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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930519/divergent-impact-of-gender-in-advancement-of-liver-injuries-diseases-and-carcinogenesis
#1
Subhrajit Biswas, Sampa Ghose
Several investigations have revealed that liver diseases exhibit gender biases, but identifying the root causes of such biases has been challenging. Evidence of gender differences in liver function is present from the early stage of embryonic development. The differences in access to care and treatment as well as diagnostic deliberation may affect gender-specific differences in liver disease progression. Apart from the pathogenesis, xenobiotic metabolism, immune responses, gene expressions, mitochondrial function, lipid composition, and enzyme activities also differ in this sexually dimorphic organ...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Scholar Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930160/human-chorionic-gonadotrophin-as-a-possible-mediator-of-leiomyoma-growth-during-pregnancy-molecular-mechanisms
#2
REVIEW
Veronica Sarais, Greta Chiara Cermisoni, Matteo Schimberni, Alessandra Alteri, Enrico Papaleo, Edgardo Somigliana, Paola Vigano'
Uterine fibroids are the most common gynecologic benign tumors. Studies supporting a strong pregnancy-related growth of leiomyomas generally claimed a crucial role of sex steroid hormones. However, sex steroids are unlikely the unique actors involved as estrogen and progesterone achieve a pick serum concentration in the last trimester while leiomyomas show a typical increase during the first trimester. Given the rapid exponential raise in serum human Chorionic Gonadotrophin (hCG) at the beginning of gestation, we conducted a review to assess the potential role of hCG in the striking growth of leiomyomas during initial pregnancy...
September 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929436/endogenous-sex-hormone-exposure-and-repetitive-element-dna-methylation-in-healthy-postmenopausal-women
#3
Devon J Boyne, Christine M Friedenreich, John B McIntyre, Frank Z Stanczyk, Kerry S Courneya, Will D King
PURPOSE: Epigenetic mechanisms may help to explain the complex and heterogeneous relation between sex hormones and cancer. Few studies have investigated the effects of sex hormones on epigenetic markers related to cancer risk such as levels of methylation within repetitive DNA elements. Our objective was to describe the association between endogenous sex hormone exposure and levels of LINE-1 and Alu methylation in healthy postmenopausal women. METHODS: We nested a cross-sectional study within the Alberta Physical Activity and Breast Cancer Prevention Trial (2003-2006)...
September 19, 2017: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928821/involvement-of-estrogen-receptor-%C3%AE-in-androgen-receptor-induced-growth-inhibition-in-prostate-cancer-pc-3-cells
#4
Long Xiao, Minhui Xiao, Linbo Gao, Wanchao Xu
Previous studies have suggested that changes in sex hormone receptor expression may be associated with the initiation and progression of prostate cancer (PCa). Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the association and possible pathways between two sex hormone receptors and PCa by measuring the expression levels of the androgen receptor (AR) and the estrogen receptor subtypes alpha (ERα) and beta (ERβ) in prostatic cancer PC-3 cell lines. The pcDNA3.1-hERβ plasmid was transfected into PC-3 cell lines...
September 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928715/intrinsic-and-regulated-gonadotropin-releasing-hormone-receptor-gene-transcription-in-mammalian-pituitary-gonadotrophs
#5
REVIEW
Marija M Janjic, Stanko S Stojilkovic, Ivana Bjelobaba
The hypothalamic decapeptide gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), acting via its receptors (GnRHRs) expressed in pituitary gonadotrophs, represents a critical molecule in control of reproductive functions in all vertebrate species. GnRH-activated receptors regulate synthesis of gonadotropins in a frequency-dependent manner. The number of GnRHRs on the plasma membrane determines the responsiveness of gonadotrophs to GnRH and varies in relation to age, sex, and physiological status. This is achieved by a complex control that operates at transcriptional, translational, and posttranslational levels...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928086/mass-spectrometry-based-metabolic-signatures-of-sex-steroids-in-breast-cancer
#6
REVIEW
Man Ho Choi
Owing to controversy over the effects of steroids on breast cancer pathophysiology, comprehensive quantification of steroid hormones has been extensively considered in both clinical practice and biomarker discovery studies. In contrast to the traditional immunoaffinity-based assays, which show cross-reactivity and have poor validity at low levels of sex steroids, mass spectrometry is becoming a promising tool for measuring steroid levels in complex biological specimens. The Endocrine Society has announced and continuously updated on technical advances to apply high-quality breakthroughs in the clinical sciences...
September 16, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927742/the-effect-of-sex-and-menstrual-phase-on-memory-formation-during-nap
#7
Sara C Mednick, Negin Sattari, Elizabeth A McDevitt, Dagmara Panas, Mohammad Niknazar, Maryam Ahmadi, Mohsen Naji, Fiona Baker
Memory formation can be influenced by sleep and sex hormones in both men and women, and by the menstrual cycle in women. Though many studies have shown that sleep benefits the consolidation of memories, it is not clear whether this effect differs between men and women in general or according to menstrual phase in women. The present study investigated the effect of sex and menstrual cycle on memory consolidation of face-name associations (FNA) following a daytime nap. Recognition memory was tested using a face-name paired associates task with a polysomnographic nap between morning and evening testing...
September 16, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927226/female-clock%C3%AE-19-%C3%AE-19-mice-are-protected-from-the-development-of-age-dependent-cardiomyopathy
#8
Faisal J Alibhai, Cristine J Reitz, Willem T Peppler, Poulami Basu, Paul Sheppard, Elena Choleris, Marica Bakovic, Tami A Martino
Aims: Circadian rhythms are important for healthy cardiovascular physiology and they are regulated by the molecular circadian mechanism. Previously, we showed that disruption of the circadian mechanism factor CLOCK in male Clock Δ19/Δ19 mice led to development of age-dependent cardiomyopathy. Here, we investigate the role of biological sex in protecting against heart disease in aging female Clock Δ19/Δ19 mice. Methods and results: Female Clock Δ19/Δ19 mice are protected from the development of cardiomyopathy with age, as heart structure and function are similar to 18 months of age versus female WT mice...
September 12, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925408/liver-volume-and-hepatic-adiposity-in-childhood-relations-to-body-growth-and-visceral-fat
#9
R Malpique, J Bassols, A López-Bermejo, M Diaz, F Villarroya, J Pavia, A Congo, F de Zegher, L Ibáñez
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The sequence of prenatal growth restraint and postnatal catch-up growth may lead to hepato-visceral adiposity, insulin resistance and low-grade inflammation before the onset of puberty. In prepubertal children born appropriate for gestational age (AGA) or small for gestational age (SGA), we assessed potential relationships between the aforementioned sequence and liver volume. SUBJECTS/METHODS: The study population consisted of 86 children (41 AGA and 45 SGA with catch-up growth; age (mean±s...
August 14, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924263/refinement-of-ectopic-protein-expression-through-the-gal4-uas-system-in-bombyx-mori-application-to-behavioral-and-developmental-studies
#10
Chiho Hara, Koudai Morishita, Seika Takayanagi-Kiya, Akihisa Mikami, Keiro Uchino, Takeshi Sakurai, Ryohei Kanzaki, Hideki Sezutsu, Masafumi Iwami, Taketoshi Kiya
Silkmoth, Bombyx mori, is one of the important model insects in which transgenic techniques and the GAL4/UAS system are applicable. However, due to cytotoxicity and low transactivation activity of GAL4, effectiveness of the GAL4/UAS system and its application in B. mori are still limited. In the present study, we refined the previously reported UAS vector by exploiting transcriptional and translational enhancers, and achieved 200-fold enhancement of reporter GFP fluorescence in the GAL4/UAS system. Enhanced protein expression of membrane-targeted GFP and calcium indicator protein (GCaMP5G) drastically improved visualization of fine neurite structures and neural activity, respectively...
September 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923720/rosa-damascena-oil-improved-methadone-related-sexual-dysfunction-in-females-with-opioid-use-disorder-under-methadone-maintenance-therapy-%C3%A2-results-from-a-double-blind-randomized-and-placebo-controlled-trial
#11
Vahid Farnia, Faeze Tatari, Mostafa Alikhani, Katayoun Yazdchi, Moshen Taghizadeh, Dena Sadeghi Bahmani, Hassan Karbasizadeh, Edith Holsboer-Trachsler, Serge Brand
BACKGROUND: Methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) is provided to patients with opioid use disorder (OUD). However, as with all opioids, methadone impacts negatively on sexual function. To counter this, Rosa Damascena oil (RDO) has been used successfully for opioid-dependent male patients under MMT and with methadone-related sexual dysfunction (MRSD). In the present study, we tested the possible influence of RDO on sexual function and sex hormones of opioid-dependent female patients undergoing MMT and with MRSD...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923177/androgens-and-cardiovascular-disease-in-women-and-men
#12
REVIEW
Eleni Armeni, Irene Lambrinoudaki
Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in both women and men. Its pathogenesis is multifactorial, with sex hormones playing an important role. Androgens have both direct and indirect effects on the vasculature. This review summarizes evidence on the association of both endogenous and exogenous androgens with subclinical and overt cardiovascular disease in women and men. Concerning women, both high and low levels of endogenous androgens have been associated with cardiovascular disease, while other studies have reported no association...
October 2017: Maturitas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921714/fetal-microchimerism-in-human-brain-tumors
#13
Lauren Broestl, Joshua B Rubin, Sonika Dahiya
Sex differences in cancer incidence and survival, including central nervous system tumors, are well documented. Multiple mechanisms contribute to sex differences in health and disease. Recently, the presence of fetal-in-maternal microchimeric cells has been shown to have prognostic significance in breast and colorectal cancers. The frequency and potential role of these cells has not been investigated in brain tumors. We therefore selected two common primary adult brain tumors for this purpose: meningioma, which is sex hormone responsive and has a higher incidence in women, and glioblastoma, which is sex hormone independent and occurs more commonly in men...
September 18, 2017: Brain Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921422/high-incidence-of-secondary-hyperparathyroidism-in-bariatric-patients-comparing-different-procedures
#14
Jih-Hua Wei, Wei-Jei Lee, Keong Chong, Yi-Chih Lee, Shu-Chun Chen, Po-Hsun Huang, Shing-Jong Lin
BACKGROUND: Bariatric surgery is an effective therapy for morbid obesity but may reduce calcium absorption and significantly decrease the bone mineral density. This study examined the prevalence of secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) in obese subjects during follow-up after different bariatric surgeries. We investigated predictors of SHPT. METHODS: We enrolled 1470 obese subjects undergoing bariatric/metabolic surgery with at least 1-year follow-up, including 322 patients undergoing Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), 695 undergoing single anastomosis (mini-) gastric bypass (SAGB), 93 undergoing laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB), and 360 undergoing sleeve gastrectomy (SG)...
September 18, 2017: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920765/medication-usage-and-falls-in-people-with-multiple-sclerosis
#15
Laura Comber, Gillian Quinn, Chris McGuigan, Rose Galvin, Susan Coote
There is a need to identify modifiable risk factors for falls in people with multiple sclerosis (MS) to enable the design of successful falls prevention interventions. There is conflicting evidence regarding the association between medication use and occurrence of falls in MS. A total of 101 people with MS had medications classified using the Anatomical Therapeutic Classification system and number of falls prospectively monitored for 3 months. No association was noted between number of medications and falls...
September 1, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920065/the-influence-of-sex-steroid-hormones-on-the-response-to-trauma-and-burn-injury
#16
REVIEW
K Al-Tarrah, N Moiemen, J M Lord
Trauma and related sequelae result in disturbance of homeostatic mechanisms frequently leading to cellular dysfunction and ultimately organ and system failure. Regardless of the type and severity of injury, gender dimorphism in outcomes following trauma have been reported, with females having lower mortality than males, suggesting that sex steroid hormones (SSH) play an important role in the response of body systems to trauma. In addition, several clinical and experimental studies have demonstrated the effects of SSH on the clinical course and outcomes following injury...
2017: Burns and trauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919607/impact-of-adrenocortical-insufficiency-on-clinical-parameters-in-haemodynamically-stable-cirrhotic-patients-with-ascites
#17
H Ahmed, M R Karim, R K Paul, M Chowdhury, M S Alam, A Saha, F Rahman, M A Rouf
Cirrhosis has many complications regardless of the aetiology. Complications include splenomegaly, ascites, hepatic encephalopathy, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, hepatorenal syndrome and hepatocellular carcinoma and also linked to abnormalities in the endocrine system, including abnormal sex hormone metabolism, thyroid disease, osteoporosis, and, most recently identified, adrenal insufficiency. This prospective cohort study was done to evaluate the impact of adrenocortical insufficiency on clinical parameters in haemodynamically stable cirrhotic patients with ascites and had been performed at the inpatient of GHPD Department, BIRDEM, Dhaka, Bangladesh from April 2011 to March 2012...
July 2017: Mymensingh Medical Journal: MMJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919559/adipokinetic-hormone-receptor-gene-identification-and-its-role-in-triacylglycerol-mobilization-and-sexual-behavior-in-the-oriental-fruit-fly-bactrocera-dorsalis
#18
Qiu-Li Hou, Er-Hu Chen, Hong-Bo Jiang, Dan-Dan Wei, Shun-Hua Gui, Jin-Jun Wang, Guy Smagghe
Energy homeostasis requires continuous compensation for fluctuations in energy expenditure and availability of food resources. In insects, energy mobilization is under control of the adipokinetic hormone (AKH) where it is regulating the nutritional status by supporting the mobilization of lipids. In this study, we characterized the gene coding for the AKH receptor (AKHR) and investigated its function in the oriental fruit fly (Bactrocera dorsalis) that is economically one of the most important pest insects of tropical and subtropical fruit...
September 15, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918947/hormonal-signaling-cascade-during-an-early-adult-critical-period-required-for-courtship-memory-retention-in-drosophila
#19
Sang Soo Lee, Yike Ding, Natalie Karapetians, Crisalejandra Rivera-Perez, Fernando Gabriel Noriega, Michael E Adams
Formation and expression of memories are critical for context-dependent decision making. In Drosophila, a courting male rejected by a mated female subsequently courts less avidly when paired with a virgin female, a behavioral modification attributed to "courtship memory." Here we show the critical role of hormonal state for maintenance of courtship memory. Ecdysis-triggering hormone (ETH) is essential for courtship memory through regulation of juvenile hormone (JH) levels in adult males. Reduction of JH levels via silencing of ETH signaling genes impairs short-term courtship memory, a phenotype rescuable by the JH analog methoprene...
September 7, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917185/ghrelin-and-hypothalamic-npy-agrp-expression-in-mice-are-affected-by-chronic-early-life-stress-exposure-in-a-sex-specific-manner
#20
K Y Yam, S R Ruigrok, I Ziko, S N De Luca, P J Lucassen, S J Spencer, A Korosi
Early-life stress (ES) is a risk factor for metabolic disorders (e.g. obesity) with a notoriously higher prevalence in women compared to men. However, mechanisms underlying these effects remain elusive. The development of the hypothalamic feeding and metabolic regulatory circuits occurs mostly in the early sensitive postnatal phase in rodents and is tightly regulated by the metabolic hormones leptin and ghrelin. We have previously demonstrated that chronic ES reduces circulating leptin and alters adipose tissue metabolism early and later in life similarly in both sexes...
September 7, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
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