18 years. METHODS: We comprehensively searched, without language or date limitations, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, EMBASE, the World Health Organization's International Clinical Trials Registry Platform and ClinicalTrials...
May 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399819/comparison-of-atazanavir-ritonavir-and-darunavir-ritonavir-based-antiretroviral-therapy-for-antiretroviral-na%C3%A3-ve-patients
#12
Tony Antoniou, Leah Szadkowski, Sharon Walmsley, Curtis Cooper, Ann N Burchell, Ahmed M Bayoumi, Julio S G Montaner, Mona Loutfy, Marina B Klein, Nima Machouf, Christos Tsoukas, Alexander Wong, Robert S Hogg, Janet Raboud
BACKGROUND: Atazanavir/ritonavir and darunavir/ritonavir are common protease inhibitor-based regimens for treating patients with HIV. Studies comparing these drugs in clinical practice are lacking. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of antiretroviral naïve participants in the Canadian Observational Cohort (CANOC) collaboration initiating atazanavir/ritonavir- or darunavir/ritonavir-based treatment. We used separate Fine and Gray competing risk regression models to compare times to regimen failure (composite of virologic failure or discontinuation for any reason)...
April 11, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398959/emergence-of-untreatable-multidrug-resistant-hiv-1-in-patients-failing-second-line-therapy-in-kenya
#13
Seth C Inzaule, Raph L Hamers, Irene Mukui, Kennedy Were, Prestone Owiti, Daniel Kwaro, Tobias F Rinke de Wit, Clement Zeh
: We performed a countrywide assessment of HIV drug resistance among 123 patients with virological failure on second-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Kenya. The percentage of patients harboring intermediate-to-high-level resistance was 27% for lopinavir-ritonavir, 24% for atazanavir-ritonavir and 7% for darunavir-ritonavir, and 25% had complete loss of activity to all available first- and second-line drugs. Overall, one in four patients failing second-line ART have completely exhausted available antiretrovirals in Kenya, highlighting the need for increased access to third-line drugs...
April 10, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369419/bone-mineral-density-reductions-after-tenofovir-disoproxil-fumarate-initiation-and-changes-in-phosphaturia-a-secondary-analysis-of-actg-a5224s
#14
Samir K Gupta, Eunice Yeh, Douglas W Kitch, Todd T Brown, Charles S Venuto, Gene D Morse, Belinda Ha, Kathleen Melbourne, Grace A McComsey
Background: It is unknown if the greater reductions in bone mineral density (BMD) associated with initiation of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate compared with abacavir in previously untreated HIV-infected participants in the ACTG A5224s clinical trial were associated with potentially worsening tenofovir-related phosphaturia. Methods: We correlated changes in BMD at the hip and spine with changes in phosphaturia [transtubular reabsorption of phosphorus (TRP) and tubular maximum phosphate reabsorption per glomerular filtration rate (TmP/GFR)] from entry through week 96 in those initiating tenofovir ( n  =   134) versus abacavir ( n  =   135) with efavirenz or atazanavir/ritonavir in A5224s...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369211/antiviral-activity-safety-and-exposure-response-relationships-of-gsk3532795-a-second-generation-hiv-1-maturation-inhibitor-administered-as-monotherapy-or-in-combination-with-atazanavir%C3%A2-ritonavir-in-a-phase-2a-randomized-dose-ranging-controlled-trial-ai468002
#15
Carey Hwang, Dirk Schürmann, Christian Sobotha, Marta Boffito, Heather Sevinsky, Neelanjana Ray, Palanikumar Ravindran, Hong Xiao, Christian Keicher, Andreas Hüser, Mark Krystal, Ira B Dicker, Dennis Grasela, Max Lataillade
BACKGROUND: GSK3532795 is a second-generation human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) maturation inhibitor that targets HIV-1 Gag, inhibiting the final protease cleavage between capsid protein p24 and spacer protein-1, producing immature, non-infectious virions. METHODS: AI468002 (NCT01803074): Phase 2a, randomized, dosing-ranging multipart trial. In Part A, subtype B-infected subjects received 5 to 120 mg GSK3532795 (or placebo) once daily (QD) for 10 days. In Part B, subtype B-infected subjects received 40 mg or 80mg GSK3532795 QD with atazanavir (ATV) ± ritonavir (RTV) or standard-of-care (SOC; tenofovir disoproxil fumarate 300 mg, emtricitabine 200 mg, and ATV/RTV 300 mg/100 mg) for 28 days...
March 23, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361290/efficacy-and-safety-of-atazanavir-ritonavir-based-antiretroviral-therapy-for-hiv-1-infected-subjects-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#16
REVIEW
Amr Menshawy, Ammar Ismail, Abdelrahman Ibrahim Abushouk, Hussien Ahmed, Esraa Menshawy, Ahmed Elmaraezy, Mohamed Gadelkarim, Mohamed Abdel-Maboud, Attia Attia, Ahmed Negida
Atazanavir (ATZ) is a well-tolerated protease inhibitor that can be boosted with ritonavir (r) to treat infection with resistant strains of human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1). The aim of this meta-analysis was to compare the efficacy, safety, and metabolic effects of ATZ/r regimen versus commonly used antiretroviral drugs such as lopinavir (LPV) and darunavir (DRV) in HIV-1-infected patients. We searched PubMed, Scopus, Embase and Cochrane CENTRAL, using relevant keywords. Data were extracted from eligible randomized trials and pooled as risk ratios (RR) or standardized mean differences (SMD) in a meta-analysis model using RevMan software...
March 30, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28353536/predictors-of-egfr-progression-stabilisation-or-improvement-after-chronic-renal-impairment-in-hiv-positive-individuals
#17
Lene Ryom, Amanda Mocroft, Ole Kirk, Peter Reiss, Michael Ross, Colette Smith, Olivier Moranne, Philippe Morlat, Christoph A Fux, Caroline Sabin, Andrew Phillips, Matthew Law, Jens D Lundgren
OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this analysis were to investigate predictors of progression, stabilisation or improvement in eGFR after development of chronic renal impairment (CRI) in HIV-positive individuals. DESIGN: Prospective observational study. METHODS: D:A:D study participants progressing to CRI defined as confirmed, ≥3 months apart, eGFR≤70 mL/min/1.73m were included in the analysis. The median of all eGFRs measured 24-36 months post-CRI was compared to the median eGFR defining CRI, and changes were grouped into: improvement (>+10 mL/min/1...
March 28, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28352994/impact-of-micellar-surfactant-on-supersaturation-and-insight-into-solubilization-mechanisms-in-supersaturated-solutions-of-atazanavir
#18
Anura S Indulkar, Huaping Mo, Yi Gao, Shweta A Raina, Geoff G Z Zhang, Lynne S Taylor
PURPOSE: The goals of this study were to determine: 1) the impact of surfactants on the "amorphous solubility"; 2) the thermodynamic supersaturation in the presence of surfactant micelles; 3) the mechanism of solute solubilization by surfactant micelles in supersaturated solutions. METHODS: The crystalline and amorphous solubility of atazanavir was determined in the presence of varying concentrations of micellar sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). Flux measurements, using a side-by-side diffusion cell, were employed to determine the free and micellar-bound drug concentrations...
June 2017: Pharmaceutical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350802/impact-of-lopinavir-ritonavir-exposure-in-hiv-1-infected-children-and-adolescents-in-madrid-spain-during-2000-2014
#19
Patricia Rojas Sánchez, Luis Prieto, Santiago Jiménez De Ory, Elisa Fernández Cooke, Maria Luisa Navarro, José Tomas Ramos, África Holguín
BACKGROUND: The most-used protease-inhibitor in children is Lopinavir-ritonavir (LPV/r), which provides durable suppression of viral load and increases CD4+T-counts. This study describes the virological outcome of the HIV-1-infected paediatric population exposed to LPV/r during 15 years in Spain. METHODOLOGY: Patients from the Madrid Cohort of HIV-1-infected-children and adolescents exposed to LPV/r as different line therapy during 2000-2014 were selected. The baseline epidemiological-clinical features, viral suppression, changes in CD4+T-CD8+T cell counts and drug susceptibility were recorded before and during LPV/r exposure...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350300/impact-of-ccr5-integrase-and-protease-inhibitors-on-human-endothelial-cell-function-stress-inflammation-and-senescence
#20
Pauline Afonso, Martine Auclair, Martine Caron-Debarle, Jacqueline Capeau
BACKGROUND: Aging HIV-infected patients present an increased incidence of cardiovascular diseases, endothelial dysfunction being an early alteration. Some protease inhibitors (PI)s have been shown to experience risk of increased cardiovascular disease. We evaluated here the effects of CCR5 or integrase inhibitors as compared to PIs on endothelial functions in vitro. METHODS: Human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAEC) from adult and old non-HIV infected donors were treated for 15 days with the CCR5 inhibitor maraviroc, the integrase inhibitors dolutegravir or raltegravir or the ritonavir-boosted-PIs, darunavir (DRV/r) or atazanavir (ATV/r), all at Cmax concentrations...
March 28, 2017: Antiviral Therapy
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