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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930045/antibiotic-use-among-older-adults-on-an-acute-care-general-surgery-service
#1
André S Pollmann, Jon G Bailey, Philip J B Davis, Paul M Johnson
BACKGROUND: Antibiotics play an important role in the treatment of many surgical diseases that affect older adults, and the potential for inappropriate use of these drugs is high. Our objective was to describe antibiotic use among older adults admitted to an acute care surgical service at a tertiary care teaching hospital. METHODS: Detailed data regarding diagnosis, comorbidities, surgery and antibiotic use were retrospectively collected for patients 70 years and older admitted to an acute care surgical service...
October 1, 2017: Canadian Journal of Surgery. Journal Canadien de Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923831/international-comparisons-of-prevalence-awareness-and-treatment-of-pruritus-in-people-on-hemodialysis
#2
Hugh C Rayner, Maria Larkina, Mia Wang, Matthew Graham-Brown, Sabine N van der Veer, Tevfik Ecder, Takeshi Hasegawa, Werner Kleophas, Brian A Bieber, Francesca Tentori, Bruce M Robinson, Ronald L Pisoni
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Uremic pruritus in patients on hemodialysis is associated with depression, lower quality of life, and mortality. We studied the prevalence, awareness, and treatment of pruritus to assess how well this important condition is currently managed internationally. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: Data from 35,452 patients on hemodialysis in up to 17 countries from the Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study were analyzed to describe pruritus prevalence from 1996 to 2015...
September 18, 2017: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921911/update-of-antitubercular-prodrugs-in-a-molecular-perspective-mechanisms-of-action-bioactivation-pathways-and-associated-resistances
#3
Vania Bernardes Genisson, Julie Laborde, Céline Deraeve
The place of prodrugs in the current antitubercular therapeutic arsenal is preponderant, since two of the four first-line antitubercular agents, isoniazid (INH) and pyrazinamide (PZA), need to be activated by Mycobacterium tuberculosis before exerting their activity. In addition, six other prodrugs can be found in the second- and third-line therapeutic regimens, namely ethionamide (ETH), prothionamide (PTH), p-aminosalicylic acid (PAS), thiacetazone (TAC), isoxyl (ISO) and the recently approved delamanid. The emergence of mycobacterial strains resistant to one or several antitubercular agents is one of the main issues of the antitubercular therapy...
September 16, 2017: ChemMedChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915719/genomic-analysis-of-exceptional-responder-to-regorafenib-in-treatment-refractory-metastatic-rectal-cancer-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#4
Krittiya Korphaisarn, Jonathan M Loree, Van Nguyen, Ryanne Coulson, Vijaykumar Holla, Beate C Litzenburger, Ken Chen, Gordon B Mills, Dipen M Maru, Funda Meric-Bernstan, Kenna R Mills Shaw, Scott Kopetz
We present the case of a 53-year-old male with metastatic rectal cancer who was treatment resistant to FOLFOX and FOLFOXIRI. Due to a Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KRAS) mutation, regorafenib was given in the third line setting. Surprisingly, the patient had a prolonged partial response that lasted 27 months. Mutational status was extensively evaluated to identify potential alterations that might play a role as predictive markers for this unusual event. A poorly characterized but nontransforming mutation in Fms-like tyrosine kinase 4 (FLT4) was present in the tumor...
August 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915642/a-retrospective-multicentric-observational-study-of-trastuzumab-emtansine-in-her2-positive-metastatic-breast-cancer-a-real-world-experience
#5
Patrizia Vici, Laura Pizzuti, Andrea Michelotti, Isabella Sperduti, Clara Natoli, Lucia Mentuccia, Luigi Di Lauro, Domenico Sergi, Paolo Marchetti, Daniele Santini, Emanuela Magnolfi, Laura Iezzi, Luca Moscetti, Agnese Fabbri, Alessandra Cassano, Antonino Grassadonia, Claudia Omarini, Federico Piacentini, Andrea Botticelli, Ilaria Bertolini, Angelo Fedele Scinto, Germano Zampa, Maria Mauri, Loretta D'Onofrio, Valentina Sini, Maddalena Barba, Marcello Maugeri-Saccà, Ernesto Rossi, Elisabetta Landucci, Silverio Tomao, Antonio Maria Alberti, Francesco Giotta, Corrado Ficorella, Vincenzo Adamo, Antonio Russo, Vito Lorusso, Katia Cannita, Sandro Barni, Lucio Laudadio, Filippo Greco, Ornella Garrone, Marina Della Giulia, Paolo Marolla, Giuseppe Sanguineti, Barbara Di Cocco, Gennaro Ciliberto, Ruggero De Maria, Teresa Gamucci
We addressed trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1) efficacy in HER2+ metastatic breast cancer patients treated in real-world practice, and its activity in pertuzumab-pretreated patients. We conducted a retrospective, observational study involving 23 cancer centres, and 250 patients. Survival data were analyzed by Kaplan Meier curves and log rank test. Factors testing significant in univariate analysis were tested in multivariate models. Median follow-up was 15 months and median T-DM1 treatment-length 4 months. Response rate was 41...
August 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913565/a-retrospective-analysis-of-ramucirumab-monotherapy-in-previously-treated-japanese-patients-with-advanced-or-metastatic-gastric-adenocarcinoma
#6
Satoshi Murahashi, Daisuke Takahari, Takeru Wakatsuki, Naoki Fukuda, Takashi Ichimura, Mariko Ogura, Masato Ozaka, Eiji Shinozaki, Izuma Nakayama, Tomohiro Matsushima, Hiroki Osumi, Keisho Chin, Kensei Yamaguchi
BACKGROUND: The REGARD trial demonstrated that ramucirumab monotherapy improved both overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) compared with best supportive care plus placebo as second-line treatment for patients with advanced gastric cancer. However, the efficacy and safety of ramucirumab monotherapy for previously treated Japanese patients with advanced gastric cancer remains unknown. METHODS: Previously treated Japanese patients with advanced gastric cancer who received ramucirumab monotherapy between June 2015 and March 2016 at the Cancer Institute Hospital were enrolled in the study...
September 14, 2017: International Journal of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911302/what-is-the-real-efficacy-of-beta-blockers-for-the-treatment-of-essential-hypertension
#7
Christian Höcht, Facundo M Bertera, Julieta S Del Mauro, Yanina Santander Plantamura, Carlos A Taira, Ariel H Polizio
OBJECTIVE: This review covers the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamic of β-blockers, the rationale for their use, some recent controversies in its use for managing hypertension, as well as, the beneficial properties of the third-generation β-blockers beyond hypertension. BACKGROUND: The efficacy and safety of -blockers in the treatment of hypertension and other cardiovascular diseases have been established during more than 50 years of clinical experience. Recent updates of clinical guidelines have downgraded the use of -blockers for the treatment of uncomplicated hypertension to second and third line therapy...
June 7, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911085/a-randomized-open-label-multicenter-phase-3-study-to-compare-the-efficacy-and-safety-of-eribulin-to-treatment-of-physician-s-choice-in-patients-with-advanced-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#8
N Katakami, E Felip, D R Spigel, J-H Kim, M Olivo, M Guo, H Nokihara, J C-H Yang, N Iannotti, M Satouchi, F Barlesi
Background: Eribulin is a microtubule dynamics inhibitor with a novel mechanism of action. This phase 3 study aimed to compare overall survival (OS) in patients with heavily pretreated non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) receiving eribulin to treatment of physician's choice (TPC). Patients and methods: Patients with advanced NSCLC who had received ≥2 prior therapies, including platinum-based doublet and epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor, were randomly assigned to receive eribulin or TPC (gemcitabine, pemetrexed, vinorelbine, docetaxel)...
September 1, 2017: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906353/immunomodulatory-treatments-for-persistent-and-chronic-immune-thrombocytopenic-purpura-a-prisma-compliant-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-28-studies
#9
Emmanuelle Weber, Quitterie Reynaud, Romain Fort, Stéphane Durupt, Pascal Cathébras, Isabelle Durieu, Jean-Christophe Lega
BACKGROUND: Corticosteroid sparing is required in 15% to 40% of adults with persistent or chronic primary immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP). Herein, the efficacy of immunomodulatory drugs (dapsone, interferon alpha, danazol, and hydroxychloroquine as second-third-line therapies in ITP is investigated. METHODS: MEDLINE was searched for studies that included patients with persistent or chronic primary ITP and published before the end of December 2014. Two investigators independently extracted data regarding study design, patient characteristics, dosage schedule, time to response, and occurrence of adverse events...
September 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905108/a-randomized-phase-ii-trial-of-erlotinib-vs-s-1-as-a-third-or-fourth-line-therapy-for-patients-with-wild-type-egfr-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-hot1002
#10
Yasuyuki Ikezawa, Hajime Asahina, Satoshi Oizumi, Masahiro Watanabe, Kei Takamura, Yasutaka Kawai, Noriyuki Yamada, Toshiyuki Harada, Ichiro Kinoshita, Yuka Fujita, Eisaku Miyauchi, Takahiro Ogi, Toraji Amano, Megumi Furuta, Jun Sakakibara-Konishi, Hiroshi Nishihara, Hirotoshi Dosaka-Akita, Hiroshi Isobe, Masaharu Nishimura
PURPOSE: A high proportion of patients with wild-type EGFR non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) receive third-line therapy and beyond, with no prospective randomized trials addressing the issue. This study aimed to select the most suitable regimen as a third- or fourth-line therapy for wild-type EGFR NSCLC. METHODS: This multicenter, randomized phase II study in Japan included patients with recurrent or advanced NSCLC with wild-type or unknown EGFR, who progressed after two or three previous chemotherapies...
September 13, 2017: Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904329/latest-advances-in-the-efficacy-tolerability-and-monotherapy-of-integrase-inhibitors
#11
Qi Tang, Hongzhou Lu
More than 30 drugs for antiretroviral therapy (ART), including integrase inhibitors (INIs), have been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as of 2017. Integrase is the third essential enzyme in the cycle of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) replication. INIs can effectively inhibit the replication of HIV and HIV is less prone to develop resistance to INIs clinically. Previous studies based on 7 phase III clinic trials indicate that INIs have satisfactory efficacy and tolerability in patients infected with HIV...
2017: Bioscience Trends
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894381/continuous-egfr-tyrosine-kinase-inhibitor-treatment-with-or-without-chemotherapy-beyond-gradual-progression-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-patients
#12
Ling Peng, Yina Wang, Yemin Tang, Lei Zeng, Junfang Liu, Zhu Zeng, Jian Liu, Peng Shi, Xianghua Ye, Qiong Zhao
BACKGROUND: Several clinical studies have demonstrated that continuous administration of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) could provide additional survival benefit for advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients who had benefited from prior EGFR TKI therapy. However, whether EGFR TKI combined with chemotherapy could further prolong survival in patients with gradual progression is still unclear. The present study was conducted to evaluate the clinical outcome of continuous EGFR TKI treatment in combination with chemotherapy (combination group) versus continuous EGFR TKI treatment only (monotherapy group) in such a clinical setting...
2017: OncoTargets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885063/treatment-free-interval-as-a-metric-of-patient-experience-and-a-health-outcome-of-value-for-advanced-multiple-myeloma-the-case-for-the-histone-deacetylase-inhibitor-panobinostat-a-next-generation-novel-agent
#13
Paul Richardson, Anuja Roy, Acharyya Suddhasatta, Ashok Panneerselvam, Estella Mendelson, Andreas Günther, Sagar Lonial, Hermann Einsele
BACKGROUND: Patients with relapsed or relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma (RRMM) face poor treatment options by the time third-line therapy is required, despite advances in overall survival in recent years. Treatment free interval (TFI) and opportunities to maintain quality of life (QoL) have been cited as additional measures of efficacy that can be utilized in personalized treatment decisions. METHODS: The clinical health outcomes data from PANORAMA-1, the pivotal phase-3 trial comparing panobinostat-bortezomib-dexamethasone (PAN-BTZ-DEX) with placebo (PBO)-BTZ-DEX in RRMM patients treated with 1 to 3 prior regimens, retrospectively assessed TFI as a health outcome measure and metric of patient treatment experience relevant to the RRMM population...
September 8, 2017: Expert Review of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877088/efficacy-and-tolerability-of-culture-guided-treatment-for-helicobacter-pylori-infection
#14
Samuel Costa, João-Bruno Soares, Raquel Gonçalves
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy/tolerability of a culture-guided approach in the eradication of Helicobacter pylori and identify factors associated with antibiotic resistance/treatment failure. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This retrospective single-center study included patients who underwent culture-guided treatment for H. pylori infection, after two ineffective eradication attempts, between October 2012 and December 2016. We assessed the following demographic and clinical data of the patients: sex, age, BMI, alcohol and tobacco consumption, history of dyspepsia, peptic ulceration and first-degree relatives with gastric cancer, antibiotic susceptibility results, treatment composition, tolerability, and success...
September 4, 2017: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869699/fourteen-day-high-dose-esomeprazole-amoxicillin-and-metronidazole-as-third-line-treatment-for-helicobacter-pylori-infection
#15
Ignasi Puig, Jesús M González-Santiago, Javier Molina-Infante, Jesús Barrio, Maria Teresa Herranz, Alicia Algaba, Manuel Castro, Javier P Gisbert, Xavier Calvet
INTRODUCTION: The efficacy of currently recommended third-line therapies for Helicobacter pylori is suboptimal, even that of culture-guided treatments. Resistance to multiple antibiotics is the major factor related to treatment failure. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of a 14-day therapy using high-dose of amoxicillin, metronidazole and esomeprazole. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Multicenter open-label study as a register in routine clinical practice in patients with two previous failures of eradication therapy...
September 4, 2017: International Journal of Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860412/outcomes-of-advanced-gastric-cancer-patients-treated-with-at-least-three-lines-of-systemic-chemotherapy
#16
Valentina Fanotto, Mario Uccello, Irene Pecora, Lorenza Rimassa, Francesco Leone, Gerardo Rosati, Daniele Santini, Riccardo Giampieri, Samantha Di Donato, Gianluca Tomasello, Nicola Silvestris, Filippo Pietrantonio, Francesca Battaglin, Antonio Avallone, Mario Scartozzi, Eufemia Stefania Lutrino, Davide Melisi, Lorenzo Antonuzzo, Antonio Pellegrino, Laura Ferrari, Roberto Bordonaro, Caterina Vivaldi, Lorenzo Gerratana, Silvia Bozzarelli, Roberto Filippi, Domenico Bilancia, Marco Russano, Giuseppe Aprile
BACKGROUND: Second-line therapy has consistently demonstrated survival benefit if compared with best supportive care; however, there is limited evidence whether further lines of treatment may improve the prognosis of advanced gastric cancer (AGC) patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Starting from a real-world cohort of 868 AGC patients, we retrospectively analyzed baseline parameters, tumor characteristics, and treatment data of those treated with at least three lines...
August 31, 2017: Oncologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854276/a-significant-increase-in-the-pepsinogen-i-ii-ratio-is-a-reliable-biomarker-for-successful-helicobacter-pylori-eradication
#17
Hiroki Osumi, Junko Fujisaki, Takanori Suganuma, Yusuke Horiuchi, Masami Omae, Toshiyuki Yoshio, Akiyoshi Ishiyama, Tomohiro Tsuchida, Kazumasa Miki
BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication is usually assessed using the 13C-urea breath test (UBT), anti-H. pylori antibody and the H. pylori stool antigen test. However, a few reports have used pepsinogen (PG), in particular, the percentage change in the PG I/II ratio. Here, we evaluated the usefulness of the percentage changes in serum PG I/II ratios for determining the success of eradication therapy for H. pylori. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In total, 650 patients received eradication therapy from October 2008 to March 2013 in our Cancer Institute Hospital...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842575/treatment-patterns-efficacy-and-toxicity-of-regorafenib-in-gastrointestinal-stromal-tumour-patients
#18
Gustavo Schvartsman, Michael J Wagner, Behrang Amini, Chrystia M Zobniw, Van Anh Trinh, Andrea G Barbo, Heather Y Lin, Wei-Lien Wang, Anthony Paul Conley, Vinod Ravi, Dejka M Araujo, Maria Alejandra Zarzour, Robert S Benjamin, Shreyaskumar Patel, Neeta Somaiah
Regorafenib was approved as third-line therapy for advanced Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumour (GIST) at a starting dose of 160 mg daily 3 weeks on, 1 week off, based on improvement in progression free survival over placebo (4.8 vs. 0.9 months), but the response rate was low at 4.5%. Given the high toxicity rate in GIST patients, there is variability in the post-marketing dosing of regorafenib. We aimed to summarize our experience regarding prescribing patterns, efficacy and toxicity of regorafenib and determine the role of response assessment by Choi criteria in GIST patients...
August 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837377/economic-evaluation-of-rituximab-in-addition-to-standard-of-care-chemotherapy-for-adult-patients-with-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia
#19
Julian Nam, Robert Milenkovski, Simon Yunger, Marc Geirnaert, Kristjan Paulson, Matthew Seftel
AIMS: Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is an aggressive form of leukemia with a poor prognosis in adult patients. The addition of the monoclonal antibody rituximab to standard chemotherapy has been shown to improve survival in adults with ALL. However, it is unknown whether the addition of rituximab is cost-effective. The objective was to determine the economic impact of rituximab in addition to standard of care (SOC) chemotherapy vs SOC alone in newly-diagnosed Philadelphia chromosome-negative, CD20-positive, B-cell precursor ALL...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Medical Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818548/severe-acute-interstitial-lung-disease-after-nivolumab-in-three-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-patients-with-imaging-findings-of-airway-obstruction-adjacent-to-lung-tumors
#20
Kenji Nakahama, Akihiro Tamiya, Yoshihiko Taniguchi, Yumiko Sasaki, Masanori Akira, Shinji Atagi
Nivolumab has been associated with unique adverse events known as immune-related adverse events. Although interstitial lung disease (ILD) is a life-threatening immune-related adverse event, the risk of ILD during nivolumab treatment is unclear. In this report, we encountered three patients with stage IV non-small cell lung cancer with signs of lung obstruction caused by tumor-mediated compression on imaging who developed acute ILD within 10 days of commencing nivolumab treatment. The first case involved a 74-year-old Japanese female never-smoker, the second a 67-year-old Japanese female never-smoker, and the third a 75-year-old Japanese female current-smoker...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
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