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Beige adipose tissue epigenetics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704660/genetic-and-epigenetic-control-of-adipose-development
#1
REVIEW
Olga Gulyaeva, Jon Dempersmier, Hei Sook Sul
White adipose tissue (WAT) is the primary energy storage organ and its excess contributes to obesity, while brown adipose tissue (BAT) and inducible thermogenic (beige/brite) adipocytes in WAT dissipate energy via Ucp1 to maintain body temperature. BAT and subcutaneous WAT develop perinatally while visceral WAT forms after birth from precursors expressing distinct markers, such as Myf5, Pref-1, Wt1, and Prx1, depending on the anatomical location. In addition to the embryonic adipose precursors, a pool of endothelial cells or mural cells expressing Pparγ, Pdgfrβ, Sma and Zfp423 may become adipocytes during WAT expansion in adults...
April 25, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102386/understanding-the-biology-of-thermogenic-fat-is-browning-a-new-approach-to-the-treatment-of-obesity
#2
REVIEW
Ariana Vargas-Castillo, Rebeca Fuentes-Romero, Leonardo A Rodriguez-Lopez, Nimbe Torres, Armando R Tovar
Obesity is characterized by an excess of white adipose tissue (WAT). Recent evidence has demonstrated that WAT can change its phenotype to a brown-like adipose tissue known as beige/brite adipose tissue. This transition is characterized by an increase in thermogenic capacity mediated by uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1). This browning process is a potential new target for treating obesity. The aim of this review is to integrate the different mechanisms by which beige/brite adipocytes are formed and to describe the physiological, pharmacological and nutritional inducers that can promote browning...
July 2017: Archives of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915325/brown-and-beige-adipose-tissues-in-health-and-disease
#3
Liangyou Rui
Brown and beige adipocytes arise from distinct developmental origins. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) develops embryonically from precursors that also give to skeletal muscle. Beige fat develops postnatally and is highly inducible. Beige fat recruitment is mediated by multiple mechanisms, including de novo beige adipogenesis and white-to-brown adipocyte transdifferentiaiton. Beige precursors reside around vasculatures, and proliferate and differentiate into beige adipocytes. PDGFRα+Ebf2+ precursors are restricted to beige lineage cells, while another PDGFRα+ subset gives rise to beige adipocytes, white adipocytes, or fibrogenic cells...
September 12, 2017: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700271/lsd1-a-metabolic-sensor-of-environment-requirements-that-prevents-adipose-tissue-from-aging
#4
Delphine Duteil, Milica Tosic, Roland Schüle
Understanding development and maintenance of beige adipocytes provide exciting insights in establishing novel therapies against obesity and obesity-associated disorders. Lysine-specific demethylase 1 (Lsd1) is an epigenetic eraser required for differentiation and function of adipocytes. Lsd1 is involved in early commitment of preadipocytes, but dispensable for terminal differentiation of white adipose tissue (WAT). In mature adipocytes, Lsd1 responds to different environmental stimuli to alter metabolic function and enable proper thermogenic and oxidative response...
October 2, 2017: Adipocyte
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461471/lsd1-prevents-age-programed-loss-of-beige-adipocytes
#5
Delphine Duteil, Milica Tosic, Dominica Willmann, Anastasia Georgiadi, Toufike Kanouni, Roland Schüle
Aging is accompanied by major changes in adipose tissue distribution and function. In particular, with time, thermogenic-competent beige adipocytes progressively gain a white adipocyte morphology. However, the mechanisms controlling the age-related transition of beige adipocytes to white adipocytes remain unclear. Lysine-specific demethylase 1 (Lsd1) is an epigenetic eraser enzyme positively regulating differentiation and function of adipocytes. Here we show that Lsd1 levels decrease in aging inguinal white adipose tissue concomitantly with beige fat cell decline...
May 16, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045125/metabolic-heterogeneity-of-activated-beige-brite-adipocytes-in-inguinal-adipose-tissue
#6
Yun-Hee Lee, Sang-Nam Kim, Hyun-Jung Kwon, James G Granneman
Sustained β3 adrenergic receptor (ADRB3) activation simultaneously upregulates fatty acid synthesis and oxidation in mouse brown, beige, and white adipose tissues; however, the cellular basis of this dual regulation is not known. Treatment of mice with the ADRB3 agonist CL316,243 (CL) increased expression of fatty acid synthase (FASN) and medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) protein within the same cells in classic brown and white adipose tissues. Surprisingly, in inguinal adipose tissue, CL-upregulated FASN and MCAD in distinct cell populations: high MCAD expression occurred in multilocular adipocytes that co-expressed UCP1+, whereas high FASN expression occurred in paucilocular adipocytes lacking detectable UCP1...
January 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27601528/lsd1-a-pivotal-epigenetic-regulator-of-brown-and-beige-fat-differentiation-and-homeostasis
#7
COMMENT
Jean Z Lin, Stephen R Farmer
In this issue of Genes & Development, Zeng and colleagues (pp. 1822-1836) identify lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1) as a pivotal regulator of whole-body energy expenditure by controlling the oxidative and thermogenic activity of brown adipose tissue (BAT). They show that LSD1 interacts with PRDM16 to repress select white adipose tissue (WAT) genes but also represses hydroxysteroid 11-β-dehydrogenase 1 (HSD11B1) independently of PRDM16 to prevent production of glucocorticoids that impair BAT functions...
August 15, 2016: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26625958/jmjd3-mediated-h3k27me3-dynamics-orchestrate-brown-fat-development-and-regulate-white-fat-plasticity
#8
Dongning Pan, Lei Huang, Lihua J Zhu, Tie Zou, Jianhong Ou, William Zhou, Yong-Xu Wang
Progression from brown preadipocytes to adipocytes engages two transcriptional programs: the expression of adipogenic genes common to both brown fat (BAT) and white fat (WAT), and the expression of BAT-selective genes. However, the dynamics of chromatin states and epigenetic enzymes involved remain poorly understood. Here we show that BAT development is selectively marked and guided by repressive H3K27me3 and is executed by its demethylase Jmjd3. We find that a significant subset of BAT-selective genes, but not common fat genes or WAT-selective genes, are demarcated by H3K27me3 in both brown and white preadipocytes...
December 7, 2015: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25851693/formation-and-activation-of-thermogenic-fat
#9
REVIEW
Jun Wu, Heejin Jun, Joseph R McDermott
Thermogenic fat cells that convert chemical energy into heat are present in both mice and humans. Recent years have witnessed great advances in our understanding of the regulation of these adipocytes and an increased appreciation of the potential these cells have to counteract obesity. We summarize recent efforts to understand the formation of these fat cells and critically review genetic models and other experimental tools currently available to further investigate the development and activation of both classical brown and inducible beige fat cells...
May 2015: Trends in Genetics: TIG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25193996/xenotransplantation-of-human-fetal-adipose-tissue-a-model-of-in-vivo-adipose-tissue-expansion-and-adipogenesis
#10
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Briana Garcia, Heather Francois-Vaughan, Omobola Onikoyi, Stefan Kostadinov, Monique E De Paepe, Philip A Gruppuso, Jennifer A Sanders
Obesity during childhood and beyond may have its origins during fetal or early postnatal life. At present, there are no suitable in vivo experimental models to study factors that modulate or perturb human fetal white adipose tissue (WAT) expansion, remodeling, development, adipogenesis, angiogenesis, or epigenetics. We have developed such a model. It involves the xenotransplantation of midgestation human WAT into the renal subcapsular space of immunocompromised SCID-beige mice. After an initial latency period of approximately 2 weeks, the tissue begins expanding...
December 2014: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24081224/epigenetics-and-obesity-a-relationship-waiting-to-be-explained
#11
REVIEW
Michael E Symonds, Helen Budge, Alexis C Frazier-Wood
Obesity can have multifactorial causes that may change with development and are not simply attributable to one's genetic constitution. To date, expensive and laborious genome-wide association studies have only ascribed a small contribution of genetic variants to obesity. The emergence of the field of epigenetics now offers a new paradigm with which to study excess fat mass. Currently, however, there are no compelling epigenetic studies to explain the role of epigenetics in obesity, especially from a developmental perspective...
2013: Human Heredity
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