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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318459/incidence-and-predictors-of-single-drug-discontinuation-according-to-the-presence-of-hcv-coinfection-in-hiv-patients-from-the-icona-foundation-cohort-study
#1
Sebastiano Leone, Milensu Shanyinde, Alessandro Cozzi Lepri, Fiona C Lampe, Pietro Caramello, Andrea Costantini, Andrea Giacometti, Andrea De Luca, Antonella Cingolani, Francesca Ceccherini Silberstein, Massimo Puoti, Andrea Gori, Antonella d'Arminio Monforte
To evaluate incidence rates of and predictors for any antiretroviral (ART) drug discontinuation by HCV infection status in a large Italian cohort of HIV infected patients. All patients enrolled in ICONA who started combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) containing abacavir or tenofovir or emtricitabine or lamivudine plus efavirenz or rilpivirine or atazanavir/r or darunavir/r (DRV/r) or lopinavir/r or dolutegravir or elvitegravir or raltegravir were included. Multivariate Poisson regression models were used to determine factors independently associated with single ART drug discontinuation...
January 9, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315954/development-and-validation-of-an-assay-to-analyze-atazanavir-in-human-hair-via-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry-lc-ms-ms
#2
Nhi Phung, Karen Kuncze, Hideaki Okochi, Alexander Louie, Leslie Z Benet, Igho Ofokotun, David W Haas, Judith S Currier, Tariro D Chawana, Anandi N Sheth, Peter Bacchetti, Monica Gandhi, Howard Horng
Assays to quantify antiretrovirals in hair samples are increasingly used to monitor adherence and exposure in both HIV prevention and treatment studies. Atazanavir (ATV) is a protease inhibitor used in combination antiretroviral therapy (ART). We developed and validated a liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)-based method to quantify ATV in human hair, per the NIH Division of AIDS' Clinical Pharmacology Quality Assurance (CPQA) program and the FDA bioanalytical method validation guidelines...
January 9, 2018: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315502/a-genome-wide-association-study-identifies-a-candidate-gene-associated-with-atazanavir-exposure-measured-in-hair
#3
Bani Tamraz, Yong Huang, Audrey L French, Seble Kassaye, Kathryn Anastos, Marek J Nowicki, Stephen Gange, Deborah R Gustafson, Peter Bacchetti, Ruth M Greenblatt, Pirro G Hysi, Bradley E Aouizerat
Hair provides a direct measure of long-term exposure of atazanavir (ATV). We report the results of the first genome-wide association study (GWAS) of ATV exposure measured in hair in an observational cohort representative of U.S. women living with HIV; the Women's Interagency HIV Study. Approximately 14.1 million SNPs were analyzed in linear regression-based GWAS, with replication, adjusted for non-genetic predictors collected under conditions of actual use of ATV in 398 participants. Lastly, the PharmGKB database was used to identify pharmacogene associations with ATV exposure...
January 9, 2018: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300835/simultaneous-determination-of-impurities-of-atazanavir-and-ritonavir-in-tablet-dosage-form-by-using-reversed-phase-ultra-performance-liquid-chromatographic-method
#4
Murali Krishna V V N Mantripragada, Sumathi V Rao, Venugopal V S Nutulapati, Bhaskara P V Mantena
A simple, rapid, selective and stability indicating reversed phase-ultra performance liquid chromatography method was developed and validated for the simultaneous quantification of process related and degradation impurities present in Atazanavir and Ritonavir tablets. The two proposed drug components and their respective impurities were separated using Acquity BEH C18 (100 mm × 2.1 mm), 1.7 μ column at a flow rate of 0.4 mL/min. Buffer used as Mobile phase-A which consists of 0.01 M monobasic potassium hydrogen phosphate adjusted the pH to 3...
December 29, 2017: Journal of Chromatographic Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244115/atazanavir-and-darunavir-in-pregnant-women-with-hiv-evaluation-of-laboratory-and-clinical-outcomes-from-an-observational-national-study
#5
M Floridia, G Masuelli, M Ravizza, B Tassis, I Cetin, M Sansone, A Degli Antoni, G Simonazzi, A Maccabruni, D Francisci, V Frisina, G Liuzzi, S Dalzero, E Tamburrini
Background: Atazanavir and darunavir represent the main HIV PIs recommended in pregnancy, but comparative data in pregnant women are limited. We assessed the safety and activity profile of these two drugs in pregnancy using data from a national observational study. Methods: Women with atazanavir or darunavir exposure in pregnancy were evaluated for laboratory measures and main pregnancy outcomes (e.g. preterm delivery, low birthweight, non-elective caesarean section and neonatal gestational age-adjusted birthweight Z-score)...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239232/effectiveness-of-single-and-multiple-tablet-antiretroviral-regimens-in-correctional-setting-for-treatment-experienced-hiv-patients
#6
Andrew Merker, Melissa Badowski, Thomas Chiampas, Sarah E Pérez, Mahesh Patel, Jeremy Young, Ryan Werner
Minimal information is available regarding antiretroviral prescribing patterns and outcomes for HIV patients in correctional systems. This study analyzes single- (STR) and multiple- (MTR) tablet regimen effectiveness in patients receiving HIV telemedicine care through the Illinois Department of Corrections (IDOC). This study involves a retrospective review of HIV-positive adult patients in IDOC on either an STR (efavirenz, rilpivirine, elvitegravir based) or an MTR (emtricitabine/tenofovir with atazanavir/ritonavir, darunavir/ritonavir, or raltegravir)...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Correctional Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232276/contemporary-protease-inhibitors-and-cardiovascular-risk
#7
Jens Lundgren, Amanda Mocroft, Lene Ryom
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review the evidence linking use of HIV protease inhibitors with excess risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in HIV+ populations. RECENT FINDINGS: For the two contemporary most frequently used protease inhibitors, darunavir and atazanavir [both pharmacologically boosted with ritonavir (/r)], darunavir/r has been shown to be associated with increased CVD risk. The effect is cumulative with longer exposure increasing risk and an effect size comparable to what has been observed for previously developed protease inhibitors...
February 2018: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216346/darunavir-ritonavir-monotherapy-at-a-low-dose-600-100%C3%A2-mg-day-in-hiv-1-infected-individuals-with-suppressed-hiv-viraemia
#8
S Seang, L Schneider, T Nguyen, M P Lê, C Soulie, R Calin, F Caby, M-A Valantin, R Tubiana, L Assoumou, A-G Marcelin, G Peytavin, C Katlama
Background: Darunavir/ritonavir is a potent PI with a high genetic barrier and pharmacological robustness favourably investigated as monotherapy. Whether darunavir could be dose reduced in the context of monotherapy deserves investigation. Methods: Patients with HIV suppressed viraemia (plasma viral load <50 copies/mL for 12 months) under ART who had switched to darunavir/ritonavir monotherapy at 600/100 mg/day between 2013 and 2015 were included in this observational 48 week single-centre study...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210626/short-term-cost-and-efficiency-analysis-of-raltegravir-versus-atazanavir-ritonavir-or-darunavir-ritonavir-for-treatment-naive-adults-with-hiv-1-infection-in-spain
#9
Ashley E Davis, Anita J Brogan, Bridgett Goodwin, Gonzalo Nocea, Virginia Lozano
INTRODUCTION: The AIDS Clinical Trial Group (ACTG) 5257 clinical trial showed that raltegravir (RAL) was superior to atazanavir/ritonavir (ATV/r) and darunavir/ritonavir (DRV/r), when used in combination with emtricitabine/tenofovir DF (FTC/TDF), in a 96-week composite endpoint combining virologic efficacy and tolerability for treatment-naive adults with HIV-1 infection. This study aimed to estimate the efficiency associated with these three regimens in Spain. METHODS: An economic model was developed to estimate costs for antiretroviral drugs, adverse event management, and HIV care for individuals initiating first-line therapy...
November 2017: HIV Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210336/simplification-to-dual-therapy-containing-lamivudine-and-darunavir-ritonavir-or-atazanavir-ritonavir-in-hiv-infected-patients-on-virologically-suppressive-antiretroviral-therapy
#10
Leonardo Calza, Matteo Cafaggi, Vincenzo Colangeli, Marco Borderi, Enrico Barchi, Massimiliano Lanzafame, Stefano Nicole', Anna Maria Degli Antoni, Isabella Bon, Maria Carla Re, Pierluigi Viale
BACKGROUND: The ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor (PI/r)-based dual regimens are warranted in order to optimize the combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), prevent the long-term toxicity and reduce the cost of treatments. METHODS: We performed an observational, retrospective study of HIV-infected patients on suppressive antiretroviral therapy who switched to a dual regimen containing lamivudine (3TC) plus darunavir/ritonavir (DRV/r) 800/100 mg qd or atazanavir/ritonavir (ATV/r) 300/100 mg qd...
December 6, 2017: Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206748/pharmacokinetics-and-pharmacodynamics-of-atazanavir-in-hiv-1-infected-children-treated-with-atazanavir-powder-and-ritonavir-combined-analysis-of-the-prince-1-and-2-studies
#11
Heather Sevinsky, Luna Zaru, Reena Wang, Xiaohui Xu, Cheryl Pikora, Todd A Correll, Timothy Eley
BACKGROUND: Two clinical studies (PRINCE-1 and -2) in HIV-1-infected children assessed the safety, efficacy, and pharmacokinetics of dual nucleos(t)ide reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) background therapy plus once-daily atazanavir powder formulation boosted with ritonavir (ATV+RTV). Here, we present a combined analysis of ATV pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics across these studies. METHODS: Intensive 24-hour pharmacokinetic profiles at steady state compared ATV exposures (area under the concentration-time curve in one dosing interval [AUCτ]) in 5 ATV+RTV baseline weight-band dosing categories with historic data in adults receiving ATV+RTV 300/100-mg capsules...
December 4, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206747/safety-and-efficacy-of-atazanavir-powder-and-ritonavir-in-hiv-1-infected-infants-and-children-aged-from-3-months-to-11-years-the-prince-2-study
#12
Mark F Cotton, Afaaf Liberty, Indiana Torres-Escobar, Maria Isabel Gonzalez-Tome, Jurgen Lissens, Luna Zaru, Isabelle Klauck, Daniela Cambilargiu, Cheryl Pikora, Todd A Correll
BACKGROUND: Novel antiretroviral formulations that are palatable, safe, and effective are needed for infants and children. METHODS: PRINCE-2 is an ongoing clinical trial assessing safety, efficacy, and palatability of once-daily atazanavir powder formulation boosted with ritonavir (ATV+RTV) plus optimized dual NRTI therapy in ARV-naïve/experienced children with screening HIV-1 RNA ≥1000 copies/mL. Children aged 3 months to <11 years received ATV+RTV by 5 baseline weight bands: 5 to <10kg=150/80mg; 5 to <10kg=200/80mg; 10 to <15kg=200/80mg; 15 to <25kg=250/80mg; and 25 to <35kg=300/100mg...
December 4, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205871/pharmacogenetic-analysis-of-the-model-based-pharmacokinetics-of-five-anti-hiv-drugs-how-does-this-influence-the-effect-of-aging
#13
Jingxian Chen, Farida S Akhtari, Michael J Wagner, Oscar Suzuki, Tim Wiltshire, Alison A Motsinger-Reif, Julie B Dumond
Analysis of aging and pharmacogenetics (PGx) on antiretroviral pharmacokinetics (PKs) could inform precision dosing for older human HIV-infected patients. Seventy-four participants receiving either atazanavir/ritonavir (ATV/RTV) or efavirenz (EFV) with tenofovir/emtricitabine (TFV/FTC) provided PK and PGx information. Aging-PGx-PK association and interaction analyses were conducted using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), multiple linear regression, and Random Forest ensemble methods. Our analyses associated unbound ATV disposition with multidrug resistance protein (MRP)4, RTV with P-glycoprotein (P-gp), and EFV with cytochrome P450 (CYP)2B6 and MRP4 genetic variants...
December 3, 2017: Clinical and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199543/genetic-variations-of-the-xenoreceptors-nr1i2-and-nr1i3-and-their-effect-on-drug-disposition-and-response-variability
#14
Litaty Céphanoée Mbatchi, Jean-Paul Brouillet, Alexandre Evrard
NR1I2 (PXR) and NR1I3 (CAR) are nuclear receptors that are classified as xenoreceptors. Upon activation by various xenobiotics, including marketed drugs, they regulate the transcription level of major drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters and facilitate the elimination of xenobiotics from the body. The modulation of the activity of these two xenoreceptors by various ligands is a major source of pharmacokinetic variability of environmental origin. NR1I2 and NR1I3 genetic polymorphisms can affect the pharmacokinetics and therapeutic response to many drugs, such as irinotecan, tacrolimus and atazanavir...
December 4, 2017: Pharmacogenomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29171837/inflammation-investigated-as-a-source-of-pharmacokinetic-variability-of-atazanavir-in-aids-clinical-trials-group-protocol-a5224s
#15
Charles S Venuto, Jihoon Lim, Susan Messing, Peter W Hunt, Grace A McComsey, Gene D Morse
BACKGROUND: Inflammation is associated with the downregulation of drug metabolizing enzymes and transporters. Thus, we investigated the chronic inflammatory state associated with HIV-infection as a source of pharmacokinetic variability of atazanavir. We also explored the association of total bilirubin concentrations with markers of inflammation and endothelial activation. METHODS: Apparent oral clearance (CL/F) of atazanavir was estimated from plasma samples collected from participants in AIDS Clinical Trials Group Study A5202...
November 24, 2017: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159965/improvement-in-lipids-after-switch-to-boosted-atazanavir-or-darunavir-in-children-adolescents-with-perinatally-acquired-hiv-on-older-protease-inhibitors-results-from-the-pediatric-hiv-aids-cohort-study
#16
J Jao, W Yu, K Patel, T L Miller, B Karalius, M E Geffner, L A DiMeglio, A Mirza, J S Chen, M Silio, E J McFarland, R B Van Dyke, D Jacobson
OBJECTIVES: Dyslipidaemia is common in perinatally HIV-infected (PHIV) youth receiving protease inhibitors (PIs). Few studies have evaluated longitudinal lipid changes in PHIV youth after switch to newer PIs. METHODS: We compared longitudinal changes in fasting lipids [total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and TC:HDL-C ratio] in PHIV youth enrolled in the Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort Study (PHACS) Adolescent Master Protocol (AMP) study who switched to atazanavir/ritonavir (ATV/r)- or darunavir/ritonavir (DRV/r)-based antiretroviral therapy (ART) from an older PI-based ART and those remaining on an older PI...
November 21, 2017: HIV Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135577/protease-inhibitors-and-preterm-delivery-another-piece-in-the-puzzle
#17
Graziella Favarato, Claire L Townsend, Heather Bailey, Helen Peters, Pat Tookey, Graham P Taylor, Claire Thorne
BACKGROUND: Questions remain regarding preterm delivery (PTD) risk in HIV-infected women on antiretroviral therapy (ART), including the role of ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitors (PI/r), timing of ART initiation and immune status. METHODS: We examined data from the UK/Ireland National Study of HIV in Pregnancy and Childhood on women with HIV delivering a singleton live infant in 2007-2015, including those pregnancies receiving PI/r-based (n=4184) or non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI)-based regimens (n = 1889)...
November 10, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121676/naringin-prevents-hiv-1-protease-inhibitors-induced-metabolic-complications-in-vivo
#18
Sanelisiwe Nzuza, Sindiswa Zondi, Peter M O Owira
BACKGROUND: Insulin resistance, glucose intolerance and overt diabetes are known metabolic complications associated with chronic use of HIV-Protease Inhibitors. Naringin is a grapefruit-derived flavonoid with anti-diabetic, anti-dyslipidemia, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant activities. OBJECTIVES: The study investigated the protective effects of naringin on glucose intolerance and impaired insulin secretion and signaling in vivo. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were divided into six groups (n = 6) and were daily orally treated with distilled water {3...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118985/acute-development-of-cushing-syndrome-in-an-hiv-infected-child-on-atazanavir-ritonavir-based-antiretroviral-therapy
#19
Gueorgui Dubrocq, Andrea Estrada, Shannon Kelly, Natella Rakhmanina
An 11-year-old male with perinatally acquired human immune deficiency virus (HIV) infection on antiretroviral regimen, which included abacavir plus lamivudine (Epzicom), didanosine, ritonavir and atazanavir presented with bilateral axillary striae, increased appetite, fatigue, facial swelling and acute weight gain. Two months prior to presentation, the patient had received a diagnostic and therapeutic intra-articular triamcinolone injection in the knee for pain relief and subsequently became progressively swollen in the face, developed striae bilaterally at the axillae, experienced increased appetite, fatigue and an 8 pound weight gain...
2017: Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117017/race-ethnicity-difference-in-the-pharmacogenetics-of-bilirubin-related-atazanavir-discontinuation
#20
Paul Leger, Sanika Chirwa, Jacinta N Nwogu, Megan Turner, Danielle M Richardson, Paxton Baker, Michael Leonard, Husamettin Erdem, Lana Olson, David W Haas
BACKGROUND: Atazanavir causes plasma indirect bilirubin to increase. We evaluated associations between Gilbert's polymorphism and bilirubin-related atazanavir discontinuation stratified by race/ethnicity. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients had initiated atazanavir/ritonavir-containing regimens at an HIV primary care clinic in the southeastern USA, and had at least 12 months of follow-up data. Metabolizer group was defined by UGT1A1 rs887829 C→T. Genome-wide genotype data were used to adjust for genetic ancestry in combined population analyses...
November 6, 2017: Pharmacogenetics and Genomics
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