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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150472/are-food-and-drink-retailers-within-nhs-venues-adhering-to-nice-quality-standard-94-guidance-on-childhood-obesity-a-cross-sectional-study-of-two-large-secondary-care-nhs-hospitals-in-england
#1
Alice James, Laura Birch, Peter Fletcher, Sally Pearson, Catherine Boyce, Andy R Ness, Julian P Hamilton-Shield, Fiona E Lithander
OBJECTIVE: To assess whether the food and drink retail outlets in two major National Health Service (NHS) district general hospitals in England adhere to quality statements 1-3 of the UK National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) quality standard 94. DESIGN: Cross-sectional, descriptive study to assess the food and drink options available in vending machines, restaurants, cafes and shops in two secondary care hospitals. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Adherence to quality statement 1 whereby the food and drink items available in the vending machines were classified as either healthy or less healthy using the Nutrient Profiling Model (NPM)...
November 16, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150418/immune-enhancing-formulas-for-patients-with-cancer-undergoing-esophagectomy-systematic-review-protocol
#2
Astrid Naranjo, Elizabeth Isenring, Laisa Teleni
BACKGROUND: Adult patients with an esophageal cancer can potentially be compromised with postoperative leaks or fistulae if patients' nutritional status is in a vulnerable stage. Currently in Australia, there is a growing need for clinicians to know whether use of immune-enhancing formulas (IEFs) containing Arg, omega-3, and RNA are a cost-effective approach compared with isonitrogenous-isocaloric formulas to reduce postoperative infectious complications in esophagectomy patients. Since IEFs may carry higher costs, this has led to inconsistencies in practice among clinicians and hospitals...
November 17, 2017: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149979/influence-of-oral-anaerobic-bacteria-on-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-patients-oral-mucositis-and-general-condition
#3
L Osakabe, A Utsumi, B Saito, Y Okamatsu, H Kinouchi, T Nakamaki, S Hironaka
OBJECTIVE: Oral mucositis (OM) caused by infection facilitated by myelosuppression and immunosuppression can be controlled through oral care. We investigated changes in oral anaerobic bacterial flora during the onset of OM with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). METHODS: This study included 19 patients who underwent HSCT. All received professional oral care before initiating the preparative regimen. We assessed OM, oral health and obtained microbial samples from the oral cavity during 5 assessment points: before initiating the preparative regimen; the day before HSCT (day 1); and at 7, 14, and 30 days after HSCT...
November 2017: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149933/nutrition-therapy-in-sepsis
#4
REVIEW
Paul E Wischmeyer
Sepsis is characterized by early massive catabolism, lean body mass (LBM) loss, and escalating hypermetabolism persisting for months to years. Early enteral nutrition should attempt to correct micronutrient/vitamin deficiencies, deliver adequate protein and moderated nonprotein calories, as well-nourished patients can generate reasonable endogenous energy. After resuscitation, increasing protein/calories are needed to attenuate LBM loss and promote recovery. Malnutrition screening is essential, and parenteral nutrition can be safely added when enteral nutrition is failing based on preillness malnutrition...
January 2018: Critical Care Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149866/prevalence-and-risk-factors-of-frailty-among-home-care-clients
#5
Minna Miettinen, Miia Tiihonen, Sirpa Hartikainen, Irma Nykänen
BACKGROUND: Frailty is a common problem among older people and it is associated with an increased risk of death and long-term institutional care. Early identification of frailty is necessary to prevent a further decline in the health status of home care clients. The aims of the present study were to determine the prevalence of frailty and associated factors among 75-year-old or older home care clients. METHODS: The study participants were 75-year-old or older home care clients living in three cities in Eastern and Central Finland...
November 17, 2017: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149476/clinical-parameters-before-and-after-the-transition-to-dialysis
#6
Dugan W Maddux, Len A Usvyat, Terry Ketchersid, Yue Jiao, Tommy C Blanchard, Peter Kotanko, Frank M van der Sande, Jeroen P Kooman, Franklin W Maddux
INTRODUCTION: The transition from pre-dialysis chronic kidney disease (CKD) to post-dialysis start is a critical period associated with high patient mortality and increased hospital admissions. Little is known about the trends of key clinical and laboratory parameters through this time of transition to start dialysis. METHODS: De-identified data including demographics, vital signs, lab results, and eGFR from the Fresenius Medical Care-CKD Registry were analyzed to determine trends in clinical and laboratory parameters through the time of transition from 12 months pre-dialysis start to 12 months post-dialysis start...
November 17, 2017: Hemodialysis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149189/perioperative-body-weight-change-is-associated-with-in-hospital-mortality-in-cardiac-surgical-patients-with-postoperative-acute-kidney-injury
#7
Chih-Chung Shiao, Ya-Ting Huang, Tai-Shuan Lai, Tao-Min Huang, Jian-Jhong Wang, Chun-Te Huang, Pei-Chen Wu, Che-Hsiung Wu, I-Jung Tsai, Li-Jung Tseng, Chih-Hsien Wang, Tzong-Shinn Chu, Kwan-Dun Wu, Vin-Cent Wu
BACKGROUND: Postoperative acute kidney injury (AKI) is common following cardiac surgery (CS). Body weight (BW) may be an amenable variable by representing the summation of the nutritional and the fluid status. However, the predictive role of perioperative BW changes in CS patients with severe postoperative AKI is never explored. This study aimed to evaluate this association. METHODS: This study was conducted using a prospectively collected multicenter cohort, NSARF (National Taiwan University Hospital Study Group on Acute Renal Failure) database...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146636/antenatal-care-services-and-its-implications-for-vital-and-health-outcomes-of-children-evidence-from-193-surveys-in-69-low-income-and-middle-income-countries
#8
Jana Kuhnt, Sebastian Vollmer
OBJECTIVES: Antenatal care (ANC) is an essential part of primary healthcare and its provision has expanded worldwide. There is limited evidence of large-scale cross-country studies on the impact of ANC offered to pregnant women on child health outcomes. We investigate the association of ANC in low-income and middle-income countries with short- and long-term mortality and nutritional child outcomes. SETTING: We used nationally representative health and welfare data from 193 Demographic and Health Surveys conducted between 1990 and 2013 from 69 low-income and middle-income countries for women of reproductive age (15-49 years), their children and their respective household...
November 15, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145755/defining-recognizing-and-reporting-malnutrition
#9
Marinos Elia
Although malnutrition is a common health and social care problem, there is no universal agreement about its definition, prevalence, or method of identification and report. Fifteen definitions of malnutrition were critically examined to assess their variability. They ranged from descriptions of undernutrition alone to under- and overnutrition, with intakes ranging from dietary protein and energy alone to dietary and nondietary sources of all nutrients and energy. Definitions also varied from non-outcome based to those based on functional, physiological, and/or clinical outcomes...
November 1, 2017: International Journal of Lower Extremity Wounds
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144406/evaluating-differences-in-aluminum-exposure-through-parenteral-nutrition-in-neonatal-morbidities
#10
Megan Fortenberry, Lela Hernandez, Jacob Morton
Aluminum is a common contaminant in many components of parenteral nutrition, especially calcium and phosphate additives. Although long-term effects have been described in the literature, short-term effects are not well-known. Currently, the Food and Drug Administration recommends maintaining aluminum at <5 mcg/kg/day. This was a single center, retrospective case-control study of 102 neonatal intensive care unit patients. Patients were included if they had a diagnosis of necrotizing enterocolitis, rickets/osteopenia, or seizures and received at least 14 days of parenteral nutrition...
November 16, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143891/in-search-of-the-ideal-promotility-agent-optimal-use-of-currently-available-promotility-agents-for-nutrition-therapy-of-the-critically-ill-patient
#11
REVIEW
Sarah J Diamond, Endashaw Omer, Laszlo Kiraly
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Enteral nutrition therapy is essential in the management of critically ill patients. Prokinetic agents have been used successfully to aid in the delivery of nutrition and improve feeding tolerance in patients in the intensive care unit (ICU). The aim of this report is to review the existing promotility agents available for use in the critically ill as well as outline the role of potential investigative drugs in order to provide a guide to the management of this difficult and important clinical dilemma...
November 16, 2017: Current Gastroenterology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143766/assessment-of-micronutrient-status-in-critically-ill-children-challenges-and-opportunities
#12
REVIEW
Duy T Dao, Lorenzo Anez-Bustillos, Bennet S Cho, Zhilling Li, Mark Puder, Kathleen M Gura
Micronutrients refer to a group of organic vitamins and inorganic trace elements that serve many functions in metabolism. Assessment of micronutrient status in critically ill children is challenging due to many complicating factors, such as evolving metabolic demands, immature organ function, and varying methods of feeding that affect nutritional dietary intake. Determination of micronutrient status, especially in children, usually relies on a combination of biomarkers, with only a few having been established as a gold standard...
October 28, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143474/chronic-intestinal-pseudo-obstruction-progress-in-management
#13
REVIEW
G Di Nardo, T B Karunaratne, S Frediani, R De Giorgio
Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction (CIPO) is a severe form of gastrointestinal dysmotility (often due to derangement of the innervation/smooth muscle/interstitial cells of Cajal) with recurrent episodes of intestinal subocclusion mimicking a mechanical obstruction. Because of its complexity and heterogeneity, CIPO is often misdiagnosed or remains unrecognized until advanced stages. Management is a critical aspect in CIPO patient care. So far, most prokinetic drugs have not proven efficacy in restoring intestinal propulsion, thus nutritional support, fluid/electrolyte replacement, and antibiotics are the mainstay of treatment...
December 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142651/prevention-of-insulin-resistance-by-dietary-intervention-among-pregnant-mothers-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#14
Masoomeh Goodarzi-Khoigani, Seyed Saeed Mazloomy Mahmoodabad, Mohammad Hossein Baghiani Moghadam, Azadeh Nadjarzadeh, Farahnaz Mardanian, Hossein Fallahzadeh, Azam Dadkhah-Tirani
Background: Chronic insulin resistance (IR) is a basic part of the pathophysiology of gestational diabetes mellitus. Nutrition significantly impacts IR and weight loss reduces insulin levels, whereas weight gain increases the concentrations. Therefore, we surveyed the effect of nutrition intervention on IR in pregnant women and whether this effect is irrespective of weight gaining in accordance with Institute of Medicine limits. Methods: This prospective, randomized clinical trial was carried out among 150 primiparous pregnant mothers in fifteen health centers, five hospitals, and 15 private obstetrical offices in Isfahan...
2017: International Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141979/measurement-errors-in-dietary-assessment-using-self-reported-24-hour-recalls-in-low-income-countries-and-strategies-for-their-prevention
#15
Rosalind S Gibson, U Ruth Charrondiere, Winnie Bell
Securing accurate measurements of dietary intake across populations is challenging. Of the methods, self-reported 24-h recalls are often used in low-income countries (LICs) because they are quick, culturally sensitive, do not require high cognitive ability, and provide quantitative data on both foods and nutrients. Measuring intakes via 24-h recalls involves 1) collecting data on food intakes, 2) the appropriate use of relevant food-composition data for calculating nutrient intakes, and 3) statistically converting observed intakes to "usual intakes" for evaluating nutrient adequacy or relations between foods and nutrients and health outcomes...
November 2017: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141642/doing-implementation-research-on-health-governance-a-frontline-researcher-s-reflexive-account-of-field-level-challenges-and-their-management
#16
Gupteswar Patel, Surekha Garimella, Kerry Scott, Shinjini Mondal, Asha George, Kabir Sheikh
BACKGROUND: Implementation Research (IR) in and around health systems comes with unique challenges for researchers including implementation, multi-layer governance, and ethical issues. Partnerships between researchers, implementers, policy makers and community members are central to IR and come with additional challenges. In this paper, we elaborate on the challenges faced by frontline field researchers, drawing from experience with an IR study on Village Health Sanitation and Nutrition Committees (VHSNCs)...
November 15, 2017: International Journal for Equity in Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141590/health-nutrition-and-development-of-children-born-preterm-and-low-birth-weight-in-rural-rwanda-a-cross-sectional-study
#17
Catherine M Kirk, Jean Claude Uwamungu, Kim Wilson, Bethany L Hedt-Gauthier, Neo Tapela, Peter Niyigena, Christian Rusangwa, Merab Nyishime, Evrard Nahimana, Fulgence Nkikabahizi, Christine Mutaganzwa, Eric Ngabireyimana, Francis Mutabazi, Hema Magge
BACKGROUND: As care for preterm and low birth weight (LBW) infants improves in resource-limited settings, more infants are surviving the neonatal period. Preterm and (LBW) infants are at high-risk of nutritional and medical comorbidities, yet little is known about their developmental outcomes in low-income countries. This study evaluated the health, nutritional, and developmental status of preterm/LBW children at ages 1-3 years in Rwanda. METHODS: Cross-sectional study of preterm/LBW infants discharged between October 2011 and October 2013 from a hospital neonatal unit in rural Rwanda...
November 15, 2017: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140554/factors-associated-to-oral-health-related-quality-of-life-in-patients-with-diabetes
#18
Sylvie Azogui-Lévy, Rosemary Dray-Spira, Sarah Attal, Agnes Hartemann, Fani Anagnostou, Jean Azerad
AIMS: Oral pathologies are prevalent in diabetes, and they may affect the quality of life and patient's perception of their oral health. The aim of this study was to investigate the factors associated to oral health-related quality of life of patients with diabetes. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted involving 316 patients visiting a hospital diabetic unit. Sociodemographic, oral and medical care data were recorded, and a General Oral Health Assessment Index (GOHAI) questionnaire was completed...
November 15, 2017: Australian Dental Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140483/integrative-whole-person-oncology-care-in-the-uk
#19
Catherine Zollman, Axel Walther, Helen E Seers, Rachel C Jolliffe, Marie J Polley
The term "whole-person cancer care"-an approach that addresses the needs of the person as well as treating the disease-is more widely understood in the United Kingdom than its synonym "integrative oncology." The National Health Service (NHS) provides free access to care for all, which makes it harder to prioritize NHS funding of whole-person medicine, where interventions may be multimodal and lacking in cost-effectiveness data. Despite this, around 30% of cancer patients are known to use some form of complementary or alternative medicine (CAM)...
November 1, 2017: Journal of the National Cancer Institute. Monographs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140236/impact-of-childhood-nutritional-status-on-pathogen-prevalence-and-severity-of-acute-diarrhea
#20
Kirkby D Tickell, Patricia B Pavlinac, Grace C John-Stewart, Donna M Denno, Barbra A Richardson, Jaqueline M Naulikha, Ronald K Kirera, Brett E Swierczewski, Benson O Singa, Judd L Walson
Children with acute and chronic malnutrition are at increased risk of morbidity and mortality following a diarrheal episode. To compare diarrheal disease severity and pathogen prevalence among children with and without acute and chronic malnutrition, we conducted a cross-sectional study of human immunodeficiency virus-uninfected Kenyan children aged 6-59 months, who presented with acute diarrhea. Children underwent clinical and anthropometric assessments and provided stool for bacterial and protozoal pathogen detection...
November 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
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