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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545089/the-dynamic-behaviour-of-metabolic-syndrome-and-its-components-in-an-eight-year-population-based-cohort-from-the-mediterranean
#1
Maria A Barceló, Antonio Rodríguez-Poncelas, Marc Saez, Gabriel Coll-de-Tuero
BACKGROUND: The significant rise in the prevalence of obesity coincides with the considerable increase in the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) currently being observed worldwide. The components of MS are not static and their dynamics, such as the order of their occurrence, or the time of exposure to them are, as yet, unknown but could well be clinically relevant. Our objective was to study the dynamic behaviour of MS and its components in a large population-based cohort from a Mediterranean region...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544457/both-the-frequency-of-hba1c-testing-and-the-frequency-of-smbg-predict-metabolic-control-a-multicenter-analysis-of-15-199-adult-type-1-diabetes-patients-from-germany-and-austria
#2
A Schwandt, F Best, T Biester, A Grünerbel, F Kopp, D Krakow, M Laimer, C Wagner, R W Holl
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to examine the association between metabolic control and frequency of hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) measurements and of self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG), as well as the interaction of both. METHODS: Data of 15,199 adult type 1 diabetes patients registered in a standardized electronic health record (DPV) were included. To model the association between metabolic control and frequency of HbA1c testing or of SMBG, multiple hierarchic regression models with adjustment for confounders were fitted...
May 19, 2017: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544064/obesity-is-inversely-related-to-the-risks-of-dental-caries-in-korean-adults
#3
In-Seok Song, Kyungdo Han, Jae-Jun Ryu, Jun-Beom Park
OBJECTIVE: This study investigated whether obesity is linked with dental caries. The present study hypothesized that obesity may influence the number or prevalence of dental caries in Korean adults. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Data was derived from Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey performed at 2008-2010. Lifestyle, sociodemographic, and biochemical variables were analyzed. Indices related with obesity, sarcopenia, and metabolic syndrome were investigated...
May 20, 2017: Oral Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543814/intra-and-interindividual-variability-of-fatty-acid-unsaturation-in-six-different-human-adipose-tissue-compartments-assessed-by-1-h-mrs-in-vivo-at-3%C3%A2-t
#4
Jürgen Machann, Norbert Stefan, Robert Wagner, Malte Bongers, Erwin Schleicher, Andreas Fritsche, Hans-Ulrich Häring, Konstantin Nikolaou, Fritz Schick
It is generally accepted that the amount and distribution of adipose tissue (AT) in the human body play an important role in the pathogenesis of metabolic diseases. In addition, metabolic effects of released saturated fatty acids (FAs) in blood are known to be more critical than those of unsaturated FAs. However, little is known about the variability in unsaturation of FAs in various AT compartments. The aim of this prospective study was the assessment of mono- and polyunsaturated FAs in various AT compartments by localized (1) H-MRS in order to obtain insight into the intra- and interindividual variability...
May 25, 2017: NMR in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541572/shared-responsibility-for-type-1-diabetes-care-is-associated-with-glycemic-variability-and-risk-of-glycemic-excursions-in-youth
#5
Arwen M Marker, Amy E Noser, Mark A Clements, Susana R Patton
We examined how parent and youth responsibility for type 1 diabetes (T1D) care is related to adherence and glycemic outcomes, namely, glycemic variability and risk of glycemic excursions. One hundred thirty-five parent-youth dyads (10-16 years old; diagnosed with T1D for at least 6 months) participated in this study. Percent responsibility of T1D care attributed to the youth, parent, or shared was measured using the Diabetes Family Responsibility Questionnaire. We collected youth's hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and glucometer downloads to examine relationships between responsibility and HbA1c, frequency of blood glucose monitoring (self-monitoring blood glucose, SMBG), risk of glycemic excursions, and actual glycemic variability using bivariate correlations and path analysis...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541194/reduction-of-blood-glucose-measurements-to-calibrate-subcutaneous-glucose-sensors-a-bayesian-multi-day-framework
#6
Giada Acciaroli, Martina Vettoretti, Andrea Facchinetti, Giovanni Sparacino, Claudio Cobelli
OBJECTIVE: In most continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) devices used for diabetes management, the electrical signal measured by the sensor is transformed to glucose concentration by a calibration function whose parameters are estimated using self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) samples. The calibration function is usually a linear model approximating the nonlinear relationship between electrical signal and glucose concentration in certain time intervals. Thus, CGM devices require frequent calibrations, usually twice a day...
May 23, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541188/a-variable-state-dimension-approach-to-meal-detection-and-meal-size-estimation-in-silico-evaluation-through-basal-bolus-insulin-therapy-for-type-1-diabetes
#7
Jinyu Xie, Qian Wang
OBJECTIVE: This paper aims to develop an algorithm that can detect unannounced meals and estimate meal sizes to achieve a robust glucose control. METHODS: A variable state dimension (VSD) algorithm is developed to detect unannounced meals and estimate meal sizes, where a Kalman filter operates on a quiescent state model when no meal is detected, and switches to a maneuvering state model to estimate meal information once the meal-induced glucose variability is statistically significant...
June 2017: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541132/how-can-we-realize-the-clinical-benefits-of-continuous-glucose-monitoring
#8
Ramzi A Ajjan
Controlling glycemia in diabetes remains key to prevent complications in this condition. However, glucose levels can undergo large fluctuations secondary to daily activities, consequently creating management difficulties. The current review summarizes the basics of glucose management in diabetes by addressing the main glycemic parameters. The advantages and limitation of HbA1c, the gold standard measure of glucose control, are discussed together with the clinical importance of hypoglycemia and glycemic variability...
May 2017: Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541131/clinical-use-of-continuous-glucose-monitoring-in-adults-with-type-1-diabetes
#9
David Slattery, Pratik Choudhary
With the emphasis on intensive management of type 1 diabetes, data from studies support frequent monitoring of glucose levels to improve glycemic control and reduce glucose variability, which can be related to an increase in macro and microvascular complications. However, few perform capillary blood glucose that frequently. There are currently two available alternatives that this review will discuss, continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) and flash glucose monitoring. CGM has become an important diagnostic and therapeutic option in optimizing diabetes management...
May 2017: Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539466/modeling-the-cellular-response-of-lung-cancer-to-radiation-therapy-for-a-broad-range-of-fractionation-schedules
#10
Jeho Jeong, Jung Hun Oh, Jan-Jakob Sonke, José S A Belderbos, Jeffrey D Bradley, Andrew N Fontanella, Shyam S Rao, Joe Deasy
To demonstrate that a mathematical model can be used to quantitatively understand tumor cellular dynamics during a course of radiotherapy, and to predict the likelihood of local control as a function of dose and treatment fractions.<br /><br />Experimental Design: We model outcomes for early-stage, localized non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), by fitting a mechanistic, cellular dynamics-based tumor control probability that assumes a constant local supply of oxygen and glucose. In addition to standard radiobiological effects such as repair of sub-lethal damage and the impact of hypoxia, we also accounted for proliferation as well as radiosensitivity variability within the cell cycle...
May 24, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539087/artificial-intelligence-methodologies-and-their-application-to-diabetes
#11
Mercedes Rigla, Gema García-Sáez, Belén Pons, Maria Elena Hernando
In the past decade diabetes management has been transformed by the addition of continuous glucose monitoring and insulin pump data. More recently, a wide variety of functions and physiologic variables, such as heart rate, hours of sleep, number of steps walked and movement, have been available through wristbands or watches. New data, hydration, geolocation, and barometric pressure, among others, will be incorporated in the future. All these parameters, when analyzed, can be helpful for patients and doctors' decision support...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537561/prediction-of-acute-pancreatitis-in-the-earliest-stages-role-of-biochemical-parameters-and-histopathological-changes
#12
Jacek Baj, Elżbieta Radzikowska, Marcin Maciejewski, Andrzej Dąbrowski, Kamil Torres
For many years, there has been a search for a set of biochemical parameters that could facilitate the assessment of severity, prognosis, and administration of early and appropriate treatment in acute pancreatitis. Administration of treatment within the first 48 hours since admission is associated with many problems of distinguishing patients with a mild form of acute pancreatitis (AP) from those with a severe form of acute pancreatitis. STUDY AIM: To assess the relationship between the extent of change in the concentration of 10 selected biochemical indicators: amylase, lipase, total bilirubin, creatinine, uric acid, aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, glucose, magnesium, and iron and histopathological lesions in the pancreas within 2 and 6 hours since induction of AP...
April 30, 2017: Polski Przeglad Chirurgiczny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537449/understanding-how-pharmacokinetic-and-pharmacodynamic-differences-of-basal-analog-insulins-influence-clinical-practice
#13
Jennifer Goldman, Christoph Kapitza, Jeremy Pettus, Tim Heise
This article reviews pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) concepts relating to the pharmacology of basal insulin analogs. Understanding the pharmacology of currently available long-acting basal insulins and the techniques used to assess PK and PD parameters (e.g. the euglycemic clamp method) is important when considering the efficacy and safety of these agents, and can help in understanding the rationale for specific dosing strategies when tailoring therapy for a specific patient. Basal insulins such as insulin glargine 100 units (U)/mL and insulin detemir show improved PK/PD characteristics compared with the intermediate-acting NPH insulin, with a longer duration of action, a more consistent glucose-lowering effect and less prominent concentration peaks...
May 24, 2017: Current Medical Research and Opinion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535803/blood-metabolomic-fingerprint-is-distinct-in-healthy-coronary-and-in-stenosing-or-microvascular-ischemic-heart-disease
#14
Martino Deidda, Cristina Piras, Christian Cadeddu Dessalvi, Damiana Congia, Emanuela Locci, Federica Ascedu, Gianfranco De Candia, Mauro Cadeddu, Giorgio Lai, Raimondo Pirisi, Luigi Atzori, Giuseppe Mercuro
BACKGROUND: The endothelium is a key variable in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and its complications, particularly coronary artery disease (CAD). Current evidence suggests that the endothelial status can be regarded as an integrated index of individual atherogenic and anti-atherogenic properties, and that the interaction between circulating factors and the arterial wall might be critical for atherogenesis. In organism-level investigations, a functional view is provided by metabolomics, the study of the metabolic profile of small molecules...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535265/physiology-of-cold-hardiness-seasonal-fluctuations-and-cryoprotectant-contents-in-overwintering-adults-of-hypera-postica-coleoptera-curculionidae
#15
Mahdieh Saeidi, Saeid Moharramipour
The alfalfa weevil, Hypera postica (Gyllenhal), is widely distributed in various alfalfa-growing regions in the world. Adults enter the field gradually from hibernation places and overwinter in a nondiapausing state, exhibiting feeding, mating, and oviposition over autumn and winter whenever the weather permits. In this study, the variability of supercooling point (SCP) and cold hardiness in alfalfa weevil was investigated. Adults were collected monthly from alfalfa fields in Karaj, Iran, during autumn, winter, and spring in 2011-2012...
May 23, 2017: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535187/serum-levels-of-1-5-anhydroglucitol-and-risk-of-incident-end-stage-renal-disease
#16
Casey M Rebholz, Morgan E Grams, Yuan Chen, Alden L Gross, Yingying Sang, Josef Coresh, Elizabeth Selvin
Glycemic excursions, independent of average glucose, have been implicated in the development of diabetic implications. It is unknown if low 1,5-anyhydroglucitol (1,5-AG) are associated with advanced stages of kidney disease independent of kidney function and glycemia. In the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study (N = 13,277), we used structural equation modeling to estimate the association between serum 1,5-AG levels and end-stage renal disease from baseline (1990-1992) through 2013 with adjustment for demographics, risk factors, a latent variable for glycemia (diabetes status, fasting glucose, hemoglobin A1c, fructosamine, glycated albumin), and a latent variable for kidney function (creatinine, cystatin C, β2-microglobulin)...
May 23, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532102/islet-encapsulated-implantable-composite-hollow-fiber-membrane-based-device-a-bioartificial-pancreas
#17
Rohit S Teotia, Sachin Kadam, Atul Kumar Singh, Surendra Kumar Verma, Ashutosh Bahulekar, Sujata Kanetkar, Jayesh Bellare
Islets from xeno-sources and islet like clusters derived from autologus stem cells have emerged as alternatives to cadaveric pancreas used for treatment of type 1 diabetes. However, the immuno-isolation of these islets from the host immune system suffers from the issue of biocompatibility and hypoxia. To overcome the issues of immunobarrier biocompatibility, we developed a Polysulfone (Psf)/TPGS composite hollow fiber membrane (HFM) using a hollow fiber spinning pilot plant specially developed for this purpose...
August 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530490/role-of-continuous-glucose-monitoring-in-clinical-trials-recommendations-on-reporting
#18
Oliver Schnell, Katharine Barnard, Richard Bergenstal, Emanuele Bosi, Satish Garg, Bruno Guerci, Thomas Haak, Irl B Hirsch, Linong Ji, Shashank R Joshi, Maarten Kamp, Lori Laffel, Mathieu Chantal, William H Polonsky, Frank Snoek, Philip Home
Thanks to significant improvements in the precision, accuracy, and usability of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM), its relevance in both ambulatory diabetes care and clinical research is increasing. In this study, we address the latter perspective and derive provisional reporting recommendations. CGM systems have been available since around the year 2000 and used primarily in people with type 1 diabetes. In contrast to self-measured glucose, CGM can provide continuous real-time measurement of glucose levels, alerts for hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia, and a detailed assessment of glycemic variability...
May 22, 2017: Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529447/self-cleaning-thermoresponsive-p-nipaam-co-amps-double-network-membranes-for-implanted-glucose-biosensors
#19
Ruochong Fei, A Kristen Means, Alexander A Abraham, Andrea K Locke, Gerard L Coté, Melissa A Grunlan
A self-cleaning membrane that periodically rids itself of attached cells to maintain glucose diffusion could extend the lifetime of implanted glucose biosensors. Herein, we evaluate the functionality of thermoresponsive double network (DN) hydrogel membranes based on poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm) and an electrostatic co-monomer, 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropane sulfonic acid (AMPS). DN hydrogels are comprised of a tightly crosslinked, ionized first network [P(NIPAAm-co-AMPS)] containing variable levels of AMPS (100:0-25:75 wt% ratio of NIPAAm:AMPS) and a loosely crosslinked, interpenetrating second network [PNIPAAm]...
August 2016: Macromolecular Materials and Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529027/management-of-postneurosurgical-meningitis-narrative-review
#20
REVIEW
Khetam Hussein, Roni Bitterman, Ben Shofty, Mical Paul, Ami Neuberger
BACKGROUND: Infections complicating neurosurgery pose unacceptable mortality and morbidity. AIMS: To summarize what is known about the epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment of post-neurosurgical meningitis (PNM). SOURCES: PubMed, references of identified studies and reviews, and personal experience when evidence was lacking. CONTENT: The incidence and pathogen distribution of PNM is highly variable. A shift towards Gram-negative bacteria has been observed with use of antibiotic prophylaxis and antibiotic-coated devices directed mainly against Gram-positive bacteria...
May 18, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
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